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h  Courage to criticize [ in Russia ] - Intelligence to be persuasiveImage result for Alexei Navalny < Alexi Nalvany   :: ( UWGB )  


RE: Alexei Nalvany ...
A Russian person -
AND, a "Martyr" for a cause ...

 hhh - Alexei - hhhh

- Thank YOU! Mr. Putin - 

          Prosecuting-Crimminal-Conspiracies.pdf  (65 pages) 2013 -By H. Marshall Jarrett Director of  USA Department of Justice - Executive Office for United States Attorneys Wash. DC 20530

  Frankly, Mr. Trump (although a "rich" American - by some standards) - is (apparently)  very ignorant - about  our USA laws;     

Thus, he may have spoken with Mr. Putin (during 2016) - and, NOT realized - (that_ he was breaking a USA law.    So, Mr. Mueller will have to prove  "
 INTENT ".  [ Consider - as shown to the right - (that) any person - with access to the "internet" can "message" - with the "kremlin" - Similar to the possibility of sending a message to the USA White House. ]  NOTE the photo (right) - I am an "obama Girl" - even today - But, clearly, President Obama spoke to Mr. Putin. 

   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intention_(criminal_law)                   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mens_rea

"   Mens rea (/ˈmɛnz ˈriːə/; Law Latin for "guilty mind"[1][2][3]) is the mental element of 1) intention to commit a crime or 2) knowledge that one's action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed. It is a necessary element of many crimes.   "   
    USA Federal Election Law ::  < WHY        (  legal document 254 pages ) 
    "Foreign national"  Definition, 52 U.S.C. § 30121(b)  ::


  " ... Federal law makes it a crime for any person to “solicit, accept or receive” a contribution or “anything of value” from a foreign person for a U.S. political campaign or “for the purpose of influencing any election for federal office. But others note that the statute includes an “express or implied promise” to give something of value. So in that sense it may not matter whether the thing of value was ever actually provided. ... Under the law, those who knowingly and willfully engage in these activities may be subject to fines or imprisonment. ... 
    Is ignorance of the law an excuse?   https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/14pdf/13-604_ec8f.pdf   < Heien  USA SCt. CASE LAW

 THE  "Typical American" [ PDF ] < as per the USA Census Bureau AND The New York Times Company  ::       Dakar TRUCK Rally 2012 [ PDF ] < What exactly happened ?  ( in general about the event)

        ...   Constitution of the Russian Federation-ENGLISH version [ PDF ]  7-26-2018  [ The following message was "Emailed" (by Susan) to the humans at GARANT Company] :  

   Kamaz truck ::  KAMAZ! < In fact, Susan's biological brother - Milo JR "Buzz" ( Son of Mr. Milo Gerald Cassady) - is also a "Licensed" USA Commercial Truck Driver !

  Dear Comrade,  My name is Susan. I was born in year 1954 - in the USA. I grew up in Columbus, Ohio. I attended public schools there. At the sound of a whistle - I, and all of my classmates, would stop whatever we were engaged in - AND, hide under our school desk. We were instructed to do this - AND, maintain silence - until we were given further instructions. I have no memory that "further instructions" ever came  - rather, after a long period (of years) - the WAR - between our Countries "ended". That is, Our USA President instructed your citizens to "tear" a wall down - and, they did.
Today, I am a retired person. I still live in the USA. Due to a medical event (that) happened to me [SAH at my MCA] - it has been prescribed - by USA Medical Doctors (that) I create an HTML web site AND perform YOGA poses each day. I do this - as prescribed.

I am writing ( to you ) today - to THANK you - for translating the Russian Federation Constitution into the English language. I copied this document AND have placed it onto my "personal" web site. I want to alert you, (that) some of your "English translations" may [ stress "may'] be inaccurate; that is,  in some few areas - your English translation makes no literal sense - to Americans. I presumed (then) that "mid-western" Americans [such as me] must speak a different kind of "English" - than, you are accustomed to. I realize that you speak Russian. Perhaps – because your country is so large – the citizens (also) speak Russian “differently” in some areas.

 So, if I may be of service ( to your organization) - I will help you [ for free ] - to communicate (successfully) - with "mid-western Americans" [such as me].  My husband - and others - feel that I am A-typical of most Americans; that is, I am not fat - or lazy. [A portrait of the "typical" American (above) was posted by the NEW YORK TIMES Company.]  In fact,  I do not complain of my husband. Rather, I feel blessed to have him. I cook him a first meal (breakfast) every day - plus "lunch". Although I am highly educated (in Environmental/Earth Sciences) - I also perform many household tasks - each day: e.g. dishes and laundry, etc. I like "liver" as a main course in a meal (It should be prepared with sweet small onions.) If you read my resume' of Education and Work Experiences - you will see there are many differences - between myself - and, the "average" or statistical "typical" American - as described (by New York Times) above. I have one biological child. She helps (each day) to run the USA - Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Please let me know if I may assist you - as offered. I look forward to your reply - and, I do NOT want any human children hiding under "school desks" again.

