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Joe Biden presidential portrait.jpg

 <<<<< "American" Eagle : "... ( "THE AMERICAN DREAM" ) ... In AMERICAN Society [2021] - it is up to each "adult" American to [individually] decide what the "Dream" looks like - to them; 
 with the knowledge that ( based on the American CONSTITUTION & its 27 Amendments ) - America affords them the opportunity to pursue this personal & internal image ... " Orderly debate is encouraged and cherished" :  legal fees for a US Constitutional challenge

   [ https://www.senate.gov/civics/constitution_item/constitution.htm ]
  The "American market" decides - if other Americans will pay - for the "individual" - to pursue their dream - via fees, aproduct - an horly rate, etc.

                                                    " Chinese Parrot" : >>>>>>>>>
  In an Orwellian Society [like China - 2021] "parroting" is paramount - and "fear" is actively used to suppress "individuality" & dissent - which, leads to frustation, stress, sickness - and failure - in humans. 

 INDIVIDUAL effort is not recognized or rewarded (in China) - except those "collective" efforts - that further the announced conceptions - of a "central committee".  GOOGLE> "debate in China" 

   [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_committee ]

Head shot of Xi Jinping in 2019. He is wearing a black suit jacket, white shirt and a blue necktie.

emasculated males are common in China - by practice

China Constitution
 Reading, reviewing & "shredding" - a recent "BOOK" - published by the Communist Party of China - makes this apparent :  The Governance Of China Volume 1" a book by:  Xi JinPing (the "appointed Leader of China):
 "shred" - of TEXT -  in progress... 


    Full text of Xi Jinping's  "The Governance Of China Volume 1" follows: AS "SHRED" ( comments, questions & hyper-links ) BY AVERAGE AMERICAN 

   SOURCE OF THE FOLLOWING > :  https://archive.org/details/xijinpingthegovernanceofchinavolume1

  Full text of "The Governance Of China Volume 1" : PHOTOS are in the original

Author: XI JINPING > [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xi_Jinping ] "...  Xi Jinping (... born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician who has been serving as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) since 2012, and President of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 2013. Xi has been t... the most prominent political leader in China, since 2012.  ..." 

Publisher of the three Voulme set: FORElGiN LANGUAGES PRESS > About: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_Languages_Press
  http://www.flp.com.cn/ :: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_International_Publishing_Group
  :: [ Susan's  NOTICE TO PUBLISHER ]  They have not responded yet.

 © Foreign Languages Press Co. Ltd, Beijing, China, year 2014, Original Document Published by Foreign Languages Press Co. Ltd & the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
 24 Baiwanzhuang Road, Beijing 100037, China -  Google Maps...    - Email: flp@CIPG.org.cn 

 Publisher’s Note [American: which the "publisher" is the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) ]  : "...Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC)  held in November 2012, the new central leadership with Xi Jinping - as "general secretary" - has led the [entire Chinese Communist Party ] and the people of China in:

1) confronting the problems and challenges they face,  [ AMERICAN: to "confront" a "problem" or "challenge" > STEP 1. Cognizance, awareness ]
2) driving reform and "opening up" to a deeper  level,   [  AMERICAN : ... be a sincere and good listener ]
3) to modernize the national governance system,   [ AMERICAN : Support Freedom of the Press! - and reward good governance] 
 and 4) to marshal their enormous strength behind "The Chinese Dream of The Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation".  
 BOOKby Xi JinPing $49.83 ( $US)  [ AMERICAN  China History ]  ..."

'... Under the leadership of the CPC, the country is striving to build  a "bright future" for socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

[SOURCE:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism_with_Chinese_characteristics : ]  Contents of Wikipedia page:

China is attracting growing attention worldwide. The world wants to know:  What changes are in progress in China?  and "...What impact they will have on the  rest of the world? ..."  [American: A retired American has created an html page - about Rare Earth Elemts & she is reminded of her Environmental Science education - at UWGB; This American - was a very small part - of the effort to "clean up" - the bay area (of Green Bay, WI) - from pollution ... She was born - to a family - in Central Ohio - but, found to have "abilities" - to design and code software systems ... She enjoys "describing" complicated things; and, was judged - by the "American market Place" - to work very well - with Asian people & technology. I.E. She was paid very well! A special qualification: This American was selected - to be a "cheer-leader" for her "inner-city" Junior High School; Thus, she is familiar with the "Pep Rally" phenomenon :: That is: She learned to lead the traditional "cheers" - of the school - And, even helped to invent new ones - to get the team players & the school students "fired up". The school's band would play! Everyone was encouraged to sing - and stomp - and clap together. When the game was played - sometimes her team won! - And, sometimes they lost. Thus, she experienced - with the team: "The thrill of victory!" - AND - "The agony of defeat."  ... ]

As "general secretary" of the CPC Central Committee and president of the  People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping has delivered many speeches on a broad range of issues. He has offered his thoughts, views and judgments, and answered a series of important theoretical and practical questions about the Party and the country in these changing times. His speeches embody the philosophy of the new central leadership

[ American: Orwell "Orwellian" :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orwellian ]

To respond to rising international interest and to enhance the rest of the  world’s understanding of the Chinese government’s philosophy and its domestic and foreign policies, the State Council Information Office, the Party Literature Research Office of the CPC Central Committee and the China International Publishing Group have worked together to produce [the] book - " The Governance of China." A three volume series. 

This book [only Volume ONE text shown here ] is a compilation of Xi Jinping’s "major works" from November 15,  2012 to June 13, 2014. It includes speeches, talks, interviews, instructions, and  correspondence. 

The 79 pieces are arranged in 18 chapters, and notes are added  to help readers understand China’s social system, history and culture. 
 [ Susan - a retired "average" American - is adding hyperlinks, comments and questions ] The book (for sale)  also contains 45 pictures of Xi Jinping at work and in daily life,  with focus on the period since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012. 


Socialism with Chinese Characteristics    " o "

  1. o The People’s Wish for a Good Life Is Our Goal 
  2. o Study. Disseminate and Implement the Guiding Principles of the 18th CPC National Congress 
  3. o Uphold and Develop Socialism with Chinese Characteristics 
  4. o Carry on the Enduring Spirit of Mao Zedong Thought 

The Chinese Dream 

  1. o Achieving Rejuvenation Is the Dream of the Chinese People 
  2. ° Address to the First Session of the 12th National People’s Congress 
  3. ° Hard Work Makes Dreams Come True 
  4. ° Realize Youthful Dreams 
  5. ° The Chinese Dream Will Benefit Not Only the People of China. But 

Also of Other Countries 

  1. ° Right Time to Innovate and Make Dreams Come True 
  2. ° The Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation Is a Dream Shared by All Chinese 

All-round and Deeper-level Reform 

  1. ° Reform and Opening up Is Always Ongoing and Will Never End
  2. ° Explanatory Notes to the “Decision of the Central Committee of the 
  3. Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Continuing the Reform”o  [ SEE Interview with Russian Sergey B]
  4. Align Our Thinking with the Guidelines of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee
  5. ° Push Ahead with Reform Despite More Difficulties
  6.  o Improve Governance Capacity Through the Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics°

Economic Development 

  1. ° Economic Growth Must Be Genuine and Not Inflated 

Open Wider to the Outside World 

  1. o The “Invisible Hand” and the “Visible Hand”
  2.  Transition to Innovation-driven Growth°
  3.  Revolutionize Energy Production and Consumption 

Rule of Law 

  1.  Commemorate the 30th Anniversary of the Promulgation and Implementation of the Current Constitution
  2. Develop a Law-based Country. Government and Society
  3. Promote Social Fairness and Justice. Ensure a Happy Life for the 

People - Culturally Advanced China 

  1. ° Enhance Publicity and Theoretical Work 
  2. ° Strong Ethical Support for the Realization of the Chinese Dream 
  3. ° Enhance China’s Cultural Soft Power 
  4. ° Cultivate and Disseminate the Core Socialist Values 
  5. ° Young People Should Practice the Core Socialist Values 
  6. ° Foster and Practice Core Socialist Values from Childhood 

Social Undertakings 

  1. ° Eliminate Poverty and Accelerate Development in Impoverished Areas 
  2. ° Better and Fairer Education for the 1.3 Billion Chinese People 
  3. ° Accelerate the Development of Housing Security and Supply 
  4. ° Always Put People’s Lives First 
  5. ° Build China into a Cyberpower 
  6. ° A Holistic View of National Security 
  7. ° Safeguard National Security and Social Stability 

Ecological Progress 

  1. ° A Better Environment for a Beautiful China 
  2. ° Usher in a New Era of Ecological Progress 
  3. ° Leave to Our Future Generations Blue Skies. Green Fields and Clean Water 

National Defense 

  1. ° Build up Our National Defense and Armed Forces 
  2. ° Build Strong National Defense and Powerful Military Forces 
  3. ° Build People’s Armed Forces That Follow the Party’s Commands. Are Able to Win Battles and Have Fine Conduct “One Country. Two Systems” 
  4. ° Hong Kong. Macao and the Chinese Mainland Are Closely Linked by Destiny
  5. Create a Better Future for the Chinese Nation Hand in Hand
  6. Handle Cross-Straits Relations in the Overall Interests of the Chinese 


  1.  Together Fulfill the Chinese Dream of National Rejuvenation
  2. ° Take on the Task of Expanding Cross-Straits Relations and Achieving 

National Rejuvenation Peaceful Development 

  1. ° Strengthen the Foundation for Pursuing Peaceful Development
  2. ° Work Together for Mutually Beneficial Cooperation 
  3. ° Follow a Sensible. Coordinated and Balanced Approach to Nuclear 


  1. ° Exchanges and Mutual Learning Make Civilizations Richer and More Colorful  
    Page 2 of 2 > https://hansandcassady.org/Understanding-China-02.html

New Model of Major-country Relations 

  1. ° Follow the Trend of the Times and Promote Global Peace and Development 
  2. ° Build a New Model of Major-country Relationship Between China and the United States 
  3. ° Build a Bridge of Friendship and Cooperation Across the Eurasian Continent 

Neighborhood Diplomacy 

  1. ° Work Together to Build the Silk Road Economic Belt 
  2. ° Work Together to Build a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road 
  3. ° Diplomacy with Neighboring Countries Characterized by Friendship. Sincerity. Reciprocity and Inclusiveness Cooperation with Developing Countries 
  4. ° Be Trustworthy Friends and Sincere Partners Forever 
  5. ° Forge a Stronger Partnership Between China and Latin America and the Caribbean 
  6. ° Promote the Silk Road Spirit. Strengthen China-Arab Cooperation Multilateral Relations 
  7. ° Work Hand in Hand for Common Development  
  8. ° A Better Future for Asia and the World 
  9. ° Jointly Maintain and Develop an Open World Economy 
  10. ° Carry Forward the “Shanghai Spirit” and Promote Common Development 
  11. Work Together for a Better Asia Pacific  
  12. New Approach for Asian Security Cooperation 

Close Ties with the People 

° Strictly Enforce Diligence and Thrift. Oppose Extravagance and Waste 

° The Mass Line: Fundamental to the CPC 

° The Guiding Thoughts and Goals for the Program of Mass Line 

Education and Practice 

° Establish and Promote the Conduct of “Three Stricts and Three Earnests” 

Combat Corruption 

° Power Must Be “Caged” by the System 

° Historical Wisdom Helps Us Combat Corruption and Uphold Integrity 

° Improve Party Conduct. Uphold Integrity and Combat Corruption 

The CPC Leadership 

° Follow a Good Blueprint 
o Study for a Brighter Future 

° “Governing a Big Country Is as Delicate as Frying a Small Fish” 

° Train and Select Good Officials  

Train and Select Good Officials

June 28, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the National Conference on Organizational Work. 

At present, all Party members and people of all ethnic groups in China are 
making concerted efforts to complete the building of a moderately prosperous 
society in all respects and realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. 

Confronted with the present complex and unpredictable international situation 
and arduous domestic tasks of continuing reform and development and 
maintaining stability, we must “be prepared to carry out a great undertaking with 
many new historic features.” - This is quoted from the political report to the 
18th National Congress of the CPC. With its profound connotations, the idea of 
“new historic features” represents an important conclusion that has been made 
after thoroughly reviewing and analyzing the development trends both at home 
and abroad. 

To carry out a great undertaking with many new historic features, and to 
accomplish the goals and tasks set forth at the 18th CPC National Congress, the 
emphasis should be laid on our Party and our officials. This means we must 
ensure that the Party is always the core of leadership during the historic process 
of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, and we must build a large 
contingent of high-caliber officials. 

Our Party has always attached great importance to the selection and 
appointment of upright and talented people, and has always regarded the 
selection and appointment of officials as an issue of crucial and fundamental 
significance to the cause of the Party and the people. Employing suitable 
officials represents the key to governance. As our ancestors said, “Exaltation of 
the virtuous is fundamental to governance,”^ and “Employing capable officials 
represents the top priority of governance.”^ 

In recent years, Party committees and organization departments at all levels 
have implemented the Party policy on personnel management, and have done a good job of selecting and appointing officials. However, there are still some 
problems which, if not properly resolved, will demoralize both the Party 
members and the general public. 

At present, there are three questions that are of great concern: what a good 
official is, how to become a good official, and how to use the right officials for 
the right job. Good answers and appropriate solutions to the three questions will 
be a proof of good management of personnel. 

First, what is a good official? This should be a question with a clear and 
ready answer, for there are clear requirements specified in the Party 
Constitution. However, some people are confused when they see misconduct in 
the selection and appointment of officials, when unqualified officials are 
selected at some localities, and when unqualified officials are still promoted, 
even against regulations. This shows that we need to improve our work in the 
organization departments. If our selection of officials leads only to confusion 
over the criteria for good officials, it is obvious that those selected will be only 
bad examples for the public. We must think more about this issue! 

Generally speaking, good officials should be of moral integrity and 
professional competence. However, there were different criteria in different 
historical periods. During the revolutionary war period, good officials needed to 
be loyal to the Party, brave and skillful in battle, and unafraid to sacrifice their 
lives. During the socialist construction period, good officials needed to be 
politically and professionally competent. In the early years of the reform and 
opening up, good officials had to uphold the guideline, principles and policies 
set forth at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, have 
professional knowledge and be determined to carry out reforms. At the current 
stage, we require that good officials be politically reliable, professionally 
competent and morally upright, and are trusted by the people. 