 - Susan       hhhhhhh


      CAN YOU INDICT A "SITTING" USA PRESIDENT ?  [ PDF 39 PAGES :: "  A Sitting [USA] President's Amenability to Indictment and Criminal Prosecution   " ]
M e m o r a n d u m  Opinion ( A ) FOR ( Ms. Janet Reno )  t h e  A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l (of the United States ( dated: October 16, 2000 )  [ Note: AG then (was) Ms. Janet Reno  ]
  By: RANDOLPH D. MOSS,  ( currently a USA Federal judge - 
PHOTO ); Written when he was (the) Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel, USA-DOJ ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Randolph_Moss  )
  SEE the United States Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, from 1996 to 1998;  Also, Acting Assistant Attorney General, ( from 1998 to 2000), and as  USA Assistant Attorney General, ( from 2000 to 2001).  After his service in the USA Justice Department, Mr. Moss returned to his previous law firm, now known as " Wilmer, Cutler, Pickering, Hale and Dorr LLP " where Mr. Moss chaired the firm's Regulatory and Government Affairs Department. Mr. Moss  left the law firm upon his confirmation as a federal judge in November 2014. 


    Consider, Mr. Oppenheimer, (2)  was the "major actor/ organizer/leader" in a mission given him (by USA President Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. - On October 9, 1941, shortly before the United States entered World War II [1] ); His successful achievement of that mission - did result in the deaths of many thousands of humans [ and, (also - it is certain) saved the lives of many Americans]; He was awarded medals, etc. (2) - YET, twelve Russian citizens - who also accomplished their assigned "mission" [perhaps assigned by Russian President Vladimir Putin] - of posting messages on "social media" [4] - which, did NOT result in the "death" of any human - are indicted by the USA "Special Counsel" - Robert Mueller. [5] [ LINK ] Are Americans - indeed - so ignorant AND lazy - about our USA "voting franchise" - won, only by the blood shed (by many humans) - in numerous historical wars; (That) we [as a populous] literally decide "who" to vote for - based upon "posts" made in “social media chat rooms"? [4]  In fact, as some political commentators note - from a historical perspective: "... as democracies become more democratic, their decision-making processes become of lower quality in terms of cognitive processing of issues and candidate choice. ..." [6]  I urge everyone to read - Ms. Hochschild's (3)  Harvard University endorsed article re: "Informed & Ignorant Voters" [ Commented PDF posted here ] (6)  In my opinion, America is a better place - because Ms. Jennifer L. Hochschild - made the effort to create this document. Again, I urge you to read AND study it. - Susan

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project    
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Robert_Oppenheimer  
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jennifer_Hochschild   
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media  
  5. https://www.justice.gov/file/1080281/download  [ 29 page PDF ]
  6. https://scholar.harvard.edu/jlhochschild/publications/if-democracies-need-informed-voters-how-can-they-thrive-while-expanding-en  (year 2010)

              <  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev AND John F. Kennedy ( 1961 )   < Judge Moss 

     What is a conspiracy?     YALE LAW School-USA,   "... VIII.   "Regime change"  may seem necessary - even when the conditions are not propitious, 
   [however] the costs are unknowable but likely to be high, and durable international support is uncertain. But that will not always be the case. [Example: Russia has vast oil reserves.]
  Hence, in each context, let the strongest and best-intentioned government contemplating or being pressed to undertake 
regime change remember: 1) that not everything noble is lawful;
  2) not everything noble and lawful is feasible; and 3) not everything noble, lawful, and feasible is wise. ..."   

     [ Thus, Mr. Robert Mueller - Please do NOT "indict" Russian military officers & citizens! ]  


   Russia -  [ General information ] 
Trump Allegations (original "Dossier" ) > [ PDF ][ 18.5+ MB ] 
(NEW PDF wPageNo.)  "NOTES"  made while reading Mr. Steele's "Dossier" - on 2-6-2018 

    (  Google MAP  - Vladivostok area )    
 YES! Americans care about these many millions of people!

  Barack Obama & Mr. V. Putin
    ( in  Peru ) 

  ::  AMERICA 1929 - 1941  ... 

  YES! Susan, Remains an "Obama Girl"!   ( Request to Ms. Obama  )

 [  MP3  ]  <AUDIOPrince Harry (of England)  "interviews" our former USA President  Barack Obama
 [for the people of the world] - Released 12-27-2017 
 < Barack(left) - Harry(right) 

  - [ about 39 minutes long ]    IMO, this ( audio interview -  [  MP3  ]  )  is an excellent example - of HOW a World Leader - should act.      As usual, President Obama is: "Calm",  "cool", "collected" - and,  "Well Spoken".  

 Google> phage  plasmid  DNA

Microbiol Spectr. 2015 Feb;3(1):PLAS-0032-2014. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0032-2014.

Replication and Maintenance of Linear Phage-Plasmid N15.

Ravin NV.  ::  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Ravin%20NV%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=26104561

  Abstract :: The lambdoid phage N15 of Escherichia coli is very unusual among temperate phages in that its prophage is not integrated into the chromosome but is a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends ( telomeres ). Upon infection, the phage DNA circularizes via cohesive ends, and then a special phage enzyme of the tyrosine recombinase family, protelomerase, cuts at another site and joins the ends, forming hairpin telomeres of the linear plasmid prophage. Replication of the N15 prophage is initiated at an internally located ori site and proceeds bidirectionally, resulting in the formation of duplicated telomeres. The N15 protelomerase cuts them, generating two linear plasmid molecules with hairpin telomeres. Stable inheritance of the plasmid prophage is ensured by a partitioning operon similar to the F factor sop operon. Unlike the F centromere, the N15 centromere consists of four inverted repeats dispersed in the genome. The multiplicity and dispersion of centromeres are required for efficient partitioning of a linear plasmid. The centromeres are located in the N15 genome regions involved in phage replication and control of lytic development, and binding of partition proteins at these sites regulates these processes. The family of N15-like linear phage-plasmids includes lambdoid phages 標KO2 and pY54, as well as Myoviridae phages ΦHAP-1, VHML, VP882, Vp58.5, and vB_VpaM_MAR of marine gamma-proteobacteria. The genomes of these phages contain similar protelomerase genes, lysogeny control modules, and replication genes, suggesting that these phages may belong to a group diverged from a common ancestor.

PMID: 26104561 

DOI: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0032-2014   [Indexed for MEDLINE]

                             ELECTION MEDDLING - THE USA DOES IT TOO ("ALSO")    [ PDF ]   BY Mr. Scott Shane >    ( Bio )    
        LIST OF "Election Meddling" CASES - BY Mr. Dov Levin "Researcher" - Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)   /USA  [ txt file ] 
                     MR. LEVIN'S "list" (above) - with numbers, hyper-links, etc. added by Susan [ PDF  file ]

 hhhh   < Proud to be a "provocateur"!     (   http://www.yourdictionary.com/provocateur   )  
   - A writer, An artist, A political activist, etc.
   MY "works", ideas, or activities are regarded as a threat to accepted values or practices. 
  Consider, why the USA Health Care INSURANCE industry - does NOT like me. 
   Is it (perhaps) because of my proposed "bill" idea ?    Mr. Thomas Paine [portrait] was a "provocateur".

    Mr. Mueller's 7-13-2018 "Indictment document" original:  - as "googled", "hyperlinked" and "shredded" - by Susan [ PDF ]    
                 7-19-2018  NOTE! Susan is NOT an attorney - She is just a "retired person"... ( ABOUT Susan ) 

         Dan Coats official DNI portrait.jpg < Mr. Dan Coates:  ! PLEASE NOTE RESEMBLANCE TO my "Dad"  (the) Mr. Milo Gerald CassAdy ( 1902 : 1964 ) >   < Photo near "German Village" house...





 USA (Federal) Government : Executive departments (LIST)

  1. STATE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_State
  2. WAR   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_War
  3. ARMY  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_the_Army
  4. TREASURY   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_the_Treasury
  5. USPO   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Post_Office_Department
  6. NAVY   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_the_Navy
  7. JUSTICE  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Justice
  8. INTERIOR  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_the_Interior
  9.  AGRICULTURE  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Agriculture 
  10. COMMERCE   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Commerce
  11. LABOR   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Labor
  12. DEFENSE  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Defense
  13. AIR FORCE  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_the_Air_Force
  14. HHS https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Health_and_Human_Services
  15. HUD https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Housing_and_Urban_Development   
  16. TRANS https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Transportation  
  17. DOE  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Energy
  18. EDUCATION  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Education
  19. VETS  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Veterans_Affairs
  20. H-SECURITY   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Homeland_Security

  USA (Federal) Government : Executive departments (TABLE)

     ##Departments are listed by their present-day name and only      ##departments with past or present cabinet-level status are listed.

Department [OF]

Year of


Order of


2009 Outlays
in billions
of dollars






Initially named "Department of Foreign Affairs"



War (Army)




In the National Security Act of 1947, the Air Force was separated and the Department of War was renamed to the Department of the Army. From 1947 to 1949, the Department of the Army, along with the Departments of the Navy and Air Force, was an executive department with non-cabinet level secretaries who reported to the civilian Secretary of Defense with cabinet rank but no department. Since 1949 the Department of the Army has been a Military Department within the Department of Defense.









Post Office




Reorganized as quasi-independent agency, United States Postal Service







In 1949, along with the Departments of the Army and the Navy, this department became a Military Department within the Department of Defense.







Attorney General created in 1789, but had no department until 1870







Took responsibility of offices previously managed by other departments, WarTreasury, and State, such as the Bureau of Indian AffairsGeneral Land Office, and United States Patent and Trademark Office that were seen as having little to do with their respective Departments.







Elevated to Cabinet level in 1889







Originally named Commerce and Labor. In 1913, Labor was separated and the Department renamed to its current name.







Originally part of the Department of Commerce and Labor.







Created by the National Security Act of 1947. Initially named "National Military Establishment" 1947-49. Created from a merger of the Department of War and Department of the Navy.



Air Force




Originally part of the Department of War. From 1947 to 1949, this department, along with the Departments of the Army and Navy, was an executive department with non-cabinet level secretaries who reported to the civilian Secretary of Defense with cabinet rank but no department. Since 1949 it has been a Military Department within the Department of Defense.



Health and Human Services




Originally the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. In 1979, Education was separated and the Department renamed to its current name.



Housing and Urban Development
























Veterans Affairs




Formerly an independent agency as the Veterans Administration



Homeland Security




Created by the Homeland Security Act of 2002



Total outlays, employees:






 ... USA   [ PDF ] of interaction - at the Kremlin web site 12-25-2017 Thank you!  Mr. James Comey,YOU taught us ALL  -  to document & "leak"!

  http://english-text.ru/troy/     CONTACT < Russia's President Putin  OR   Contact  ME > Susan    https://hansandcassady.org/  < Susan's URL 

  Dear President Putin (of Russia), 
                 THANK YOU FOR GIVING ME THIS OPPORTUNITY! To speak directly to you - with The WORLD watching ...   
  In fact, 
My own USA President ignores me. TRY it:  CONTACT  USA PRESIDENT  "Donald J. Trump"  < Let's see if YOU get a response.   Please TELL US - if you do.    Susan's HEALTH Bill idea )

  My biological mother was: Ms. Mary Elizabeth[Sprouse]-Cassady-Brothers. [USA 1917 - 1985]  "Zora" - her mother- was a dark-skinned woman - with a Germanic Surname: ("Miller-Sprouse"). My biological father is of Irish heritage ("Cassady"). My hair is curly - so, I am most-likely NOT native American.