In summary, good officials must be firm in their ideals and convictions, 
willing to serve the people, diligent in work, ready to take on responsibilities, 
honest and upright. 

To be firm in their ideals and convictions means that Party officials must 
cherish the lofty ideal of communism, sincerely believe in Marxism, strive 
ceaselessly for socialism with Chinese characteristics, and unswervingly uphold 

the basic theories, guideline, program, experience and requirements of the Party. 

To be willing to serve the people means that Party officials must act as 
servants of the people, be loyal to the people, and serve them wholeheartedly. 

To be diligent in work means that Party officials must be dedicated to their 
work in a down-to-earth, realistic and pragmatic manner, and take solid and 
tangible measures to make achievements that can prove their worth in practice, 
survive the scrutiny of the people and stand the test of time. 

To be ready to take on responsibilities means that Party officials must 
adhere to principles with a responsible attitude, and have the courage to take 
resolute actions in the face of major issues of principle, to tackle difficulties 
head-on in the face of conflicts, to step forward in the face of crises, to admit 
their share of mistakes and to resolutely fight against misconduct. 

To be honest and upright means that Party officials must adopt a cautious 
attitude towards the exercise of power by holding it in respect and keeping it 
under control in a bid to sustain their political life, and make constant efforts to 
maintain their political integrity against corruption. 

These requirements might be easy to understand, but they are not so easy to 

They are also important requirements that 1 have stressed on various 
occasions for some time now. Here I would like to lay special emphasis on two 
aspects: ideals and convictions, and readiness to take on responsibilities, which 
are relatively outstanding issues facing our officials at the current stage. 

To be firm in their ideals and convictions is the supreme criterion for good 
officials. No matter how competent an official is, he cannot be regarded as the 
sort of good official that we need if he is not firm in his ideals and convictions, 
does not believe in Marxism nor socialism with Chinese characteristics, is 
unqualified politically, and cannot weather political storms. Only those who are 
firm in their ideals and convictions will adopt an unequivocal approach towards 
major issues of principle, build “diamond-hard bodies” to withstand any 
corrosion, remain dauntless when facing political storms, firmly resist all kinds 
of temptations, and act in a reliable and trustworthy manner at any critical moment. 

Ideals and convictions refer to people’s aspirations. As one of our ancestors 
said, “Aspirations can reach any place however far it is, even over mountains 
and seas; and it can break through any defense however tough it is, even as 
strong as the best armor and shield.”^ This shows how strong and invincible 
people can be if they only have lofty aspirations. During China’s revolution 
development and reform, innumerable Party members laid down their lives for 
the cause of the Party and the people. What supported them was the moral 
strength gained from the utmost importance they attached to their revolutionary 

It should be fully admitted that most of our officials are firm in their ideals 
and convictions, and are politically reliable. Nevertheless, there are some Party 
officials who fail to meet these qualifications. Some are skeptical about 
communism, considering it a fantasy that will never come true; some do not 
believe in Marxism-Leninism but in ghosts and gods, and seek spiritual solace in 
feudal superstitions, showing intense interest in fortune-telling, worship of 
Buddha and “god’s advice” for solving their problems; some have little sense of 
principle, justice, and right and wrong, and perform their duties in a muddle- 
headed manner; some even yearn for Western social systems and values, losing 
their confidence in the future of socialism; and others adopt an equivocal attitude 
towards political provocations against the leadership of the CPC, the path of 
socialism with Chinese characteristics and other matters of principle, passively 
avoid relevant arguments without the courage to express their opinions, or even 
deliberately deliver ambiguous messages. Isn’t it a monstrous absurdity that 
Party officials, especially high-ranking ones, take no position in the face of 
major issues of principle, political incidents and sensitive issues? 

Some say that officials need to “cherish their reputation.” This depends on 
what kind of “reputation” they are cherishing. Is it a “reputation” which will be 
applauded by people with ulterior motives, or is it a reputation for acting in the 
interests of the Party and the people? A Party member should only cherish the 
latter reputation, and it would be calamitous if he were bent on gaining the 

Why are formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance prevalent 
nowadays? Why are some officials becoming corrupt or even committing 

betrayal and defecting to the enemy, ending up as criminals? In the final 
analysis, it is because they are not firm in their ideals or convictions. I have often 
said that ideals and convictions are the moral “marrow” of Communists. To be 
firm in our ideals and convictions will “harden our bones,” while an absence of 
ideals and convictions or wavering in our ideals and convictions will lead to fatal 
moral weakness. 

Facts have repeatedly proved that the most dangerous moment is when one 
wavers in or begins to show doubt about one’s ideals and convictions. I have 
long been wondering if we were confronted with a complex situation such as a 
“color revolution,” would all our officials act resolutely to safeguard the 
leadership of the Party and the socialist system? I believe most Party members 
and officials are capable of doing so. 

During the revolutionary war, whether an official was firm in his ideals and 
convictions was judged by whether he could risk his life for the cause of the 
Party and the people, and whether he could charge ahead as soon as the bugle 
sounded. This was a most direct test. There are still tests of life and death at our 
current stage of peaceful development, but there is a much smaller number of 
them. As a result, it is really difficult to test whether an official is firm in his 
ideals and convictions. Even X-rays, CT scans and MRIs won’t help. 

Nevertheless, there are still ways to test our officials. We need to find out 
whether they have the political determination in the face of major political 
challenges, bear in mind the fundamental purpose of the Party, perform their 
duties in an extremely responsible manner, are the first to bear hardships and the 
last to enjoy comforts, are ready to take on responsibilities in the face of urgent, 
difficult and dangerous tasks, and resist the temptations of power, money and 
sex. Such a test cannot be accomplished overnight based on a few tasks that an 
official fulfills or a few pledges that he makes; it is a process that depends on the 
official’s behavior over a long period, even throughout his life. 

It is essential that Party officials uphold principles and readily take on 
responsibilities. “Avoiding responsibilities is the greatest disgrace for an 
official.” The responsibilities an official takes on demonstrate his breadth of 
vision, courage and competence. The greater responsibilities one takes on, the 
greater undertaking one can accomplish. 

With the “nice guy” mentality currently prevailing among some officials, it 
has become commonplace that many officials dare not criticize errors or take on 
responsibilities, or are unwilling to do so. Some officials keep on good terms 
with everybody at the expense of principles, for they are afraid of offending 
people and losing votes, holding a belief in the vulgar philosophy of “more 
flowers and fewer thorns.” They mind nothing but their own business and will 
do nothing unless their personal interests are affected, being satisfied with 
muddling along and accomplishing nothing at all. Some officials are not 
fulfilling their duties properly. They sidestep difficult problems and matters of 
public concern, argue and pass the buck, and tackle their responsibilities in a 
perfunctory manner, with their delay turning small problems into big ones and 
big problems into dreadful troubles. Some officials are smooth characters who 
handle matters in an overly “clever” manner, pick easy jobs and posts while 
shirking hard ones, think of nothing but self-preservation in the face of 
challenges, rush to claim credit for success, and evade responsibility when any 
problem crops up. What is more frightening is that some of these officials are 
popular, even getting on well in official circles, gaining more than others while 
contributing less. How can the cause of the Party and the people proceed if there 
are a lot of “nice guys,” people of “smooth character,” those “who always pass 
the buck to others” or act like “weeds atop the wall”? These problems are 
extremely dangerous, and major efforts must be made to solve them. 

Ultimately, selflessness leads to fearlessness and the courage to take on 
responsibilities. “Selflessness gives us peace of mind.” Good officials must 
attach the utmost importance to their responsibilities, put the principles and 
cause of the Party and the interests of the people first, take an unequivocal and 
tough stance when addressing problems, perform their duties in an 
uncomplaining and diligent manner, and see their efforts through to the final 
result. “Sturdy grass withstands high winds; true gold stands the test of fire.” For 
the cause of the Party and the people, our officials should be bold enough to 
think, to carry out initiatives and to take the consequences, serving as the “sturdy 
grass” and “true gold” of our times. 

Of course, being ready to take on responsibilities is for the cause of the 
Party and the people, not for personal fame. Being arrogant and overbearing is 
not being courageous to take on responsibilities. During the Spring and Autumn 
Period, there was a senior official named Zheng Kaofu, who served several dukes of the State of Song.
He had a reputation for being highly self-disciplined. 
He had a motto engraved on a ding in his family ancestral temple, which read, 
“Head down when 1 was promoted the first time, back hunched when promoted 
the second time, and waist bent when promoted the third time. No one insults me 
if 1 keep close to the wall when walking along the street. What I need only is this 
vessel to cook porridge in.”-^ 1 am deeply impressed by this story. Our officials 
are officials of the Party, and their power is granted by the Party and the people. 
Thus, they should make ever-bolder efforts and show ever-greater determination 
in their work, and conduct themselves in a modest and prudent manner free from 
arrogance and rashness. 

Second, how can one become a good official? Good officials do not emerge 
spontaneously. To become a good official, both personal effort and training by 
Party organizations are necessary. For officials, their personal effort is essential, 
because this is the decisive internal factor in their personal development. 

The commitment to the Party’s cause, theoretical consciousness and moral 
standards of an official are not enhanced automatically alongside a longer Party 
standing or a higher post. Rather, the enhancement requires lifelong endeavors. 
To become a good official, one needs to constantly remold one’s subjective 
world, and strengthen one’s commitment to the Party and moral refinement. One 
needs to stringently comply with the Party Constitution and the requirements for 
Party members, “being strict with oneself and lenient with others.”^ Party 
members must always behave in a proper manner, scrutinize themselves, keep 
alert to “resist the myriad temptations of the dazzling world,” and be honest and 
hardworking, clean and upright. 

Learning is the ladder of progress. Officials need to be good at learning and 
thinking, conscientiously study Marxist theories, especially the theoretical 
system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, focus on the standpoints, 
viewpoints and methods of these theories, and improve their capacity for 
strategic, innovative, dialectical, and bottom-line thinking, so that they are able 
to correctly judge contemporary situations, and remain clear-headed and 
determined politically. They also need to enrich their knowledge of various 
subjects, improve their structure of learning, and accumulate experiences, so as 
to lay a solid foundation for the performance of their duties. 

In addition to learning, good officials also need to focus on practice. 

“Hearing is not as good as seeing, and seeing is not as good as experiencing.”^ 
Knowledge and experience are like the two wings of an eagle, which can fly 
high and far only if it wants to see the outside world and braves storms. The 
harsher the conditions and the more the difficulties, the more an official will be 
tempered. Officials should go to the grassroots to see the real situation and 
communicate with the people, and then they will be able to refine themselves 
and improve their abilities in their part of the work for reform and opening up, 
stability and serving the people. 

Good officials need to be trained by Party organizations. We need to focus 
more on the training of officials along with the changes of the circumstances and 
the development of the cause of the Party and the people. In this training, we 
must pay more attention to education on commitment to the Party, virtue and 
morality, awareness about the Party’s ultimate goal, and sense of serving the 
people. We also need to strengthen the training of officials in practical 
circumstances to facilitate their progress. Training in practical circumstances is 
not a way to get “gilded,” nor is it a routine process before promotion. If this is 
the case, officials won’t devote themselves wholeheartedly to the training and 
won’t keep in close touch with the people. The training will only be a show. 

Moreover, we need to enhance supervision of officials’ conduct on a 
regular basis. The exercise of power without supervision will definitely lead to 
corruption. This is an axiomatic law. It is not an easy process to train an official, 
so necessary measures should be adopted to better manage and supervise 
officials to keep them on the alert “as if they were treading on thin ice or 
standing on the edge of an abyss.” Heart-to-heart talks with officials are needed, 
so that their shortcomings are pointed out in time, and their enthusiasm is 
encouraged. This is a good tradition that we need to carry on. 

Third, how can we ensure officials’ good performance? To employ good 
officials after they are adequately trained is the key. What is the purpose of 
training if we don’t employ good officials or don’t let them play their role? 
Employment of a competent person will attract more competent people, and all 
the others will take them as examples. The kind of officials we employ is a 
political weathervane which determines the conduct of our officials and even the 
conduct of the whole Party. 

It must be noted that some localities and departments are not adopting a correct approach to appointing officials. Some opportunistic officials with 
doubtful integrity and insufficient professional competence get promoted 
frequently, while those who devote themselves to work and do not build social 
connections for promotion do not have such chances. This has given rise to 
strong discontent among officials and the general public. Party committees and 
organization departments at all levels need to adhere to the principle that the 
Party should supervise the performance of officials and the correct approach to 
official appointment, select officials on the basis of both moral integrity and 
professional competence with priority given to the former, try to select and 
appoint virtuous and competent people in a timely manner, and place them in 
suitable posts according to their abilities. Only in this way can good and 
competent officials be selected and employed. 

To employ officials, the most important thing is to know them. If we do not 
know them thoroughly and accurately enough we may employ them in an 
inappropriate way. “Having no idea of a person’s weakness and strength, the 
weak part of the strength or the strong part of the weakness, we have no ground 
for appointing or even training that person.”^ We cannot judge an official by 
impression or personal feeling. We must have a good system and methods to 
evaluate officials, with reflections through various channels, at various levels 
and from various perspectives. 

We need to keep a close watch on officials and observe their approach to 
major issues, their concern for the people, their moral conduct, their attitude 
towards fame and fortune, their realm of thought, their ways of handling matters 
and results, and their work competence. The evaluation and observation of 
officials are done in day-to-day work, but the best time is at major events and 
critical moments. “To understand good music only after singing a thousand 
songs; to find a fine sword only after appreciating a thousand swords.”^ The 
performance of an official is reflected in his work, and his reputation is gained 
from the public. So we need to go to the grassroots to hear opinions from the 
people, and judge an official’s moral conduct in “big events” as well as in “small matters.” 

To employ good officials, we must observe their performance and moral 
conduct on an overall, long-term and logical basis. Those who are competent, 
have distinctive personalities, are ready to take on responsibilities, and dare to offend some people for the sake of upholding principles may receive different 
comments. Party organizations must give them a correct evaluation. It is also 
difficult to accurately assess the performance of officials. We need to improve 
the methods and means of assessment. In the performance appraisal of officials, 
we should pay equal attention to economic growth and the original economic 
basis, and to both tangible and intangible achievements, and integrate indicators 
and achievements with regard to the improvement of the people’s livelihood, 
social progress and the ecological environment. We must no longer judge the 
performance of officials merely by GDP growth rates. Some officials tend to 
make abrupt decisions, start projects without second thoughts, and finally leave a 
mess behind, but they still get promoted without being held accountable. We 
cannot let it happen any more. I have said that we need to implement 
responsibility systems to address such issues, and hold the relevant officials 
accountable throughout their lifetime. The organization department of the Party 
Central Committee should see to this immediately. 