  Mr. Putin, you can read my USA Resume’ - of education and work experience; I am just a Senior, Retired & very average - American.

  Please, Mr. Putin, don't pay any attention to Mr. Trump's provocations.  Mr. Trump never learned (apparently) NOT to use America's "good-looks".  Soon, IMO, our USA Congress will figure out a way to impeach him - for this very fact.  Basically, he is not suited to be our USA President.  I admit (above) that I remain an "Obama Girl". Many Americans (IMO) still wish (that) Mr. Obama was running the show ( here in America) ; However, under our USA Constitution...

  Consider (please), instead of letting Mr. Trump provoke you - or, your Russian people - let us ( the American AND the Russian people - and, ALL of the people of the earth) work together - to put a colony - of humans - onto Mars (the planet).  That is, after we "terraform"  the surface of Mars (with special Robots). Which, working together - we could ALL build - these robots. (See my Robot STUDY link above.) My goal is to help the NASA people - if they need it. We could also fix the "inner-cities" - of the USA and Russia [re: the Global warming/Permafrost issue] - using "Robots".  The new ROBOT technologies - their design & creation - will engender - will serve as "engines of commerce".  Of course, Sir - you must be willing to admit - that Russian "inner-cities" have (these) issues - which are similar - to the "issues" we are trying to solve - in American cities ( e.g. in Alaska, Chicago, etc.).

  Sir, in fact, the professors of the USA public college that I graduated from - UWGB [1982] - (they) know HOW to do this. ( "terraform"  ) That is, my teachers started the USA-EPA. My teachers did know "how to" (many of them are retired now) - "how to" get ALL of the people - of our earth - to work together - on, just about anything. Also, similar to your experiences, I grew up - in a poor family - in Columbus, Ohio - USA; however, I was treated as an equal - to other students - at UWGB. I had to make some sacrifices; but, I applied myself...

     https://www.epa.gov/history   < USA Environmental Protection Agency HISTORY 

  Very Truly, - Susan,  A USA senior citizen. Sir, I do remember the "cold war" days. Let us not return to that time. (TODAY, I live in USA Postal Zip-Code - 45405 ) 

  My USA Congressional Representatives are: Turner(Mike),   Portman(Rob),  Brown(Sherrod)  I vote in USA elections.  I am a DEMOCRAT!  And, I will do - 'most anything (former USA) President Barack Obama tells me to.   Sir,  my biological daughter [Dawn] - currently - works for the USA - FBI ** 
 Russia - information - as per the [USA] Central Intelligence Agency  >   https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html  


              ABOUT Russia


  Sculpture in Vladivostok Can Russia help with North Korea?   YES.  hh          Can Russia help with North Korea?   YES.

  And, in my view [I am the "Owner" of this personal web site];  this is the only solution, that should be considered. [That is,  " Requesting Russia to help us... " ]

  First, be aware that Russia has one of its best known and revered cities (Vladivostok)
 - located only 400 miles from the North Korean city ( Pyong. ) - where the North Korean "troubleMaker" lives.

  Second, This Russian city, is even closer to China. Thus, any action the USA could take - would most certainly affect these   places - also.  Third,Japan is also in this area. 

  Very important, - IMO - the idea that Ms. Clinton lost the USA Presidential election because, Russian Agents "tweeted" short comments ( called "twitters") - about her - seems ridiculous - to most  Americans.   
   [I voted FOR Ms. Clinton! ]  That is, WE ( Americans) see full length commercials - all day long - for certain "products" - however, I  (a very "average" American)  am not inclined to purchase a New Car - anytime soon.
     Am I that unusual? - to be impervious - to stupid acts of persuasion?   I think not! 
   So, Please, instead of annoying Mr. Putin - Let us - instead - enlist his assistance. [see below] 

  Barack Obama & Mr. Putin ( Peru )hhh

   Mayak Gamov, Russia area (of Earth)...

  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozyorsk,_Chelyabinsk_Oblast    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyshtym_disaster      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster

hhhhhh  [see map]

       -Vladivostok (Russia), N&S Korea, China and Japan - 500 mile view   

    (  Google MAP  - Vladivostok area )    Americans care about these many millions of people!

      – Vladivostok, Russia ( ABOUT ) 




   < Sattlelite view of 


  NOTE: The CONTENT (shown here ) was created, published - and posted ( to the WWW) by the USA- Central Intelligence Agency [CIA].   
   It is my intention to [ eventually ] add "hyperlinks" to some of the information provided (by the CIA) - and, comment [...] - as I deem appropriate. 
    ( This is my personal web site; and, I am an American citizen - born and raised in America's "mid-west" ) ::  I have created this page - Because, like most Americans, I do not know very much about "Russia" ( the country, its people,        their history, their hopes and dreams, etc. ) And; I wanted to learn more.  

            https://www.cia.gov/index.html    <  HOME Page FOR USA-CIA


  Introduction :: RUSSIA:  ( as authored by the USA-CIA)     [ Susan's additions ]   
Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. [American History 1492 to 1877 ]

In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific.           [  Rurik dynasty  ]

Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire.  [ America, similarly,  had "manifest destiny" ]

During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. [ Russia 1801 to 1899 ]  [ < from Brigham Young University    WHO was Brigham Young? ] 

Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a [Russian] parliament and other reforms.  

Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household.

The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR.

The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives.

After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power.

 The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991).

The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.

Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through:
A) managed elections,
B) populist appeals,
C) a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence,
and D) commodity-based economic growth.

Problems & Issues:  Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.