To employ good officials we need to take a scientific approach and appoint 
the right person, at the right time and for the right position.

Currently, some localities tend to appoint officials according to seniority or for seeking balance 
rather than in accordance with their merits, suitability or professional abilities. 
As a result, the appointed officials find it difficult to perform their duties, thus  leaving problems unsolved and work unaccomplished. 

What kind of official to appoint and what position is suitable for him should 
be part of the consideration of the requirement of the work. We shouldn’t 
appoint an official simply because there is a post, or take it as a means of reward. 

“A good horse can run along dangerous paths but cannot plow the fields like an ox;
a strong cart can carry heavy loads but cannot cross rivers like a boat.”


 [ THE American: "choosing the right tool" ; “If all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail” - Abraham Maslow  :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow   ... http://en.qstheory.cn/2021-03/24/c_607654.htm < link ]

We  should have a good sense of acquiring talented people through different channels 
and by different methods, treat them as treasures, and let them fully display their 
abilities. Only by so doing will large numbers of good officials emerge to 
contribute their wisdom and knowledge. 

There is a phenomenon that we must notice. To judge an official on his 
work performance in a locality or a unit, people have their own comments, 
practice has its proof, and leaders are clear in mind, but the final appointment is 
often not according to the actual needs, and usually disappoints people.

The reason is the selfishness of some leading officials, “relationship-ism” or some “hidden rules” that people dodge behind.

Influenced by these unhealthy factors,  officials are no longer appointed on their merits but by favoritism or by seeking 
personal gain.

Officials and the public abhor this practice very much, so we 
should make resolute efforts to change it and make it a clean process. 

Notes 48

[1] See note 8, p. 68. 

[2] Sima Guang: Historical Events Retold as a Mirror for Government (Zi Zhi Tong Jian). Sima 
Guang (1019-1086) was a minister and historian in the Northern Song Dynasty. This monumental work was 
China’s first comprehensive history in the form of a chronicle. 

[3] Jin Ying: A Collection of Maxims (Ge Yan Lian Bi). 

[4] Zuo’s Chronicles (Zuo Zhuan). 

[5] Collection of Ancient Texts (Shang Shu). 

[6] Liu Xiang: Garden of Stories (Shuo Yuan). 

[7] Wei Yuan: Collected Works of Wei Yuan (Wei Yuan Ji). 

[8] Liu Xie: Carving a Dragon with a Literaiy Mind (Wen Xin Diao Long). Liu Xie (c. 465-c. 532) 
was a literary critic of the State of Liang during the Southern Dynasties. Carving a Dragon with a Literary 
Mind is a work on literary theory in ancient China. 



Man of the People 

( photos ) 

Socialism with Chinese Characteristics 

The People’s Wish for a Good Life Is Our Goal

November 15, 2012 

* Part of the speech at the press conference by members of the Standing Committee of the Political 
Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee. 

Friends from the news media have extensively covered the 18th National 
Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), conveying to the world many 
voices from China. On behalf of the Secretariat of the Congress, 1 wish to 
express our sincere thanks to you. 

We have just held the First Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central 
Committee, and elected a new central leadership. I was elected general secretary 
of the Central Committee. On behalf of the members of the newly-elected 
leadership, 1 wish to express our thanks to all other members of the Party for 
their trust in us. We will do our utmost to be trustworthy and fulfill our mission. 

We are deeply encouraged by both the trust from the Party members and 
the great expectations from the people of all ethnic groups in China, and we are 
keenly aware that this is also our important responsibility. 

We are taking on this important responsibility for the nation. Ours is a great 
nation. Throughout 5,000 years of development, the Chinese nation has made 
significant contributions to the progress of human civilization. Since the advent 
of modern times, our nation has gone through untold tribulations and faced its 
greatest perils. Countless people with lofty ideals rose up for the rejuvenation of 
the Chinese nation, but each time they failed. After it was founded in 1921 the 
CPC rallied and led the Chinese people in making great sacrifices, forging ahead 
against all odds, and transforming poor and backward China into an increasingly 
prosperous and strong nation, thus opening completely new horizons for national 

Our responsibility is to rally and lead the entire Party and the people of all 
China’s ethnic groups in taking on this task and continuing to pursue the goal of 

the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, so that China can stand firmer and 
stronger among the world’s nations, and make new and greater contributions to 

We are taking on this important responsibility for the people. Our people 
are a great people. During the long history the Chinese people have worked with 
diligence, bravery and wisdom, creating a beautiful homeland where all ethnic 
groups live in harmony and developing a great and dynamic culture. Our people 
have an ardent love for life. They want to have better education, more stable 
jobs, more income, reliable social security, better medical and health care, 
improved housing conditions and a beautiful environment. They hope that their 
children will have sound growth, good jobs and more enjoyable lives. The 
people’s wish for a happy life is our mission. A happy life comes from hard 
work. Our responsibility is to bring together and lead the whole Party and the 
people of all ethnic groups to free their minds, carry out reform and opening up, 
further unfetter and develop the productive forces, solve the people’s problems 
in work and life, and resolutely pursue common prosperity. 

We are taking on this important responsibility for the Party. Dedicated to 
serving the people, our Party has led them in making remarkable achievements, 
which we have every reason to be proud of. Nevertheless, we should never be 
complacent and rest on our laurels. In the new circumstances our Party faces 
many severe challenges as well as many pressing issues within the Party that 
need to be addressed, particularly corruption, being divorced from the people, 
and being satisfied merely with going through formalities and bureaucracy on 
the part of some Party officials. We must make every effort to solve such 
problems. The whole Party must stay on full alert. “It takes good iron to make 
good products.” Our responsibility is to work with all Party members to uphold 
the principle that the Party should supervise its own conduct and run itself with 
strict discipline, effectively solve major problems within the Party, improve its 
work style, and maintain close ties with the people. By so doing, our Party will 
surely remain at the core of the leadership in advancing socialism with Chinese 

The people are the creators of history. They are the real heroes and the 
source of our strength. We are fully aware that the capability of any individual is 
limited, but as long as we unite as one like a fortress, there is no difficulty we 
cannot overcome. One can only work for a limited period of time, but there is no 

limit to serving the people with dedication. Our responsibility is weightier than 
mountains, our task arduous, and the road ahead long. We must always bear in 
mind what the people think and share weal and woe with them, and we must 
work together with them diligently for the public good and for the expectations 
of history and of the people. 

China needs to learn more about the rest of the world, and the outside world 
needs to learn more about China. I hope our friends from the press will continue 
your efforts for mutual understanding between China and the rest of the world. 

Study, Disseminate and Implement the Guiding Principles of the  18th CPC National Congress

November 17, 2012 

* Speech at the first group study session^ 0 f the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC Central 
Committee which Xi presided over. 

The political report to the 18th National Congress of the CPC has charted a 
grand blueprint for bringing about a moderately prosperous society in all 
respects,^ accelerating socialist modernization, and achieving new victories for 
socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new historic circumstances. It is a 
political proclamation and action plan with which our Party will rally and lead 
the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in marching along the path of Chinese 
socialism and complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all 
respects. It guides the work of the current central leadership. The CPC Central 
Committee has issued a notice on conscientiously studying, disseminating and 
implementing the guiding principles of the 18th National Congress, and Party 
committees at all levels should strictly comply with the notice. 

It was emphasized at the 18th National Congress that we should uphold 
socialism with Chinese characteristics, that the socialist system with Chinese 
characteristics is the fundamental accomplishment made by the Party and the 
people during the arduous struggle over the past 90 years, and that we must 
cherish what has been accomplished and never deviate from it but rather 
continue to enrich it. The Congress has called on the whole Party to explore and 
master the laws of socialism with Chinese characteristics, ensure that the Party is 
always full of vigor and that China never lacks the driving force for 
development, and that we must strive for a bright future for developing China’s 
socialism. In fact, adhering to and developing socialism with Chinese 
characteristics was the theme of the political report to the 18th National 
Congress. We must always stick to this theme, continue to develop socialism 
with Chinese characteristics, and work hard to reach the goal. This will enable us 
to study, understand and implement the guiding principles of the 18th National  Congress more thoroughly, completely and conscientiously. 

Why have 1 emphasized this? Because only socialism can save China, and 
only Chinese socialism can lead our country to development - a fact that has 
been fully proved through the long-term practice of the Party and the state. Only 
by upholding socialism with Chinese characteristics can we bring together and 
lead the whole Party, the whole nation and the people of all ethnic groups in 
realizing a moderately prosperous society by the centenary of the CPC in 2021 
and in turning China into a prosperous, democratic, culturally advanced and 
harmonious modern socialist country by the centenary of the People’s Republic 
of China in 2049, so as to ensure the people greater happiness and the nation a 
brighter future. 

To study, disseminate and implement the guiding principles of the 18th 
National Congress with emphasis on adhering to and developing socialism with 
Chinese characteristics, in my opinion, it is important to pay particular attention 
to the following areas when applying theory to practice: 

First, we must understand that socialism with Chinese characteristics is a 
fundamental accomplishment made by the Party and the people during long-term 
practice. China’s socialist system was pioneered in the new era of reform and 
opening up, and it is an outcome of the Party’s painstaking efforts. - It was 
accomplished by the whole Party and whole people, under several generations of 
the Party’s central collective leadership, through numerous trials and tenacious 
efforts at all costs. Relying closely on the people, our Party lowered the curtain, 
once and for all, on a poor and weak country that had suffered from both 
domestic turmoil and foreign aggression since the advent of modern times, and 
made an epic move towards the steady growth, development and renewal of the 
Chinese nation. It has thus enabled China, a country with a civilization of over 
5,000 years, to stand firm among the nations of the world. 

We must always remember the historic contribution made by the Party’s 
three generations of central collective leadership and the Party Central 
Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao^ as general secretary to the development of 
socialism with Chinese characteristics. The "first generation" of the central 
collective leadership with Mao Zedong^ at the core provided invaluable 
experience as well as the theoretical and material basis for the great initiative of 
building socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new historic period.

The "second generation" with Deng Xiaoping^ at the core started the building of 
socialism with Chinese characteristics.

The "third generation" with Jiang Zemin^  at the core advanced socialism with Chinese characteristics into the 21 st century, 
followed by Hu Jintao as general secretary of the Central Committee who 
adhered to and developed socialism with Chinese characteristics from a new 
historic starting point.

It goes without saying that socialism with Chinese characteristics encapsulates the ideals and explorations of generations of Chinese 
Communists, embodies the aspirations of countless patriots and revolutionary 
martyrs, and crystallizes the struggles and sacrifices of the myriads of the 
Chinese people. It is a natural choice for the development of Chinese society in 
modern times, and it is the only way to bring about the country’s development 
and stability. 

Facts prove that Chinese socialism is a banner of unity, endeavor and victory for the CPC and the Chinese people as a whole.

[ American: Please cite the "facts" - the speaker refers to. ]

We must always uphold 
socialism with Chinese characteristics and firmly adhere to and develop Chinese 
socialism in order to bring about a moderately prosperous society in all respects, 
accelerate socialist modernization and achieve the great renewal of the Chinese 

This is the very reason why the 18th National Congress has called on the 
whole Party to have full confidence in the path, theory and system of Chinese 

Second, we must thoroughly understand that socialism with Chinese 
characteristics consists of a path, theory and system.

The 18th National Congress 
expounded on the scientific meaning of the path, theory and system of socialism 
with Chinese characteristics, and the relationships between the three.

Congress stressed that the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics is a way 
to reach the goal, the theory offers a guide to action, and the system provides a 
fundamental guarantee. All three serve the great cause of building Chinese 
socialism. This is the most salient feature of socialism with Chinese 

This conclusion reveals that socialism with Chinese characteristics 
incorporates practice, theory and system. It synthesizes successful experience in 
practice into theories, uses these correct theories to guide new practices and 
incorporates effective principles and policies into Party and national systems. 

That is why socialism with Chinese characteristics is special - in its path, theory and system;
 in the intrinsic interaction between the way of realizing the goal, 
guide to action and fundamental guarantee; and in that all three serve the great 
practice of building Chinese socialism.

In present-day China, adhering to and 
developing socialism with Chinese characteristics means upholding socialism in its "true sense". 

[AMERICAN:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism ... 

The path of Chinese socialism is the only way to achieve China’s socialist 
modernization and create a better life. This path takes economic development as 
the central task, and brings along economic, political, cultural, social, ecological 
and other forms of progress. It adheres to both the Four Cardinal Principles
and the reform and opening-up policy.

It entails further releasing and developing the productive forces, and achieving prosperity for all and the well-rounded development of everyone. 

The theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the latest 
achievement in adapting Marxism^ to China’s conditions. It [ The theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics ] incorporates Deng 
Xiaoping Theory
^, the important thought of the Three Represents^ and the 
Scientific Outlook on Development^.

It has inherited, continued and creatively developed Marxism-Leninism^ and Mao Zedong Thought^.
We should not abandon Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought; otherwise, we would be deprived of our foundation.

Moreover, we must focus our work on the practical 
problems in reform, opening up and modernization, and on our various 
endeavors, with a view to the application of Marxist theory, theoretical thinking 
on practical issues, and initiation of new practice for development. In 
contemporary China upholding the theory of socialism with Chinese 
characteristics means upholding Marxism in its true sense. 

The socialist system with Chinese characteristics integrates the fundamental 
political system^, the basic political systems^, the basic economic system^ 
and other systems and mechanisms. It combines national and local democratic 
systems, the Party’s leadership, the position of the people as masters of the 
country, and law-based governance.
This system conforms to the national 
conditions in China, showcases the special traits and strengths of socialism with 
Chinese characteristics, and provides a fundamental systemic guarantee for 
China’s development. 

The socialist system with Chinese characteristics is unique and effective. 

However, we should be aware that it is not perfect or fully functioning.

The Chinese socialist system needs to improve to keep in step with the development 
of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics.

During his inspection tour of 
southern China in 1992 Deng Xiaoping pointed out, “It will probably take 
another thirty years for us to develop a more mature and well-defined system in 
every field. [ LINK ]

It was emphasized at the 18th National Congress that it is 
imperative to give top priority to the building of systems while giving full play 
to the superiority of the socialist political system in China. We must improve 
current systems and promote institutional innovation with theoretical innovation 
based on practice.

We must proceed from reality, formulate new systems in a 
timely fashion, and put in place a well-developed, systematically and rationally 
regulated, and effective framework of systems to ensure that all systems and 
institutions are working properly and functioning well, and thereby provide a 
more effective institutional guarantee for new victories. 

Third, we must have an in-depth understanding of the basic foundation, 
overall planning and main mandate of building socialism with Chinese 
characteristics. It was emphasized at the 18th National Congress that the basic 
foundation for building socialism with Chinese characteristics is that China is in 
the primary stage of socialism^, that its overall plan is to seek economic, 
political, cultural, social, and ecological progress, and that its main objective is 
to achieve socialist modernization and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The 
foundation, plan and objective are succinctly and pointedly defined. A better 
understanding and grasp of these new definitions will help us get to the essence 
and essentials of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

It is important to stress the basic foundation of China being in the primary 
stage of socialism. This is the paramount reality and the most important national 
condition in contemporary China. We must always bear it in mind and promote 
reform and development in all respects on the basis of this very reality. It is 
imperative not only in accelerating the economy, but also in speeding up 
political, cultural, social and ecological development; not only when our 
economy was small, but also when it is large; and not only when planning long¬ 
term development, but also during daily work. The Party’s basic line for the 
primary stage of socialism is the lifeline of the Party and the state. In practice we 
must firmly adhere to “one central task, two basic points,”^ neither deviating 
from the “one central task” nor neglecting the “two basic points.”

We must adopt a holistic approach to the realization of the common ideal of building Chinese 
socialism and the long-term goal of realizing communism, stand firm against 
various erroneous views aimed at abandoning socialism, and rectify all 
erroneous and unrealistic mindsets, policies and measures that go beyond the 
current primary stage of socialism. This will keep us from being either self- 
abased or over-confident, and enable us to achieve new victories for China’s 

We give top priority to overall planning, simply because we must achieve 
all-round development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The most 
important thing for our Party is to govern the country well and rejuvenate the 
nation. The Party must always represent the requirements for developing the 
advanced productive forces. We must focus on economic development and 
promote coordinated political, cultural, social and ecological development on the 
basis of economic growth. As China steps forward socially and economically, it 
has become increasingly significant to pursue ecological progress.

The 18th National Congress included ecological progress in its overall plan for building 
Chinese socialism, thus highlighting the strategic importance of ecological 
progress and making it possible to incorporate ecological efforts into those for 
economic, political, cultural and social progress in all respects and throughout 
the whole process.

[ THE American's "formal education" - is B.S. Environmental Science & Communication : UWGB 1982 ]

This is an important practical and theoretical achievement of 
our Party in our understanding of the law of building socialism. We must carry 
out the overall plan, pursue coordinated development in all areas of our 
modernization drive, and promote harmony between the relationships of 
production and the productive forces, and between the superstructure and the 
economic base. 

We pay close attention to the main objective because the CPC has 
shouldered the historic mission of rejuvenating the Chinese nation ever since its 
birth. The very purpose of the Party in leading the Chinese people in revolution, 
development and reform is to make the people prosperous and the country 
strong, and rejuvenate the Chinese nation.

According to the three-step strategic 
plan for modernization^, it is the goal of our Party and state to build a 
prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious modern 
socialist country during the primary stage of socialism. The historic mission of 
our Party, the fundamental purpose of reform and opening up, and the goal of 
our country all converge in the main objective and are also derived from it.

This is an objective for which we should never relax our efforts, nor should our future generations. 

During different historical periods our Party has always been able to put 
forth inspirational goals in line with the will of the people and the needs of our 
development, and lead the people in achieving those goals. In response to both 
domestic and international changes and new economic and social developments 
in China, and living up to the new expectations of the people, the 18th National 
Congress revised the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all 
respects, with a clearer policy guidance, greater inclination towards development 
problems, and better responses to the people’s expectations.

The updated goal is coherent with those set at the Party’s 16th and 17th national congresses, and in 
line with the overall plan for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 
The whole Party and the country must act with one mind, work in a down-to- 
earth manner, be creative and pioneering, and forge ahead in realizing a 
moderately prosperous society in all respects, and continuing reform and 
opening up in all areas - the two goals set at the 18th National Congress. 

Fourth, we must have a thorough knowledge of the basic requirements for 
achieving new victories for Chinese socialism, which the 18th National 
Congress identified and which we must fulfill with firm determination in the 
new historic circumstances. These requirements are based on six decades of our 
experience in building socialism, especially socialism with Chinese 
characteristics, and on the Party’s basic theories, lines, platforms and experience. 
They are the essentials that reflect the laws of governance by the CPC, laws of 
building socialism, and laws of the development of human society. They are 
testimony to the new understanding by our Party of the laws of Chinese 

The basic requirements set forth at the 18th National Congress answer the 
question of how to achieve new victories for Chinese socialism on the new 
historic journey. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is a cause for the people 
in their hundreds of millions - this is why we must give full play to the role of 
the people as the masters of the country. Freeing and developing the productive 
forces is a fundamental task of Chinese socialism - this is why we must focus on 
economic development and pursue a people-oriented, all-round, coordinated, 
proper and sustainable development.

Reform and opening up is the only way 
leading to Chinese socialism - this is why we must always apply the spirit of 
reform and innovation to all aspects of governance, and continuously promote 
the self-improvement and development of China’s socialist system. Fairness and 
justice are inherent requirements of Chinese socialism - this is why we must, 
relying on the concerted efforts of all the Chinese people and based on economic 
and social development, double our efforts to develop institutions that are vital 
to ensuring social fairness and justice, and establish in due course a system for 
guaranteeing social equity. Common prosperity is the fundamental principle of 
Chinese socialism - this is why we must ensure that all the people share the 
fruits of development in a fair way, and move steadily towards common 
prosperity. Social harmony is an inherent attribute of Chinese socialism - this is 
why we must rally all the forces that can be rallied, maximize the factors for 
harmony, stimulate the creative vitality of society, and ensure that the people 
lead a happy, stable life and the country enjoys enduring peace. Peaceful 
development is an inevitable prerequisite of Chinese socialism - this is why we 
must pursue development through opening up and cooperation to benefit all, 
expand areas of common interests with all others and build a harmonious world 
of enduring peace and common prosperity together with other countries. The 
CPC is the core leadership for the cause of Chinese socialism - this is why we 
must enhance and improve the Party’s leadership and give full play to its leading 
and core role in exercising overall leadership and coordinating the efforts of all. 

The basic requirements set forth at the 18th National Congress positively 
responded to the need of addressing pressing issues in China’s economic and 
social development, the challenges in the difficult in-depth reforms and in 
speeding up the transformation of the growth model, and the sensitive issues that 
officials and the general public are especially concerned about. They have also 
given us good guidance on how to pursue reform, development and stability, 
handle national defense and domestic and foreign affairs, and run the Party, the 
country and the military in this decisive stage at which China is striving to 
realize a moderately prosperous society in all respects. These basic requirements 
cover many areas - the productive forces and relations of production, the 
economic base and the superstructure, the great cause of Chinese socialism and 
the new undertaking of Party building, and a holistic approach to both the 
domestic and international situations. The 18th National Congress stuck close to 
and fully reflected these basic requirements in making plans and arrangements 
for actions in various areas. If we truly meet all the basic requirements we will 
be able to pool our strength more effectively, overcome all difficulties, pursue 

balanced, proper and coordinated development, promote social harmony and 
improve our people’s lives. Then we can complete the glorious and arduous 
tasks bestowed by the times. 

Fifth, we must fully understand why we need to ensure that the CPC is 
always the firm core leadership guiding the cause of Chinese socialism. It was 
emphasized at the 18th National Congress that the CPC shoulders the great 
responsibility for bringing together and leading the people in building a 
moderately prosperous society in all respects, in advancing socialist 
modernization and in achieving the great renewal of the Chinese nation. The 
Party’s strength and its close ties with the people have ensured China prosperity 
and stability, and the Chinese people peace and happiness. The new 
developments, the need for progress in our cause and the people’s expectations 
have all made it imperative for us to carry out the great new undertaking of Party 
building in the spirit of reform and innovation, and upgrade our efforts in all 
respects to a new level. To run the country well we must first run the Party well, 
and to run the Party well we must run it strictly. For this purpose, the 18th 
National Congress set forth the overall requirements for systematic Party 
building in the new circumstances, and spelled out the specific tasks involved. 
The whole Party must learn and understand them, and implement them to the 

The overall requirements for Party building set forth at the 18th National 
Congress are derived from the need to inherit and develop the fundamentals that 
have shored up the advanced nature of our Party, a Marxist party, for over 90 
years. They respond to changes in the world, in our country and within our 
Party. Over the years we have been pressing ahead with the new task of Party 
building in all respects. The Party has enhanced its governing capabilities, 
preserved and improved its pioneering nature and purity, and strengthened and 
improved its leadership. However, in view of the need to manage changes in 
domestic and international conditions, and to accomplish its historic mission, 
there is still considerable room for our Party to improve its art of leadership, 
governing capacity and organization, and the quality, competence, and practices 
of its members and officials. Party building in the new circumstances, in 
particular, faces “four tests’’^ and “four risks,which makes it more 
difficult and pressing to ensure that the Party properly manages its own affairs 
and strictly disciplines itself. All Party members must heighten their sense of  urgency and responsibility, focus on the overall requirements of Party building, 
steadily improve the Party’s art of leadership and governance, and enhance its 
ability to resist corruption, prevent degeneration and ward off corruption risks, 
so that our Party may always remain ahead of the times in its historic journey 
accompanied by profound changes worldwide, always act as the backbone of the 
Chinese people in its historic response to domestic and international risks and 
tests of all kinds, and always be the strong core leadership in the historic journey 
to adhere to and develop Chinese socialism. 

It has always been the foundation for the lifeline and pursuit of all 
Communists to have full confidence in ideals and firm faith in communism. 

Belief in Marxism and faith in socialism and communism are the political soul 
of Communists, enabling them to withstand all tests. Put figuratively, the ideals 
and convictions of Communists are the marrow of their faith. Without, or with 
weak, ideals or convictions, they would be deprived of their marrow and suffer 
from “lack of backbone.” This has been proved true by the cases of some Party 
members and officials who acted improperly due to lack of ideals and confused 
faith. All Party members, in accordance with the plans set at the 18th National 
Congress, must earnestly study and implement the system of socialist theories 
with Chinese characteristics, especially the Scientific Outlook on Development, 
reflect Party awareness in their actions, observe moral standards, set good 
examples and work hard for the common goal of realizing Chinese socialism. 

Maintaining close ties between the Party and the people and between 
officials and individuals has always been the basis of our success. Facts prove 
that the future and destiny of a political party and government depend on popular 
support. If we stray from the people and lose their support we will end up in 
failure. We must bear in mind the new characteristics and requirements for 
public work in the new circumstances. We must organize our people, 
communicate with them, educate them, serve them, learn from them, and subject 
ourselves to their oversight. We should always be part of the people, work for 
their interests, and maintain close ties and share good and bad times with them. 
We should draw wisdom and strength from their great practice; deliver more 
concrete services to the people that meet their needs, relieve their burdens and 
benefit their lives; and put a stop to all acts that prejudice their interests.

18th National Congress proposed the idea of carrying out an extensive program 
throughout the Party to heighten awareness of and implement the Party’s mass 

lineal, with the focus on serving the people and staying pragmatic and honest. 
The CPC Central Committee will make specific arrangements for this program, 
and Party committees at all levels should implement them, solve pressing 
problems of major concern to the people and make the program a success. 

It has always been the CPC’s consistent and clear political position to 
combat corruption, promote political integrity and keep the Party healthy. 
Building a fine Party culture and a corruption-free Party is a major political issue 
of great concern to the people. “Worms can only grow in something rotten.”^ 
In recent years, long-pent-up problems in some countries have led to resentment 
among the people, unrest in society and the downfall of governments, with 
corruption being a major culprit. Facts prove that if corruption is allowed to 
spread, it will eventually lead to the destruction of a party and the fall of a 
government. We must keep up our vigilance. Serious violations of Party 
discipline and state laws that have occurred inside our Party during the past few 
years are of a vile nature and have produced shockingly harmful political 
consequences. Party committees at all levels must firmly oppose and combat 
corruption, and prevent and crack down on it more effectively to ensure that all 
officials are honest and upright, governments clean and incorruptible, and 
Communists of political integrity. Officials at all levels, especially high-ranking 
officials, must conscientiously observe the code of conduct. They should 
exercise strict self-discipline, strengthen education and restrain their own family 
and staff. It is absolutely impermissible to abuse one’s power for personal gain 
or to seek privileges. All violations of Party discipline and state laws must be 
punished without exception, and we shall not be soft in dealing with them. 

The 18th National Congress pointed out that developing Chinese socialism 
is a long-term arduous task of historic importance, and that we must be prepared 
for a great struggle with many new historic features. All Party members must 
make strenuous efforts with firm conviction and unswervingly develop socialism 
with Chinese characteristics in a pioneering spirit. We must keep improving the 
practice and theory of Chinese socialism in line with the national features in a 
timely fashion. We must bring together and lead the Chinese people of all ethnic 
groups in accomplishing goals and tasks for a moderately prosperous society in 
all respects. We must continue to work for the three historic missions of 
modernization, reunification of the motherland, and world peace and the 
common development of all nations.

These are missions of historic importance 
that have been bestowed on our generation of Communists, and to which we 
must dedicate all our wisdom and strength. 

Notes 01

[1] The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee holds regular study sessions. The sessions 
are presided over and addressed by the general secretary of the Central Committee, and attended by all 
members of the Political Bureau. Leaders of relevant departments, experts and scholars are invited to 
lecture on economics, political science, history, culture, social affairs, science and technology, military and 
international affairs. 

[2] The 18th National Congress of the CPC put forward the accomplishment of the goal of bringing 
about a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020. The main elements of the goal are healthy 
and sustainable economic development with both the GDP and per capita income for urban and rural 
residents doubling those of 2010; expanded people’s democracy; significantly improved cultural soft 
power; substantially improved people’s living standards; and major progress in building a resource- 
conserving and environmentally friendly society. 

[3] Hu Jintao, bom in 1942, was general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, president of the 
People’s Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CPC, and chairman of the 
Central Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China. He is the principal founder of the 
Scientific Outlook on Development. 