Introduction :: RUSSIA (above) 

Geography :: RUSSIA

People and Society :: RUSSIA

Government :: RUSSIA

Economy :: RUSSIA

Energy :: RUSSIA

Communications :: RUSSIA

Transportation :: RUSSIA

Military and Security :: RUSSIA

Transnational Issues :: RUSSIA

  • Hide

    Geography :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Location:

    North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean

    Geographic coordinates:

    60 00 N, 100 00 E

    Map references:



    total: 17,098,242 sq km

    land: 16,377,742 sq km

    water: 720,500 sq km

    country comparison to the world: 1

    Area - comparative:

    approximately 1.8 times the size of the US

    Area comparison map:

    Land boundaries:

    total: 22,408 km

    border countries (14): Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1,312 km, China (southeast) 4,133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1,309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7,644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3,452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Ukraine 1,944 km


    37,653 km

    Maritime claims:

    territorial sea: 12 nm

    contiguous zone: 24 nm

    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


    ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast


    broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions


    mean elevation: 600 m

    elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

    highest point: Gora El'brus 5,642 m (highest point in Europe)

    Natural resources:

    wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber

    note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

    Land use:

    agricultural land: 13.1%

    arable land 7.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 5.7%

    forest: 49.4%

    other: 37.5% (2011 est.)

    Irrigated land:

    43,000 sq km (2012)

    Population - distribution:

    population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south

    Natural hazards:

    permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky

    Environment - current issues:

    air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides

    Environment - international agreements:

    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling

    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

    Geography - note:

    largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water

  • Hide

    People and Society :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Population:

    142,257,519 (July 2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 9


    noun: Russian(s)

    adjective: Russian

    Ethnic groups:

    Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%

    note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)


    Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%

    note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)


    Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)

    note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions

    Age structure:

    0-14 years: 17.12% (male 12,509,563/female 11,843,254)

    15-24 years: 9.46% (male 6,881,880/female 6,572,191)

    25-54 years: 44.71% (male 31,220,990/female 32,375,489)

    55-64 years: 14.44% (male 8,849,707/female 11,693,131)

    65 years and over: 14.28% (male 6,352,557/female 13,958,757) (2017 est.)

    population pyramid:

    Dependency ratios:

    total dependency ratio: 43.5

    youth dependency ratio: 24.2

    elderly dependency ratio: 19.4

    potential support ratio: 5.2 (2015 est.)

    Median age:

    total: 39.6 years

    male: 36.6 years

    female: 42.5 years (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 53

    Population growth rate:

    -0.08% (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 204

    Birth rate:

    11 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 178

    Death rate:

    13.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 9

    Net migration rate:

    1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 52

    Population distribution:

    population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south


    urban population: 74.2% of total population (2017)

    rate of urbanization: -0.15% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    Major urban areas - population:

    MOSCOW (capital) 12.166 million; Saint Petersburg 4.993 million; Novosibirsk 1.497 million; Yekaterinburg 1.379 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.212 million; Samara 1.164 million (2015)

    Sex ratio:

    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

    55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female

    65 years and over: 0.45 male(s)/female

    total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

    Mother's mean age at first birth:

    24.6 years (2009 est.)

    Maternal mortality ratio:

    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 122

    Infant mortality rate:

    total: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births

    male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births

    female: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 163

    Life expectancy at birth:

    total population: 71 years

    male: 65.3 years

    female: 77.1 years (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 154

    Total fertility rate:

    1.61 children born/woman (2017 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 179

    Contraceptive prevalence rate:


    note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2011)

    Health expenditures:

    7.1% of GDP (2014)

    country comparison to the world: 80

    Physicians density:

    3.31 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

    Hospital bed density:

    9.7 beds/1,000 population (2006)

    Drinking water source:


    urban: 98.9% of population

    rural: 91.2% of population

    total: 96.9% of population


    urban: 1.1% of population

    rural: 8.8% of population

    total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)

    Sanitation facility access:


    urban: 77% of population

    rural: 58.7% of population

    total: 72.2% of population


    urban: 23% of population

    rural: 41.3% of population

    total: 27.8% of population (2015 est.)

    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:


    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:


    HIV/AIDS - deaths:


    Major infectious diseases:

    degree of risk: intermediate

    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

    vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis (2016)

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

    23.1% (2016)

    country comparison to the world: 70

    Education expenditures:

    3.9% of GDP (2012)

    country comparison to the world: 110


    definition: age 15 and over can read and write

    total population: 99.7%

    male: 99.7%

    female: 99.6% (2015 est.)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

    total: 15 years

    male: 15 years

    female: 15 years (2014)

    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

    total: 16%

    male: 15.3%

    female: 16.9% (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 78

  • Hide

    Government :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Country name:

    conventional long form: Russian Federation

    conventional short form: Russia

    local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

    local short form: Rossiya

    former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

    etymology: Russian lands were generally referred to as Muscovy until PETER I officially declared the Russian Empire in 1721; the new name sought to invoke the patrimony of the medieval eastern European Rus state centered on Kyiv in present-day Ukraine; the Rus were a Varangian (eastern Viking) elite that imposed their rule and eventually their name on their Slavic subjects

    Government type:

    semi-presidential federation


    name: Moscow

    geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E

    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

    note: Russia has 11 time zones, the largest number of contiguous time zones of any country in the world; in 2014, two time zones were added and DST was dropped

    Administrative divisions:

    46 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respubliki, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnyye okrugi, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (kraya, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')

    oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'

    republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)

    autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi-Yugra (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)

    krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk [Transbaikal] (Chita)

    federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]

    autonomous oblast: Yevreyskaya [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)

    note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol


    24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)

    National holiday:

    Russia Day, 12 June (1990)


    history: several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet era); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993

    amendments: proposed by the president of the Russian Federation, by either house of the Federal Assembly, by the government of the Russian Federation, or by legislative (representative) bodies of the Federation's constituent entities; proposals to amend the government’s constitutional system, human and civil rights and freedoms, and procedures for amending or drafting a new constitution require formation of a Constitutional Assembly; passage of such amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of its total membership; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of valid votes; approval of proposed amendments to the government structure, authorities, and procedures requires approval by the legislative bodies of at least two-thirds of the Russian Federation's constituent entities; amended 2008, 2014 (2017)

    Legal system:

    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

    International law organization participation:

    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Russia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years


    18 years of age; universal

    Executive branch:

    chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)

    head of government: Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Vitaliy Leontyevich MUTKO (since 19 October 2016), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013); Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)

    cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - term length extended to 6 years from 4 years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma

    election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (United Russia) 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV (CPRF) 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV (CP) 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV (A Just Russia) 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144

    note: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

    Legislative branch:

    description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (170 seats; 2 members in each of the 83 federal administrative units (see note below) - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg - appointed by the top executive and legislative officials; members serve 4-year terms) and the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of February 2014, the electoral system reverted to a mixed electoral system for the 2016 election, in which one-half of the members are directly elected by simple majority vote and one-half directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

    elections: State Duma - last held on 18 September 2016 (next to be held in fall 2021)

    election results: State Duma - United Russia 54.2%, CPRF 13.3%, LDPR 13.1%, A Just Russia 6.2%, Rodina 1.5%, CP 0.2%; seats by party - United Russia 343, CPRF 42, LDPR 39, A Just Russia 23, Rodina 1, CP 1, independent 1

    note: the State Duma now includes 3 representatives and the Federation Council 2 each from the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol, two regions that Russia occupied and attempted to annex from Ukraine and that the US does not recognize as part of Russia

    Judicial branch:

    highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 170 members organized into the Judicial Panel for Civil Affairs, the Judicial Panel for Criminal Affairs, and the Military Panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); note - in February 2014, Russia’s Superior Court of Arbitration was abolished and its former authorities transferred to the Supreme Court, which in addition to being the country’s highest judicial authority for appeals, civil, criminal, administrative, and military cases, and the disciplinary judicial board now has jurisdiction over economic disputes

    judge selection and term of office: all members of Russia's 3 highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all 3 courts appointed for life

    subordinate courts: Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 21 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions

    Political parties and leaders:

    A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]

    Civic Platform or CP [Rifat SHAYKHUTDINOV]

    Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]

    Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]

    Rodina [Aleksei ZHURAVLYOV]

    United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]

    note: 72 political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of August 2017), but only six parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature, and two of these only have one deputy apiece

    Political pressure groups and leaders:

    Committees of Soldiers' Mothers

    Confederation of Labor of Russia or KTR

    Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia

    Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights


    Movement Against Illegal Migration



    The World Russian People's Congress

    Union of Russian Writers

    other: business associations; environmental organizations; religious groups (especially those with Orthodox or Muslim affiliation); veterans groups

    International organization participation:

    APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

    Diplomatic representation in the US:

    chief of mission: Ambassador Anatoliy Ivanovich ANTONOV (since 8 September 2017)

    chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

    telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708

    FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735

    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, Seattle

    Diplomatic representation from the US:

    chief of mission: Ambassador Jon HUNTSMAN (since 3 October 2017)

    embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow

    mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721

    telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000

    FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090

    consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

    Flag description:

    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

    note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired several other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolors of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors

    National symbol(s):

    bear, double-headed eagle; national colors: white, blue, red

    National anthem:

    name: "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)

    lyrics/music: Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV

    note: in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943

  • Hide

    Economy :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Economy - overview:

    Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a centrally planned economy towards a more market-based system. Both economic growth and reform have stalled in recent years, however, and Russia remains a predominantly statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy, transportation, banking, and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak, and the state continues to interfere in the free operation of the private sector.

    Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas, and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during the 1998-2008 period as oil prices rose rapidly, has seen diminishing growth rates since then due to the exhaustion of Russia’s commodity-based growth model.

    A combination of falling oil prices, international sanctions, and structural limitations pushed Russia into a deep recession in 2015, with the GDP falling by close to 4%. The downturn continued through 2016, with GDP contracting by 0.6%. Government support for import substitution has increased recently in an effort to diversify the economy away from extractive industries. Russia is heavily dependent on the movement of world commodity prices and the Central Bank of Russia estimates that if oil prices remain below $40 per barrel in 2017, the resulting shock would cause GDP to fall by up to 5%.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):

    $3.862 trillion (2016 est.)

    $3.822 trillion (2015 est.)

    $3.891 trillion (2014 est.)

    note: data are in 2016 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 7

    GDP (official exchange rate):

    $1.283 trillion (2016 est.)

    GDP - real growth rate:

    -0.2% (2016 est.)

    -2.8% (2015 est.)

    0.7% (2014 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 194

    GDP - per capita (PPP):

    $26,900 (2016 est.)

    $27,000 (2015 est.)

    $27,800 (2014 est.)

    note: data are in 2016 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 72

    Gross national saving:

    27.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    27.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

    25% of GDP (2014 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 51

    GDP - composition, by end use:

    household consumption: 51.5%

    government consumption: 18.1%

    investment in fixed capital: 21%

    investment in inventories: 4%

    exports of goods and services: 26%

    imports of goods and services: -20.6% (2016 est.)