[4] Mao Zedong (1893-1976) was a Marxist, Chinese proletarian revolutionary, military strategist 
and theorist. He was one of the main founders of the CPC, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the 
People’s Republic of China, and the leader of the Chinese people. He was also the progenitor of Mao 
Zedong Thought. 

[5] Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) was a Marxist, Chinese proletarian revolutionary, statesman, 
military strategist and great diplomat. He was an outstanding leader of the CPC, the Chinese People’s 
Liberation Army and the People’s Republic of China. He was the chief architect of China’s socialist reform 
and opening up and modernization drive, and the main founder of Deng Xiaoping Theory. 

[6] Jiang Zemin, bom in 1926, was general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, president of the 
People’s Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CPC, and chairman of the 
Central Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China. He is the main founder of the important 
thought of the Three Represents. 

[7] The Four Cardinal Principles refer to the principles of adhering to the socialist path, the people’s 
democratic dictatorship, the leadership of the CPC, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought. The 
Four Cardinal Principles are the foundation of the state, and the political cornerstone for the survival and 
development of the Party and the state. 

[8] Marxism is a system of theories initiated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, including the 
scientific worldview, the interpretation of social and historical development, the theory of proletarian 
revolution, and the theory of building socialism and communism. It is the theoretical basis and guiding 
thought of the working class and its political party. Initiated in the 1840s, it was the outcome of intensified 
capitalist conflicts and growing workers’ movements.

It has three major components, namely, Marxist 
philosophy, political economics and scientific socialism.

In the late 19th century and the early 20th century, [ 1888 - 1940 ]
when capitalism entered the stage of monopoly which would be imperialism, Vladimir Lenin drew on the 
experience of the proletarian revolution and socialist construction in Russia, and creatively upgraded 
Marxism to a new stage - Leninism.

Since its founding in 1921 the CPC has solemnly marked its banner 
with Marxism-Leninism, innovatively applied the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism to the practice of 
Chinese revolution, socialist construction and reform, enriched and developed Marxism-Leninism, and 
generated the theoretical fruits of sinicized Marxism - Mao Zedong Thought and the system of theories of 
Chinese socialism that both carry on Marxism-Leninism and advance with the times. 

[9] Deng Xiaoping Theory is an important component of the system of theories of Chinese socialism, 
and the guiding thought of the CPC. For the first time, Deng Xiaoping Theory systematically answered a 
series of basic questions concerning the building of socialism in economically and culturally backward 
China, and the consolidation and development of socialism there. The principal proponent was Deng 

[10] The important thought of the Three Represents is a major component of the system of theories 
of Chinese socialism, and the guiding thought of the CPC. This theory emphasizes that the CPC must 
always represent the requirements for developing China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of 
China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese 
people. The principal proponent is Jiang Zemin. 

[1 lj The Scientific Outlook on Development is an important component of the system of theories of 
Chinese socialism, and the guiding thought of the CPC. It gives top priority to development, puts people 
first and seeks all-around, balanced and sustainable development with a holistic approach. The principal 
proponent is Hu Jintao. 

[12] See note 8, p. 19. 

[13] Mao Zedong Thought has always been the fundamental guiding thought of the CPC. It is a 
series of theoretical summarizations and conclusions that Chinese Communists represented by Mao Zedong 
drew from their unique experience in China’s revolution and development in accordance with the basic 
tenets of Marxism. It includes correct theories, principles and systems of scientific thinking on China’s 
revolution and development which have been attested by facts. It is the crystallization of the collective 
wisdom of the CPC, and the principal proponent is Mao Zedong. 

[14] The fundamental political system refers to the system of people’s congresses, which is the 
organizational form of the political power of the People’s Republic of China. According to the system, the 
people elect deputies to the National People’s Congress (NPC) and local people’s congresses that are the 
organs in which the people exercise state power. The NPC is the highest organ of state power, and has the 
right to amend the Constitution, enact laws and decide on major issues concerning the country. Local 
people’s congresses at all levels are local organs of state power, which decide on major issues in their 
localities within the power bestowed on them by the Constitution and laws. 

[15] The basic political systems include the system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political 
consultation, the system of regional ethnic autonomy and the system of community-level self-governance. 
The system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation refers to the system of 
consultation on political matters among the CPC, other political parties and personages with no party 
affiliation. The system of regional ethnic autonomy refers to the exercise of regional autonomy in areas 
inhabited by minority ethnic groups in compact communities under unified state leadership, where 
autonomy is exercised by organs of self-government. The system of community-level self-governance is a 
form of people’s participation in the management of state and social affairs. Neighborhood committees and 
village committees set up in urban and rural areas, respectively, are the self-governance organizations of the 
people in their own residential areas. 

[16] The basic economic system refers to the economic system in which public ownership is 
dominant and diverse forms of ownership develop side by side. 

[17] Deng Xiaoping: “Excerpts from Talks Given in Wuchang, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shanghai,” 
Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Volume III, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1994, p. 360. 

[18] The primary stage of socialism is a particular historical stage in the building of Chinese 
socialism. It refers to the historical stage in which China has gradually come out of under-development and 
will have by and large realized socialist modernization. It will take at least 100 years to take shape from the 
completion of the socialist transformation of the private ownership of the means of production in the 1950s 
to the completion of socialist modernization. 

[19] “One central task, two basic points” is the main content of the CPC’s basic guideline in the 
primary stage of socialism. The “one central task” refers to economic development, while the “two basic 
points” are the Four Cardinal Principles and the reform and opening-up policy. 

[20] The three-step strategic plan for modernization refers to China’s development strategy for 
realizing initial modernization in three steps. The 13th CPC National Congress in 1987 proposed doubling 
the 1980 GNP by the end of the 1980s and ensuring that the people would have adequate food and clothing 
as the first step; doubling the 1990 GNP by the end of the 20th century and ensuring the people a 
moderately prosperous life as the second step; and increasing the per capita GNP level to that of moderately 
developed countries, ensuring the people a relatively affluent life, and realizing modernization by and large 
by the middle of the 21st century as the third step. 

[21] The “four tests” refer to the tests of exercising governance, carrying out reform and opening up, 
developing the market economy and responding to external development. 

[22] The “four risks” refer to the risks of inertia, incompetence, being divorced from the people, and 
corruption and other negative phenomena. 

[23] The program to heighten awareness of and implement the Party’s mass line has been carried out 
throughout the CPC since its 18th National Congress in order to maintain the CPC’s advanced nature and 
purity. The program focuses on serving the people and building a clean government. Priorities are given to 
leading organs, leading groups and leading officials at and above the county level. It aims to enhance 
education of all Party members in the Marxist mass viewpoint and the Party’s mass line, and solve such 
problems as formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance that are of grave concern to the people. 
The campaign was launched in late 2013 and has been unfolded in two sessions from the top down. 

[24] Su Shi: On Xiang Yu and Fan Zeng. Su Shi (1036-1101), also known as Su Dongpo, was a 
famed poet, calligrapher and painter in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). 

Uphold and Develop Socialism with Chinese Characteristics 

January 5, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the seminar of the members and alternate members of the newly- 
elected Central Committee of the CPC for implementing the guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National 

Which path should we follow? This is the paramount question for the future 
of the Party and the success of its cause. Socialism with Chinese characteristics 
is the integration of the theory of scientific socialism^ and social development 
theories of Chinese history. Socialism has taken root in China. It reflects the 
wishes of the people and meets the development needs of the country and the 
times. It is a sure route to success in building a moderately prosperous society in 
all respects, in the acceleration of socialist modernization, and in the great 
renewal of the Chinese nation. 

All Party members must follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the 
important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on 
Development, be firm in their commitment to socialism with Chinese 
characteristics and to the Marxist view on development, treat practice as the sole 
criterion for testing truth, and apply their historic initiative and creativity. 

We must be clearly aware what is changing and what remains constant in 
the international, national and Party situations. Never should we hesitate to blaze 
new trails, bridge rivers, forge ahead with determination, and audaciously 
explore new territory. We should have the courage and capability to address 
pressing issues in our work and remove doubts in people’s minds, and come up 
with solutions. We should drive reform and opening up to a deeper level, make 
new discoveries, create new ideas, achieve new progress, and promote 
innovation in our theories, practices and systems. 

The guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National Congress, in essence, 
boil down to upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. 
The year 2013 is the 31st year since Deng Xiaoping put forward the concept of 

building socialism with Chinese characteristics. He provided for the first time 
clear systematic answers to several basic questions about how to build, 
consolidate and develop socialism in China, an economically and culturally 
underdeveloped country. His answers brought a new perspective to Marxism, 
opened up new realms, and raised the understanding of socialism to a new 
scientific level. 

Socialism with Chinese characteristics is socialism and nothing else. The 
basic principles of scientific socialism must not be abandoned; otherwise it is not 
socialism. What doctrine a country may choose is based on whether it can 
resolve the historical problems that confront that country. Both history and 
reality have shown us that only socialism can save China and only socialism 
with Chinese characteristics can bring development to China. This conclusion is 
the result of historical exploration, and the choice of the people. 

As socialism progresses, our institutions will undoubtedly mature, the 
strengths of our system will become self-evident, and our development path will 
assuredly become wider. We must have confidence in our path, our theory and 
our system. We must be as tenacious as bamboo, as described by Zheng Xie: “In 
the face of all blows, not bending low, it still stands fast. Whether from east, 
west, south or north the wind doth blast.”^ 

The process by which the people build socialism under the leadership of the 
Party can be divided into two historical phases - one that preceded the launch of 
reform and opening up in 1978, and a second that followed on from that event. 
The two phases - at once related to and distinct from each other - are both 
pragmatic explorations in building socialism conducted by the people under the 
leadership of the Party. Chinese socialism was initiated after the launch of 
reform and opening up and based on more than 20 years of development since 
the socialist system was established in the 1950s after the People’s Republic of 
China (PRC) was founded. Although the two historical phases are very different 
in their guiding thoughts, principles, policies, and practical work, they are by no 
means separated from or opposed to each other. We should neither negate the 
pre-reform-and-opening-up phase in comparison with the post-reform-and- 
opening-up phase, nor the converse. We should adhere to the principles of 
seeking truth from facts and distinguishing the trunk from the branches. We 
should uphold truth, rectify our errors, draw on practical experience, and learn 

lessons. This is the foundation which facilitates further advance of the cause of 
the Party and the people. 

Marxism will not remain stagnant. It will certainly keep up with the times, 
the progress of our practice and the advance of science. Socialism too always 
advances through practice. Developing Chinese socialism is a great cause. Deng 
Xiaoping clearly defined some basic thoughts and principles on the subject. The 
Central Committee headed by Jiang Zemin, and later by Hu Jintao also added 
some outstanding chapters to it. Now, the job of the Communists of our 
generation is to continue with this mission. 

We must adhere to Marxism and socialism from a developmental 
perspective. With each step forward we will encounter new situations and 
unfamiliar problems, we will face greater risks and challenges, and we will be 
confronted by the unexpected. We must be prepared for adversity and danger, 
even in times of prosperity and peace. 

We should not pretend to know what we do not know. We should try to put 
what we already know to use, and lose no time in learning what we do not know. 
We must not be muddle-headed. 

Party members, particularly Party officials, should maintain a firm belief in 
lofty communist ideals, along with the common ideal of building socialism with 
Chinese characteristics, and pursue them with dedication. 

We must be rigorous in implementing the Party’s basic lines and programs 
in the primary stage of socialism, and do all our work well. 

Our revolutionary ideals are of the greatest importance. A Party member 
devoid of ideals lacks an essential quality - as does one who engages in empty 
talk about lofty ideals without doing anything. 

There are objective criteria to measure whether Party members or Party 
officials have these high communist ideals. Can they stick to the basic principle 
of serving the people heart and soul? Can they be the first to bear hardship and 
the last to enjoy comfort? Can they work hard and remain honest and dedicated? 
And can they make every possible effort and even lay their lives on the line for 
the sake of their ideals? 

Flawed thinking, hedonistic desires, corrupt behavior and passive attitudes 
- all are at odds with the communist ideals. 

Notes 02

[1] Scientific socialism, also known as scientific communism, refers to the entire thought system of 
Marxism in a broad sense and to one of the three major components of Marxism in a narrow sense. The 
latter meaning is commonly used. Founded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the 1840s, scientific 
socialism is a science that examines the nature, conditions and general purpose of the proletariat liberation 
movement. It mainly proposes eliminating private ownership and embracing public ownership, vigorously 
enhancing productivity, generating abundant social material wealth, implementing planned economy, and 
getting rid of commercial production and exchanges involving money. It endorses the principle of “to each 
according to his contribution,” and predicts that classes and class distinctions will disappear, the nation state 
will gradually vanish, and a community of free individuals will come into being. 

[2] Zheng Xie: Bamboos amid Rocks. Zheng Xie (1693-1765), also known as Zheng Banqiao, was a 
calligrapher and writer in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). 

Carry on the Enduring Spirit of Mao Zedong Thought 

December 26, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the symposium to commemorate the 120th anniversary of Mao Zedong’s birth. 

The enduring spirit of Mao Zedong Thought refers to the stand, viewpoint 
and method crystalized in the Thought, which features three basic tenets - 
seeking truth from facts, the mass line and independence. In the new conditions, 
we should uphold and apply the enduring spirit of Mao Zedong Thought in 
building our Party and advancing the great cause of socialism with Chinese 

As a fundamental tenet of Marxism, seeking truth from facts is a basic 
requirement for Chinese Communists to understand and transform the world. It 
is also our Party’s basic thinking, working and leading approach. We have 
upheld and should continue to uphold the principle of proceeding from reality in 
everything we do, integrating theory with practice, and testing and developing 
truth in practice. 

Mao Zedong once said, “‘Facts’ are all the things that exist objectively, 
‘truth’ means their internal relations, that is, the laws governing them, and ‘to 
seek’ means to study.”^ He also used the metaphor “shooting the arrow at the 
target,” that is, we should shoot the “arrow” of Marxism at the “target” of 
China’s revolution, modernization drive and reform. 

To seek truth from facts, we must acquire a deep understanding of a matter 
as it is, see through the surface into the heart of the matter, and discover the 
intricate link between matters amidst fragmented phenomena. 