    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

    agriculture: 4.7%

    industry: 32.5%

    services: 62.1% (2016 est.)

    Agriculture - products:

    grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk


    complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

    Industrial production growth rate:

    -0.1% (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 159

    Labor force:

    76.64 million (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 7

    Labor force - by occupation:

    agriculture: 9.4%

    industry: 27.6%

    services: 63% (2016 est.)

    Unemployment rate:

    5.5% (2016 est.)

    5.6% (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 71

    Population below poverty line:

    13.3% (2015 est.)

    Household income or consumption by percentage share:

    lowest 10%: 2.3%

    highest 10%: 32.2% (2012 est.)

    Distribution of family income - Gini index:

    41.2 (2015)

    41.9 (2013)

    country comparison to the world: 54


    revenues: $200.7 billion

    expenditures: $244.8 billion (2016 est.)

    Taxes and other revenues:

    15.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 181

    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

    -3.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 130

    Public debt:

    10% of GDP (2016 est.)

    9.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 195

    Fiscal year:

    calendar year

    Inflation rate (consumer prices):

    7% (2016 est.)

    15.5% (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 188

    Central bank discount rate:

    10% (31 December 2016 est.)

    11% (03 August 2015)

    note: this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes

    country comparison to the world: 21

    Commercial bank prime lending rate:

    12.59% (31 December 2016 est.)

    15.73% (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 63

    Stock of narrow money:

    $195.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $151.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 23

    Stock of broad money:

    $633.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $482.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 19

    Stock of domestic credit:

    $770.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $603.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 18

    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    $635.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $393.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    $385.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 19

    Current account balance:

    $25.54 billion (2016 est.)

    $68.83 billion (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 12


    $281.9 billion (2016 est.)

    $341.4 billion (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 18

    Exports - commodities:

    petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

    Exports - partners:

    Netherlands 10.5%, China 10.3%, Germany 7.8%, Turkey 5%, Italy 4.4%, Belarus 4.3% (2016)


    $191.6 billion (2016 est.)

    $193 billion (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 23

    Imports - commodities:

    machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel

    Imports - partners:

    China 21.6%, Germany 11%, US 6.3%, France 4.8%, Italy 4.4%, Belarus 4.3% (2016)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

    $377.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $368.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 8

    Debt - external:

    $434.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $467.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 29

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

    $461.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $347.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 19

    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    $418 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    $367.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 19

    Exchange rates:

    Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -

    67.056 (2016 est.)

    67.056 (2015 est.)

    60.938 (2014 est.)

    38.378 (2013 est.)

    30.84 (2012 est.)

  • Hide

    Energy :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Electricity access:

    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

    Electricity - production:

    1.008 trillion kWh (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 5

    Electricity - consumption:

    890.1 billion kWh (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 6

    Electricity - exports:

    13.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 16

    Electricity - imports:

    3.194 billion kWh (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 50

    Electricity - installed generating capacity:

    263.5 million kW (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 6

    Electricity - from fossil fuels:

    70.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 104

    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

    9.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 16

    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

    19% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 92

    Electricity - from other renewable sources:

    0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 147

    Crude oil - production:

    10.55 million bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 1

    Crude oil - exports:

    5.116 million bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 2

    Crude oil - imports:

    15,110 bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 68

    Crude oil - proved reserves:

    80 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)

    country comparison to the world: 8

    Refined petroleum products - production:

    6.174 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 4

    Refined petroleum products - consumption:

    3.594 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 6

    Refined petroleum products - exports:

    3.133 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 2

    Refined petroleum products - imports:

    47,770 bbl/day (2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 84

    Natural gas - production:

    598.6 billion cu m (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 2

    Natural gas - consumption:

    418.9 billion cu m (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 3

    Natural gas - exports:

    197.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 1

    Natural gas - imports:

    18 billion cu m (2015 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 20

    Natural gas - proved reserves:

    47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)

    country comparison to the world: 1

    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

    1.756 billion Mt (2014 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 5

  • Hide

    Communications :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Telephones - fixed lines:

    total subscriptions: 32,276,615

    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 7

    Telephones - mobile cellular:

    total: 231,393,994

    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 163 (July 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 7

    Telephone system:

    general assessment: telecom sector impacted by sanctions related to the annexations in Ukraine; mobile market dominaed by four major operators; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to 255 million in 2016; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains

    domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low-density

    international: country code - 7; connected internationally by undersea fiber -optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2016)

    Broadcast media:

    13 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in 2 of the national channels; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while a sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian military, respectively, own 2 additional national channels; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2016)

    Internet country code:

    .ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out

    Internet users:

    total: 108,772,470

    percent of population: 76.4% (July 2016 est.)

    country comparison to the world: 7

  • Hide

    Transportation :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • National air transport system:

    number of registered air carriers: 32

    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 661

    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 76,846,126

    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,761,047,070 mt-km (2015)

    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

    RA (2016)


    1,218 (2013)

    country comparison to the world: 5

    Airports - with paved runways:

    total: 594

    over 3,047 m: 54

    2,438 to 3,047 m: 197

    1,524 to 2,437 m: 123

    914 to 1,523 m: 95

    under 914 m: 125 (2017)

    Airports - with unpaved runways:

    total: 624

    over 3,047 m: 4

    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

    1,524 to 2,437 m: 69

    914 to 1,523 m: 81

    under 914 m: 457 (2013)