We should follow objective laws on the basis that we recognize the 
existence of a matter and its development laws. Upholding the principle of 
seeking truth from facts is not done once and for all. You may succeed by 
following the principle at a certain place and at a certain time, but that does not 
mean that you may succeed again by following the principle at another place and 

at another time. The conclusion or experience drawn at a certain place and at a 
certain time does not necessarily apply at another place and at another time. We 
should conscientiously strengthen our conviction in seeking truth from facts and 
enhance our ability to apply it. We should always bear it in mind and implement 
it in our work. 

As we stand now, seeking truth from facts means that we should clearly 
understand our basic national condition, that is, our country is still in the primary 
stage of socialism, and will remain so for a long time to come. When advancing 
reform and development, and formulating guidelines and policies, we should do 
everything in line with this basic national condition. Any tendency to pursue 
quick success regardless of objective conditions and timing should be avoided, 
and any outdated or complacent ideas and actions which do not conform to 
reality, or which neglect fundamental changes of reality, should be corrected 
without exception. 

While seeking truth from facts, we should always uphold the truth and 
correct mistakes for the sake of the people’s interest. We should be frank, 
selfless and fearless, courageously speak out truth based on facts, discover and 
correct ideological deviations and mistakes in decision-making and work as soon 
as they arise, and discover and solve all kinds of conflicts and problems when 
they come up so as to make our thoughts and acts conform to objective laws, the 
requirement of the times and the wishes of the people. 

In seeking truth from facts, we should promote theoretical innovation based 
on practice. The basic tenets of Marxism are universal truth with eternal 
ideological value. Nevertheless, the classical Marxist authors did not exhaust 
truth but blazed a trail to seek and develop truth. Today, new problems will arise 
while we adhere to and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, drive 
reform to a deeper level, and deal effectively with foreseeable and unpredictable 
difficulties and risks on our way ahead. All these things are crying out for new 
and appropriate theoretical solutions. We should review the fresh experience 
gained by the people under the leadership of the Party, constantly adapt Marxism 
to Chinese conditions and make contemporary Marxism shine brighter in China. 

The mass line is the Party’s lifeline and fundamental work principle. It is a 
cherished tradition that enables our Party to maintain its vitality and combat 
capability. We have always been and will always be obligated to do everything 

in the interests of the people and rely on their strength, and carry out the 
principle of “from the people, to the people,” translating the Party’s policies into 
the people’s conscientious action and implementing the mass line in all 
government activities. 

The mass line in essence encapsulates the basic tenet of Marxism that the 
people are the creators of history. We must adhere to this principle in order to 
grasp the basic laws governing the advance of history. We must observe these 
laws so that we can be invincible. History has time and again proved that the 
people are the major force behind historical development and social progress. As 
Mao Zedong said, “Once China’s destiny is in the hands of the people, China, 
like the sun rising in the east, will illuminate every corner of the land with a 
brilliant flame. 

Adhering to the mass line is recognizing that the people are the fundamental 
force in deciding our future and destiny. The strong foundation keeping the Party 
invincible lies in our adhering to the people’s principal position in the country, 
and bringing their initiative into full play. Before the people, we are always 
students. Therefore we must seek advice from them. We must fully respect their 
wishes, experience, rights and role. We should cherish the power conferred on us 
by the people and exercise it discreetly, and welcome their supervision. We 
should rely closely on them to create historic achievements, so as to make the 
foundation of our Party rock-solid. 

Adhering to the mass line means following the fundamental tenet of serving 
the people wholeheartedly. 

“Decrees may be followed if they are in accordance with the aspirations of 
the people; they may be ineffective if they are against the aspirations of the 
people.”^ Serving the people wholeheartedly is the fundamental purpose and 
outcome of all the work of the Party, and a symbol that distinguishes our Party 
from all other parties. The supreme criterion for all Party actions is that it serves 
the interests of the great majority of the people. The effectiveness of all our work 
should ultimately be measured by the real benefits the people have reaped, by 
the improvement in their lives and by how well their rights and interests are 
protected. Their expectation for a better life does not allow us to be complacent 
or slack, but requires us to work harder to enable everyone to share more fruits 
of development in a fairer way and move steadily towards common prosperity. 

Adhering to the mass line means maintaining close ties between the Party 
and the people. The supreme political advantage of our Party is its close ties with 
the people, and the biggest danger for a ruling party is for it to become divorced 
from the people. Mao Zedong said, “We Communists are like seeds, and the 
people are like the soil. Wherever we go, we must unite with the people, take 
root and blossom among them.”^ All Party members should bear in mind the 
concept of people first and the mass line, and put them into practice. We should 
do our utmost to solve problems within the Party and especially those the people 
are particularly dissatisfied with, so that our Party can always have their trust 
and support. 

Adhering to the mass line means asking the people to judge our work. “It is 
the people who know whether a decree is good or not.”^ The future and destiny 
of any political party is determined by the popular support for it. Popular support 
is what we draw our strength from. The number of Party members is small 
compared to that of the people. The grand goal of our Party can never be realized 
without popular support. It is not up to us to judge our Party’s governance 
capacity or performance; they must and can only be judged by the people, the 
supreme and ultimate judge of the Party’s work. If we are pretentious and 
divorce ourselves from the people or put ourselves above them, we will surely be 
abandoned by them. This is the case for any party, and is an iron law which 
admits of no exception. 

Independence is an inevitable conclusion drawn by our Party from China’s 
reality, after going through the stages of revolution, development and reform by 
relying on the strength of the Party and the people. We should always rely on 
ourselves when seeking our national development and defending our national 
pride and confidence, and resolutely follow our own road now and in the future 
as we did in the past. 

Independence is a fine tradition of the Chinese nation and an essential 
principle for building the Party and the PRC. The reality and the mission to carry 
out revolution and development in China, an Eastern country with a large 
population and backward economy, have determined that we have no other 
choice but to follow our own path. 

Boasting a vast land of 9.6 million sq km, a rich cultural heritage and a 

strong bond among the 1.3 billion Chinese people, we are resolved to go our 
own way. We have a big stage to display our advantages on, a long and rich 
history to draw benefit from, and a powerful impetus to push us ahead. We 
Chinese people - every single one of us - should draw confidence from this. 

Adhering to independence means that Chinese affairs must be dealt with 
and decided by the Chinese people themselves. There is no such thing in the 
world as a development model that can be applied universally, nor is there any 
development path that remains carved in stone. The diversity of historical 
conditions determines the diversity of the development paths chosen by various 
countries. In the whole history of mankind, no nation or state has ever been able 
to rise to power and rejuvenate itself by relying solely on external forces or 
blindly following others; doing so inevitably leads to failure or subservience. 

Our Party has always independently explored its own development path 
while leading revolution, development and reform. This spirit of independent 
exploration and practice, and the confidence and determination to stick to its 
own road is the bedrock of all the theories and practice of our Party, and the 
guarantee that our Party and people will go from victory to victory. 

Adhering to independence means that we will firmly take the socialist path 
with Chinese characteristics. We will not take the old path of a rigid closed-door 
policy, nor an erroneous path by abandoning socialism. We should enhance our 
political faith and our confidence in the path, theories and systems of Chinese 
socialism. We should expand this path, enrich these theories and improve these 
systems through comprehensive reform and in response to changing conditions 
and tasks. We should modestly draw on the achievements of all other cultures, 
but never forget our own origin. We must not blindly copy the development 
models of other countries nor accept their dictation. 

Adhering to independence requires us to uphold our independent foreign 
policy of peace, and follow the path of peaceful development. We should hold 
high the banner of peace, development, cooperation and benefit for all, maintain 
friendly relations with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of 
Peaceful Coexistence^, conduct exchanges and cooperation with other countries 
on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, staunchly safeguard world peace, 
and promote common development. We should take our positions and make our 
policies on issues on their own merits, uphold fairness and justice, respect the 

right of each people in deciding its own development path independently, and 
never force our will upon others nor allow anyone to impose theirs upon us. We 
stand for peaceful resolutions to international disputes, oppose all forms of 
hegemony and power politics, and never seek hegemonism nor engage in 
expansion. We will resolutely defend our sovereignty, security and development 
interests. No country should assume that we will trade away our core interests, 
nor will we accept anything that harms our sovereignty, security or development 

Notes 03

[1] Mao Zedong: “Reform Our Study,” Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. Ill, Eng. ed.. Foreign 
Languages Press, Beijing, 1965, p. 22. 

[2] Mao Zedong: “Address to the Preparatory Meeting of the New Political Consultative 
Conference,” Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. IV, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1961, p. 

[3] (Juan Zi, compiled by Liu Xiang, is a collection of writings by scholars of the Warring States 
Period (475-221 BC) in the name of Guan Zhong. Liu Xiang (c. 77-6 BC) was a Confucian scholar, 
bibliographer, and man of letters of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25). Guan Zhong (?-645 BC), 
also known as Guan Zi, was a statesman of the State of Qi in the early Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 

[4] Mao Zedong: “On the Chongqing Negotiations,” Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. IV, Eng. 
ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1961, p. 58. 

[5] Wang Chong: Discourses Weighed in the Balance (Lun Heng), which drew extensively on 
Confucianism, Taoism and Mohism, and the achievements in the natural sciences in the Han Dynasty (206 
BC-AD 220), and criticized the theology and divination popular in his time. Wang Chong (27-c. 97) was a 
philosopher, thinker and literary critic in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). 

[6] The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence are the principles of mutual respect for each other’s 
territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other’s internal 
affairs, equality and cooperation for mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. From December 1953 to 
April 1954 delegates of the Chinese government and the Indian government held negotiations on China- 
India relations concerning the Tibet region of China. On December 31, 1953, the first day of the 
negotiations, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai met the delegation from India, and first put forward the Five 
Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Later, the five principles were officially written into the preamble to the 
Agreement on Trade and Intercourse Between the Tibet Region of China and India. During his visit to India 
and Burma (Myanmar) in June 1954, Zhou issued joint declarations with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal 
Nehru and Burmese Prime Minister U Nu successively, advocating the establishment of the Five Principles 
of Peaceful Coexistence as the basic norm governing relations between states. 

The Chinese Dream 

Achieving Rejuvenation Is the Dream of the Chinese People 

November 29, 2012 

* Speech made when visiting the exhibition “The Road to Rejuvenation.” 

The exhibition “The Road to Rejuvenation” is about the past, present and 
future of the Chinese nation, and it is a highly educational and inspiring one. In 
the old days, the Chinese people went through hardships as grueling as 
“storming an iron-wall pass.”^ Its sufferings and sacrifices in modern times 
were rarely seen in the history of the world. However, we Chinese never yielded. 
We waged indomitable struggles and succeeded in becoming masters of our own 
destiny. Imbued with the national spirit of patriotism, we have launched the great 
cause of building the country. Today, the Chinese nation is undergoing profound 
changes, like “seas becoming mulberry fields.”^ Having reviewed our historical 
experience and made painstaking efforts to probe our way forward in the past 30 
years and more since the reform and opening-up process was started, we have 
finally embarked on the right path to achieve the rejuvenation of the Chinese 
nation and made impressive achievements in this pursuit. This path is one for 
building socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the future, the Chinese nation 
will “forge ahead like a gigantic ship breaking through strong winds and heavy 
waves.Our struggles in the over 170 years since the Opium War^ have 
created bright prospects for achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. We 
are now closer to this goal, and we are more confident and capable of achieving 
it than at any other time in history. 

Reviewing the past, all Party members must bear in mind that 
backwardness left us vulnerable to attack, whereas only development makes us 

Looking at the present, all Party members must bear in mind that the path 
we take determines our destiny and that we must resolutely keep to the right path 
that we have found through great difficulties. 

Looking ahead at the future, all Party members must bear in mind that we 
still have a long way to go and much hard work to do before we can turn our 
blueprint into reality. 

Everyone has an ideal, ambition and dream. We are now all talking about 
the Chinese Dream. In my opinion, achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese 
nation has been the greatest dream of the Chinese people since the advent of 
modern times. This dream embodies the long-cherished hope of several 
generations of the Chinese people, gives expression to the overall interests of the 
Chinese nation and the Chinese people, and represents the shared aspiration of 
all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation. 

History shows that the future and destiny of each and every one of us are 
closely linked to those of our country and nation. One can do well only when 
one’s country and nation do well. Achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese 
nation is both a glorious and arduous mission that requires the dedicated efforts 
of the Chinese people one generation after another. Empty talk harms the 
country, while hard work makes it flourish. Our generation of Communists 
should draw on past progress and chart a new course for the future. We should 
strengthen Party building, rally all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation 
around us in a common effort to build our country and develop our nation, and 
continue to boldly advance towards the goal of the rejuvenation of the Chinese 

I firmly believe that the goal of bringing about a moderately prosperous 
society in all respects can be achieved by 2021, when the CPC celebrates its 
centenary; the goal of building China into a modern socialist country that is 
prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious can be 
achieved by 2049, when the PRC marks its centenary; and the dream of the 
rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will then be realized. 

Notes 04

[1] Mao Zedong: “Loushan Pass,” Mao Zedong Poems, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 
1998, p. 31. 

[2] Mao Zedong: “The People’s Liberation Army Captured Nanjing,” ibid., p. 49. 

[3j Li Bai: The Hard Road: Three Poems. Li Bai (701-762) was a Tang Dynasty poet. 

[4] The Opium War was a war of British aggression against China from 1840 to 1842. In 1840, in 
response to China’s opposition to the import of opium from British traders, the British government sent 
troops to invade China on the excuse of protecting trade. The Chinese troops fought back under the 
leadership of Lin Zexu (1785-1850), governor of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. People in Guangzhou 
organized armed groups to fight the invaders. Anti-British struggles were also seen in Fujian and Zhejiang 
provinces. In 1842 British troops invaded the Yangtze River area and forced the Qing government to sign 
the Treaty of Nanking, the first unequal treaty in the history of modem China. 

Address to the First Session of the 12th National People’s 


March 17, 2013 

Fellow deputies, 

This session has elected me president of the People’s Republic of China, 
and I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to you and the people of all ethnic 
groups for your trust in me. 

I am keenly aware that the presidency entails both a glorious mission and 
important responsibilities. I will faithfully perform the duties vested in me by the 
Constitution, be loyal to the country and the people, fulfill all my duties, 
dedicate myself to public service, advance the interests of the people and the 
country, subject myself to public oversight, and live up to the trust you and the 
people of all ethnic groups in China have placed in me. 

Fellow deputies, 

The People’s Republic of China has a splendid history. Led by the first 
generation of the Party’s collective central leadership with Mao Zedong at the 
core, the second generation of collective central leadership with Deng Xiaoping 
at the core, the third generation of collective central leadership with Jiang Zemin 
at the core, and the CPC Central Committee with Hu Jintao as general secretary, 
the Chinese people of all ethnic groups have, making unremitting efforts one 
generation after another, surmounted all difficulties and obstacles on our way 
ahead, and made world-renowned achievements. 

Today, our People’s Republic stands proud and firm in the East. 

With his rich political vision, outstanding leadership and dedication, 
Comrade Hu Jintao made remarkable achievements in upholding and building 
socialism with Chinese characteristics during his ten years in office as Chinese 
president, and he won the heartfelt love of the Chinese people of all ethnic 

groups and wide acclaim from all over the world. We express our sincere 
gratitude and great respect to him. 

Fellow deputies, 

The Chinese nation has an unbroken history of more than 5,000 years of 
civilization. It has created a rich and profound culture and has made an 
unforgettable contribution to the progress of human civilization. Over the course 
of several thousand years, what have closely bound us together, the 56 ethnic 
groups of China’s 1.3-billion-plus people, are our indomitable struggles, the 
beautiful homeland we have built together and the national spirit we have 
nurtured together. Running through this history, most importantly, are the ideals 
and vision that we share and hold dear. 

Realizing the goals of building a moderately properous society in all 
respects and a modern socialist country that is properous, strong, democratic, 
culturally advanced and harmonious, and the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation 
of the Chinese nation means that we will make China prosperous and strong, 
rejuvenate the nation, and bring happiness to the Chinese people. They both 
embody the ideals of the Chinese people today and represent our forefathers’ 
glorious tradition of untiring pursuit of progress. 

Facing the mighty tide of the times and the great expectations of the people 
for a better life, we must not become complacent or slacken off in the slightest. 
We must redouble our efforts and forge ahead relentlessly to advance the cause 
of building Chinese socialism and endeavor to realize the Chinese Dream of the 
rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 

- To realize the Chinese Dream, we must take our own path, which is the 
path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is not an easy path. 
We are able to embark on this path thanks to the great endeavors of reform and 
opening up made in the past 30 years and more, the continuous quest made in the 
60-plus years of the PRC, a thorough review of the evolution of the Chinese 
nation in its 170-plus years of modern history, and carrying forward the 5,000- 
plus years of Chinese civilization. This path is deeply rooted in history and 
broadly based on China’s present realities. The Chinese nation has extraordinary 
capabilities, with which it has built the great Chinese civilization and with which 
we can expand and stay on the development path suited to China’s national 

conditions. The people of all ethnic groups in China should have full confidence 
in the theory, path and system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and 
steadfastly forge ahead along the correct Chinese path. 

- To realize the Chinese Dream, we must foster the Chinese spirit. It is the 
national spirit with patriotism at its core, and it is the spirit of the times with 
reform and innovation at its core. This spirit unites the people and pools their 
strength, and it is the source for rejuvenating and strengthening the country. 
Patriotism has always been the inner force that binds the Chinese nation 
together, and reform and innovation have always been the inner force that spurs 
us to keep abreast of the times in the course of reform and opening up. Our 
people of all ethnic groups must foster the great national spirit and follow the 
call of the times, strengthen our inner bond of unity and perseverance, and 
vigorously march towards the future. 

- To realize the Chinese Dream, we must pool China’s strength, that is, the 
strength of great unity among the people of all ethnic groups. The Chinese 
Dream is the dream of our nation and every Chinese. As long as we close ranks 
and pursue this common dream with great determination, we can create 
enormous strength to achieve it and enjoy vast space for each and every one of 
us to fulfill our own dreams. All the Chinese who live in our great country in this 
great age share the opportunity to pursue excellence, realize our dreams, and 
develop ourselves along with our country. With a dream, opportunities and 
efforts, all beautiful things can be created. We the people of all ethnic groups in 
China should bear our mission in mind and make concerted efforts to turn the 
wisdom and strength of our 1.3 billion people into an invincible force. 

The Chinese Dream is, in the final analysis, the dream of the people; so we 
must rely firmly on them to realize it, and we must steadily deliver benefits to 

We must uphold at the same time the leadership of the Party, the position of 
the people as masters of their own destiny, and the rule of law, maintain the 
principal position of the people, expand people’s democracy, and promote law- 
based governance. We should uphold and improve the system of people’s 
congresses as China’s fundamental political system and the basic political 
systems of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the 
leadership of the CPC, of regional ethnic autonomy, and of community-level 

self-governance. We should build a service-oriented, accountable, law-based and 
clean government, and fully motivate the people. 

We should be guided by the strategic thinking that only development will 
make a difference, and steadfastly take economic development as the central 
task. We should comprehensively promote socialist economic, political, social 
and ecological advancement, further reform and opening up, boost the scientific 
way of development, and continue to lay a solid material and cultural foundation 
for realizing the Chinese Dream. 

We should always bear the people’s aspirations in mind and be responsive 
to their expectations, ensure their equal rights to participate in governance and 
develop themselves, and uphold social fairness and justice. We should make 
steady progress in ensuring that all the people enjoy the rights to education, 
employment, medical and old-age care, and housing; and we should continue to 
fulfill, uphold and develop the fundamental interests of all the people. All these 
efforts will enable our people to share fully and fairly the benefits of 
development and move steadily towards shared prosperity on the basis of 
continued economic and social development. 

We should consolidate and develop the broadest possible patriotic united 
front, strengthen our Party’s unity and cooperation with other political parties 
and personages without party affiliation, consolidate and develop socialist ethnic 
relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony, give full play to the 
positive role that religious figures and believers play in promoting economic and 
social development, and do our utmost to rally all the possible forces around us. 

Fellow deputies, 

“One must both have great ambition and make tireless efforts to achieve 
great exploits.”^ China is still in the primary stage of socialism and will remain 
so for a long time to come. There is still much to do and a long way to go before 
we can realize the Chinese Dream and create a better life for all our people, so 
every one of us should continue working towards this goal as hard as possible. 

Workers, farmers and intellectuals throughout the country should give full 
rein to their talents, work diligently, and play a key role in promoting economic 
and social development. All functionaries should selflessly act in the public 

interest, be honest and industrious, show concern for problems encountered by 
the people, and deliver practical services to them. All officers and men of the 
People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Armed Police Force should strive to 
build powerful armed forces that follow the command of the Party, are able to 
win battles and have fine conduct. They should become better able to perform 
their mission, steadfastly uphold China’s sovereignty, security and development 
interests, and resolutely protect the lives and property of the people. All the 
people working in the non-public sector of the economy and from new social 
groups should promote creativity and entrepreneurship through hard work, give 
back to society what they have gained from it, bring benefits to the people, and 
become actively involved in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. 
Young people should aim high, acquire more knowledge, temper their will, and 
make their formative years richly rewarding ones in an era of progress. 

Our compatriots in the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and 
Macao should put the overall interests of the country and their regions first, and 
uphold and promote long-term prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and 
Macao. Our compatriots in Taiwan and on the mainland should join hands in 
supporting, maintaining and promoting the peaceful growth of cross-Straits 
relations, improving the people’s lives on both sides of the Taiwan Straits, and 
creating a new future for the Chinese nation. Overseas Chinese should carry 
forward the Chinese nation’s fine traditions of diligence and kindness, and 
contribute to the development of the country and friendship between the Chinese 
people and the people in their host countries. 

We Chinese are peace-loving people. We will uphold the principle of 
peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, stay firm in pursuing 
peaceful development, resolutely follow a mutually beneficial strategy of 
opening up, and continue to promote friendship and cooperation with other 
countries. We will fulfill our international responsibilities and obligations, and 
continue to work with the peoples of all other countries to advance the lofty 
cause of peace and development of mankind. 

Fellow deputies, 

The CPC is the central force for leading and bringing together people of all 
ethnic groups in advancing the great cause of building Chinese socialism. It 
shoulders a historical mission and faces the tests of our times. We must uphold 

the principles that the Party was founded for the public good, that it exercises 
state power for the people, and that it should supervise its own conduct and 
operate under strict discipline. We must strengthen Party building in all respects, 
steadily improve the Party’s art of leadership and governance, and make it better 
able to fight corruption, prevent degeneration and ward off risks. All our Party 
members, leading officials in particular, should be firm in our belief, always 
place the people above all else in our hearts and carry forward the Party’s fine 
traditions and conduct. We should firmly oppose formalism, bureaucratism, 
hedonism and extravagance, resolutely combat corruption and other misconduct, 
preserve Communists’ political integrity, and dedicate ourselves to the cause of 
the Party and the people. 

Fellow deputies, 

Achieving great goals requires perseverance. All political parties, 
organizations, ethnic groups, social groups and people from all walks of life in 
China should rally more closely around the CPC Central Committee, 
comprehensively implement the guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National 
Congress, follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought 
of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. We should 
remain modest and prudent, work hard, and forge ahead with determination to 
achieve new and bigger victories in realizing a moderately prosperous society in 
all respects and accelerating socialist modernization, and thus make new and 
bigger contribution to mankind. 

Notes 05

[1] The Book of History (Shang Shu), a collection of documents and speeches by rulers of the Shang 
(c. 1600-1046 BC) and Zhou (1046-256 BC) dynasties. 

Hard Work Makes Dreams Come True 

April 28, 2013 

* Part of the speech at a discussion session with national model workers. 

We have set the goals of completing the building of a moderately 
prosperous society in all respects by the centenary of the CPC in 2021 and 
building China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, 
democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious by the centenary of the PRC in 
2049 so as to realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese 

Although the way ahead is rugged and the tasks of achieving reform, 
development and stability are arduous, we are confident in our future. The 
working class of our country must play an exemplary and leading role in taking 
the Chinese path, fostering the Chinese spirit and building up China’s strength, 
and make concerted efforts to realize the Chinese Dream. 

People make history, and work creates the future. Work is the fundamental 
force driving the progress of human society. Happiness does not fall from the 
sky, nor do dreams come true automatically. To achieve our goals and create a 
bright future we must rely closely on the people, always act in their interests, and 
work in an industrious, honest and creative way. We often say, “Empty talk 
harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish.” This means we must first 
get down to work. 

As we forge ahead, we must give full rein to the vital role of the working 
class and its historical initiative, and arouse its motivation for work and creation. 

First, we must make sure that the working class is our main force. The 
working class is China’s leading class; it represents China’s advanced productive 
forces and relations of production; it is our Party’s most steadfast and reliable 
class foundation; and it is the main force for realizing a moderately prosperous 
society in all respects, and upholding and building socialism with Chinese 


Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy more than 30 
years ago, our working class has been growing and improving, and its structure 
becoming better. It has taken on a new look, and its advanced nature has been 
strengthened. To uphold and build Chinese socialism in the future, we must rely 
wholeheartedly on the working class, enhance its position as China’s leading 
class, and give full play to its role as our main force. Relying fully on the 
working class is not just a slogan or label; rather, we should rely on it in the 
whole process of formulating Party and government policies, and implement it in 
our work, as well as in all aspects of production and operation of enterprises. 

Second, we must rely firmly on the working class to build socialism with 
Chinese characteristics. Chinese socialism is what we must pursue if we are to 
achieve development and make progress in contemporary China, realize the 
Chinese Dream and create a bright future for China’s working class. Chinese 
workers should enhance their sense of historical mission and responsibility, do 
their jobs well, and keep the country’s overall interests in mind. They should 
pursue their ideals of life and work for the well-being of their families while 
working to make the country prosperous and strong, and rejuvenate the nation. 
They should pursue both their personal aspirations and the Chinese Dream, and, 
as the masters of the country, contribute to upholding and building socialism 
with Chinese characteristics. 

The working class should have a firm belief in the vision of socialism with 
Chinese characteristics, closely follow the Party, resolutely support the socialist 
system, reform and opening up, and be the mainstay of upholding the Chinese 
path. The working class should practice the core socialist values^, give full play 
to its own great strengths, influence and lead the whole of society with its vision 
and exemplary actions, infuse new energy into the Chinese spirit and be a model 
of fostering the Chinese spirit. The Chinese working class should take it as its 
mission to rejuvenate the nation, unleash its great creativity, carry forward its 
glorious tradition of acting in the overall interests of the country, maintain 
political stability and unity, and remain the core force for building up China’s 

Third, we must continue to respect work and make all those who work 
enjoy happiness. Work is the source of wealth and happiness. To realize 

beautiful dreams, solve difficulties hampering development, and be successful in 
life, one must do honest work. Work has shaped the Chinese nation and its 
glorious history, and it is work that will shape its bright future. “There is nothing 
that cannot be accomplished through hard work.” We must be firm in the belief 
that work is what is most honorable, most sublime, most magnificent and most 
beautiful; and we should spur the enthusiasm for work of all the people and 
release their creative potential to create a better life through work. 

The whole of society should follow the important policy of respecting 
work, knowledge, talent and creation, uphold and develop the interests of people 
who work, and protect their rights. We should uphold social fairness and justice, 
remove obstacles that prevent workers from participating in development and 
sharing in the benefits of development, and ensure that workers have decent 
working conditions and achieve all-round development. The whole of society 
should love work, be diligent and guard against indolence. 

Fourth, we must emulate model workers. The power of a good example is 
enormous. Model workers are the cream of the country and role models for the 
people. Over the years, model workers have made extraordinary achievements 
out of ordinary work. They have nurtured the ethos of the model workers, 
namely, dedication to work, striving for excellence, working hard, being bold in 
innovating, not being lured by fame and wealth, and being ready to make 
sacrifices. This has enriched the ethos of our nation and the times, and become 
an invaluable source of inspiration. 

To meet our development goals, we must enrich ourselves not only 
materially but culturally and ethically as well. The people of all ethnic groups in 
the country should learn from model workers, follow their examples and, with a 
sense of urgency, strive to realize the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Model 
workers and other role models should cherish the honor conferred upon them 
and deliver an even better performance. They should be dedicated to work and 
make selfless contributions, and become pacesetters, having firm vision and 
conviction, working hard and promoting unity. Workers in China today should 
have not only strength, but also vision, expertise, and the capability to invent and 
innovate, so that they can create with action a splendid China. Party committees, 
governments and trade unions at all levels should value the role of model 
workers, care for them, support them in playing their key role, help them solve 
all the difficulties they encounter in work and life, and widely publicize their 

exemplary deeds, so as to promote the ethos of model workers. 