    49 (2013)


    gas 177,700 km; oil 54,800 km; refined products 19,300 km (2016)


    total: 87,157 km

    broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)

    narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)

    note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2014)

    country comparison to the world: 3


    total: 1,283,387 km

    paved: 927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways)

    unpaved: 355,666 km (2012)

    country comparison to the world: 5


    102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000-km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)

    country comparison to the world: 2

    Merchant marine:

    total: 2,572

    by type: bulk carrier 16, container ship 13, general cargo 874, oil tanker 411, other 1,258 (2017)

    country comparison to the world: 10

    Ports and terminals:

    major seaport(s): Kaliningrad, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Vostochnyy

    river port(s): Saint Petersburg (Neva River)

    oil terminal(s): Kavkaz oil terminal

    container port(s) (TEUs): Saint Petersburg (2,365,174)

    LNG terminal(s) (export): Sakhalin Island

  • Hide

    Military and Security :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Military expenditures:

    5.4% of GDP (2016)

    4.86% of GDP (2015)

    4.1% of GDP (2014)

    3.96% of GDP (2013)

    3.75% of GDP (2012)

    country comparison to the world: 16

    Military branches:

    Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Aerospace Forces (Vozdushno-Kosmicheskiye Sily, VKS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV) and Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, are independent "combat arms," not subordinate to any of the three branches (2017)

    Military service age and obligation:

    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; 1-year service obligation (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation for non-officers to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces

    note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization Directorate announced in March 2015 that for health reasons, only 76% of draftees called up during the spring 2015 draft campaign were fit for military service (2015)

  • Hide

    Transnational Issues :: RUSSIA

    Panel - Expanded
  • Disputes - international:

    Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Russia remains involved in the conflict in eastern Ukraine while also occupying Ukraine’s territory of Crimea

    Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:

    refugees (country of origin): 427,240 (Ukraine) (2017)

    IDPs: 19,000 (armed conflict, human rights violations, generalized violence in North Caucasus, particularly Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2016)

    stateless persons: 90,771 (2016); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants

    Trafficking in persons:

    current situation: Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; with millions of foreign workers, forced labor is Russia’s predominant human trafficking problem and sometimes involves organized crime syndicates; workers from Russia, other European countries, Central Asia, and East and Southeast Asia, including North Korea and Vietnam, are subjected to forced labor in the construction, manufacturing, agricultural, textile, grocery store, maritime, and domestic service industries, as well as in forced begging, waste sorting, and street sweeping; women and children from Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central Asia are subject to sex trafficking in Russia; Russian women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, Africa, the US, and the Middle East

    tier rating: Tier 3 - Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making a significant effort to do so; prosecutions of trafficking offenders remained low in comparison to the scope of Russia’s trafficking problem; the government did not develop or employ a formal system for identifying trafficking victims or referring them to protective services, although authorities reportedly assisted a limited number of victims on an ad hoc basis; foreign victims, the largest group in Russia, were not entitled to state-provided rehabilitative services and were routinely detained and deported; the government has not reported investigating reports of slave-like conditions among North Korean workers in Russia; authorities have made no effort to reduce the demand for forced labor or to develop public awareness of forced labor or sex trafficking (2015)

    Illicit drugs:

    limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates

< HOME >

RE: Alexei Nalvany ...



   < CONFIRMATION - in "Russian" - I think. 

  Readers:  IF anything happens (the Russian representatives - for Mr. Putin - respond, etc.), I will post about it. But, the very idea (that) me - a "Retired  American "Software Technical Writer" can send a message to Mr. V. Putin's agents - who may then forward the message [ to him ] - IS very interesting.  Clearly - sending a "message" to Mr. Putin ( AS previous & following) - does not make me a "Benedict Arnold".  Please consider to send Mr. Putin your own message.  Please be courteous!  YOU represent the USA.

 Kremlin Contact  http://en.letters.kremlin.ru/ < HOW TO ! Example: 8-25-2018 (Saturday)

 Dear Mr. Putin, As you are aware - I have Emailed you previously. YES, I still have my "personal" web site: https://hansandcassady.org/

Today, I write with concerns of Mr. Alexei Navalny. In fact, he looks like my biological brother [ Milo Junior Cassady ]  I call him "Buzz". He calls me "Sue". We were born - in America (Columbus, Ohio) - about 10-months apart. You may know? This is referred to - in America - as "Irish twins".  

Sir, I am continuing my efforts [ for America ] to enact more citizen healthcare reform - by abolishing Medical insurance Companies. It will be helpful to my efforts, if Americans (like me) can like you more - and, do not have feelings of suspicion - that you "harmed" Mr. Navalny.

Clearly, as the person in control of [ALL] Russia - it will not be helpful - if he is harmed on your "watch" - I.E. when you controlled Russia.
I realize that Mr. Navalny desires to compete against you - in a "free and fair election". I realize that some people - in Russia - do not want this to occur. I make no claim that I have ever participated in politics - as a candidate. So, I do not know if competition (in the political arena) is something that you encourage? I do know (that) you are a martial arts expert. Mr. Tony Petty is also a "martial arts expert" [ in America ]. This very day (8-25-2018) he was teaching young Americans (boys and girls) - at our local YMCA.  I do also know (that) Mr. Navalny  [He] could be your lasting legacy - (that) YOU supported the civil competition of ideas - in Russia! - (Then) perhaps people will build statues of YOU!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketplace_of_ideas )  Thank you! For your attention – in this matter. – Susan


Mr. Tony Petty, 4th Dan Black Belt - Head Instructor Kleptz YMCA]

Kremlin Contact  http://en.letters.kremlin.ru/   < HOW TO - Send an electronic message to the President of Russia [ Currently Mr. Vladimir Putin ]





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