Both the Party and workers place high hopes on the trade unions. The 
Chinese trade unions are workers’ organizations under the leadership of the 
CPC, and they serve as bridges through which the Party maintains contact with 
workers. They are an important social pillar supporting the government in our 
socialist country. The path for developing trade unions with Chinese 
characteristics is an important part of socialism with Chinese characteristics; it 
represents the nature and features of trade unions, and is an important guarantee 
for the trade unions to stay on the right track of development. We should keep to 
this path and steadily widen it. 

Times keep changing, and innovation is a regular feature of our mission. 
Likewise, the trade unions should keep developing themselves and make 
innovations in their work. We should, adapting to the times and social changes, 
develop good and effective working methods to make workers feel that the trade 
unions are their “homes” and trade union officials are their “family members” 
whom they can turn to for help. We should make providing dedicated services to 
people as the starting point and goal of all the work of the trade unions, work for 
them heart and soul, heed their views, uphold the legitimate rights and interests 
of workers, including rural migrant workers, provide them with voluntary 
services, help solve problems they face in a down-to-earth manner, and promote 
harmonious socialist work relations. We need to pay close attention to the 
diversified demands of people who work, unleash the potential for their career 
development, and strive to train large numbers of high-caliber people who are 
knowledgeable, have a good command of technical expertise, and are 
innovative. Party committees and governments at all levels should strengthen 
and improve their leadership over the trade unions, support them in their work, 
and provide more resources and means to them so that they are better able to 
perform their functions. 

A journey of one thousand miles begins with a single step. There is a bright 
future for our country, but reaching it will not be easy. We cannot accomplish 
our goal with one single effort, nor can we realize our dream overnight. Every 
accomplishment in the world is hard-won. The more beautiful the future, the 
harder we must work for it. 

Hard work will overcome difficulties and make one’s dream come true. We 

should endeavor to foster throughout society the work ethic of being down-to- 
earth and diligent. Leading officials at all levels should foster the ethos of model 
workers. They should pursue realistic policies, boost morale and handle things in 
a pragmatic way. They should not be pretentious or just pursue image-building 
accomplishments, and they should firmly oppose formalism, bureaucratism, 
hedonism and extravagance, which both government officials and the public 
detest. They should lead the people by example and deliver a good performance 
in all their work. 

1 firmly believe that under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee 
and with the concerted efforts of the Chinese working class and all other workers 
and the people of all ethnic groups in China, we can certainly create an even 
brighter future and realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese 

Notes 06

[1] The core socialist values are prosperity, democracy, civility, harmony, freedom, equality, justice, 
the rule of law, patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship. They were first mentioned in the political 
report delivered in November 2012 to the 18th CPC National Congress, titled, “Firmly March on the Path of 
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Strive to Complete the Building of a Moderately Prosperous 
Society in All Respects.” 

Realize Youthful Dreams 

May 4, 2013 

* Part of the speech to outstanding young representatives from all walks of life. 

The 18th CPC National Congress put forward a master blueprint for 
completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and 
accelerating socialist modernization, and it issued a call for achieving the Two 
Centenary Goals^. We made clear our desire to realize the Chinese Dream of 
the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in accordance with the guiding principles 
of the Congress. At present, all are discussing the Chinese Dream and thinking 
about how it relates to them and what they need to do to realize it. 

- The Chinese Dream pertains to the past and the present, but also the 
future. It is the crystallization of the tireless efforts of countless people with lofty 
ideals, embraces the yearnings of all the sons and daughters of the Chinese 
nation, and reveals the prospect of a bright future, when our country will be 
prosperous and strong, the nation will be rejuvenated, and the people will enjoy 
a happy life. 

- The Chinese Dream is the dream of the country and the nation, but also of 
every ordinary Chinese. One can do well only when one’s country and nation do 
well. Only if everyone strives for a better tomorrow can our efforts be 
aggregated into a powerful force to realize the Chinese Dream. 

- The Chinese Dream is ours, but also yours, the younger generation. The 
great renewal of the Chinese nation will eventually become a reality in the 
course of the successive efforts of the youth. 

During all periods of revolution, construction and reform, the Party has 
always valued, cared about and trusted young people, and placed great 
expectations on the younger generations. The Party believes that young people 
represent the future of our country and the hope of our nation, regards them as a 
vital contingent for the cause of the Party and the people, and always encourages 

them to realize their ideals in the great struggle of the people. 

Today, we are closer than at any time in history to attaining the goal of the 
rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and we have greater confidence in and 
capability for achieving this goal than ever before. “The last one tenth of the 
journey demands half the effort.”^ The closer we are to achieving the goal of 
the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the more we should redouble our efforts 
and not slacken our pace, and the more we must mobilize all young people to 
this end. 

Looking ahead, we can see that our younger generation has a promising 
future, and will accomplish much. It is a law of history that “the waves of the 
Yangtze River from behind drive on those ahead,” and it is the responsibility of 
young people to surpass their elders. Young people need to boldly assume the 
heavy responsibilities that the times impose on you, aim high, be practical and 
realistic, and put your youthful dreams into action in the course of realizing the 
Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 

First, young people must be firm in your ideals and convictions. “One must 
both have great ambition and make tireless efforts to achieve great exploits.”^ 
Ideals provide direction in life, and convictions determine the success of a cause. 
Without ideals and convictions one’s spirit becomes weak. The Chinese Dream 
is the common ideal of the people of all ethnic groups, and a lofty ideal that 
young people should harbor. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the 
correct path for leading the people in realizing the Chinese Dream that the Party 
articulated after untold hardships, and all young people should firmly adopt it as 
a guideline for your lives. 

Young people should guide your actions with Deng Xiaoping Theory, the 
important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on 
Development; base your ideals and convictions on the rational recognition and 
acceptance of scientific theories, on a correct understanding of the laws of 
history, and on an accurate understanding of the basic national conditions; keep 
enhancing your confidence in the Chinese path, theories and system; have more 
faith in the Party’s leadership; and always follow the Party in upholding Chinese 

Second, young people must have professional competence. Learning is 

necessary for growth and progress, while practice is the way to improve 
competence. The qualities and competence of young people will have a direct 
influence on the course of realizing the Chinese Dream. There is an ancient 
Chinese saying, “Learning is the bow, while competence is the arrow.”^ This 
means that the foundation of learning is like a bow, while competence is like an 
arrow; only with rich knowledge can one give full play to one’s competence. 
Young people are in the prime time of learning. You should regard learning as a 
top priority, a responsibility, a moral support and a lifestyle. You should 
establish a conviction that dreams start from learning and career success depends 
on competence. You should make assiduous learning a driving force and 
competence building a resource for your youthful endeavors. 

Young people must orient yourselves to modernization, the world and the 
future, have a sense of urgency in updating your knowledge, study with great 
eagerness, lay a good foundation of basic knowledge while updating it promptly, 
assiduously study theories while enthusiastically developing skills, and 
constantly enhance your competence and capabilities to meet the development 
needs of our times and the requirements of our undertaking. Young people must 
apply what you have learned, stay close to the grassroots and the populace, and, 
in the great furnace of the reform and opening up and socialist modernization, 
and in the great school of society, acquire true skills and genuine knowledge, 
improve competence, and make yourselves capable personnel who can shoulder 
important social responsibilities. 

Third, young people must dare to innovate and create. Innovation is the soul 
driving a nation’s progress and an inexhaustible source of a country’s prosperity. 
It is also an essential part of the Chinese national character. This is what 
Confucius meant when he said, “If you can in one day renovate yourself, do so 
from day to day. Yea, let there be daily renovation.”^ Life never favors those 
who follow the beaten track and are satisfied with the status quo, and it never 
waits for the unambitious and those who sit idle and enjoy the fruits of others’ 
work. Instead, it provides more opportunities for those who have the ability and 
courage to innovate. Young people are the most dynamic and most creative 
group of our society, and should stand in the forefront of innovation and 

Young people should dare to be the first, boldly free their minds and 

progress with the times, dare to seek high and low for a way to forge ahead, and 
be ambitious to learn from and then surpass the older generation. With your 
youthful energy, you can create a country of youth and a nation of youth. Young 
people should have the willpower to cut paths through mountains and build 
bridges over rivers, and be indomitable and advance bravely in bringing forth 
new ideas. You should have a pragmatic attitude that pursues truth, so you can 
constantly accumulate experience and achieve results in the course of bringing 
forth new ideas in your chosen occupations. 

Fourth, young people must be devoted to hard work. “The sharpness of a 
sword results from repeated grinding, while the fragrance of plum blossoms 
comes from frigid weather.” Human ideals are not easy to achieve, but need hard 
work. From poverty to prosperity, and from weakness to strength, China has 
been able to progress step by step over centuries thanks to the tenacity of one 
generation after another, and to the nation’s spirit of constant self-improvement 
through hard work. Currently we are facing important opportunities for 
development, but we are also facing unprecedented difficulties and challenges. 
The dream stretches out before us and the road lies at our feet. Those who 
overcome their weaknesses are powerful, and those who keep improving 
themselves come out victors. If we are to achieve our development goals, young 
people must work long and hard without letup. 

Young people must bear in mind that “empty talk harms the country, while 
hard work makes it flourish” and put this into practice. You must work hard at 
your own posts, start from trivial things, and create your own splendid life with 
hard work, outstanding performances and remarkable achievements. Young 
people must never fear difficulties, but try to overcome them; you should go to 
the grassroots with tough conditions and the frontline for national construction 
and project development to temper yourselves and enhance your capabilities. 
Young people must have the courage and determination to start up businesses 
and do pioneering work, try to blaze new trails and start new endeavors in 
reform and opening up, and constantly create new prospects for their career 

Fifth, young people must temper your character. Socialism with Chinese 
characteristics is a form of socialism in which material and cultural progresses 
go hand in hand. It is difficult for a nation without inner strength to be self- 
reliant, and a cause that lacks a cultural buttress cannot be sustained for long. 

Young people are a social force that leads the social ethos. The cultural 
attainment of a nation is represented mostly by the morality and mental outlook 
of the younger generation. 

Young people must integrate correct moral cognition, conscious moral 
development and active moral practice, conscientiously establish and practice 
the core socialist values, and take the lead in advocating good social conduct. 
Young people must strengthen theoretical improvement and moral cultivation, 
take the initiative to carry forward patriotism, collectivism and socialism, and 
actively advocate social and professional ethics, and family virtues. Young 
people should bear in mind that “virtue uplifts, while vice debases”^ and always 
be optimists and persons of integrity who have a healthy lifestyle. Young people 
should advocate new social trends, be the first in learning from Lei FengJ^, take 
an active part in voluntary work, shoulder social responsibilities, care for others, 
help the poor, the weak and the disabled, and do other good and practical deeds, 
so as to promote social progress with their actions. 

The theme of the Chinese youth movement today is to strive to realize the 
Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Chinese 
Communist Youth League should carry out extensive educational and practical 
activities with the theme of “My Chinese Dream” for young Chinese. It should 
sow the seeds of and ignite the dreams of each youth so that more young people 
dare to dream and pursue their dreams. In this way all young people can increase 
their youthful energy to realize the Chinese Dream. The League should lay a 
solid intellectual basis for all young Chinese with the Chinese Dream, and 
educate and help them to establish a correct world view, outlook on life and 
sense of values, always love our country, our people and our nation, and firmly 
follow the Party along the Chinese path. The League should inspire young 
people’s sense of historical responsibility through the Chinese Dream, carry 
forward the fine tradition of “the League taking action upon the Party’s call,” 
combine its work with Party and government work, and organize and mobilize 
young people to support reform, promote development and maintain stability. 
The League must actively offer services for young people in pursuing their 
dreams, effectively improve its practice, get close to young people at the primary 
level, address their concerns and pressing needs, represent and protect the 
common interests and needs of the young people, and try to build a favorable 
environment for their growth and development. 

Role models from among the youngsters are good examples for young 
people to learn from; they shoulder more social responsibilities and public 
expectations, and play a strong exemplary and leading role among young people, 
and even in society as a whole. 1 hope these role models will make persistent 
efforts, be strict with themselves, be determined to go ahead, and set a good 
example to all young people with their personal development, moral pursuit and 
exemplary action. 

A country prospers if its youth is thriving; a country is strong if its youth is 
robust. Ever since its founding in 1921 the Party has represented, drawn over 
and relied on young Chinese people. Party committees and governments at all 
levels must fully trust in, care for and be strict with young people; give a wider 
scope for their thoughts, build a larger stage for their practice and innovation, 
provide more opportunities for the pursuit of their life goals, and create more 
favorable conditions for their career development. Officials at all levels must pay 
attention to young people’s aspirations, help them to grow, support them to start 
their own businesses, become their bosom friends, and show enthusiasm for 
youth work. 

Everybody is young once in their life. Now is the time for you to make the 
most of your youth; and the future is a time for you to look back on it. The path 
of life is sometimes level, sometimes steep; sometimes smooth, sometimes 
rough; sometimes straight, sometimes crooked. Young people are faced with a 
wide range of choices. But what is important for you is to be guided by a correct 
world view, outlook on life and sense of values when you are making your 
choices. The life experiences of countless successful people suggest that young 
people who choose to endure hardships will be duly rewarded, and those who 
make contributions to society are the ones who deserve respect. Tribulations, 
setbacks and tests have proved to be good for young people in their later life. 
You need to have strength of character to be undaunted when confronting good 
or bad fortune, have a firm will to keep pressing forward in spite of repeated 
setbacks, remain optimistic in all circumstances, turn your failures into a driving 
force, and learn from your experiences, so that your life is raised to a higher 
plane. In short, the only way you can have fond memories of a well-spent, warm 
and lasting youth with no regrets is to work enthusiastically and energetically, 
tenaciously overcome all obstacles, and make a contribution to the people while 
you are still young. 

I firmly believe that if the people of all ethnic groups unite under the 
Party’s leadership, stand on solid ground and forge ahead with a pioneering 
spirit, we can certainly build a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally 
advanced, and harmonious modern socialist country by the middle of this 
century. And all our young people will surely witness and share in the realization 
of the Chinese Dream along with the people of all ethnic groups. 

Notes 07

[1] The Two Centenary Goals were put forth by the CPC at its 18th National Congress for building 
socialism with Chinese characteristics. The two goals are to complete the building of a moderately 
prosperous society in all respects by the centenary of the CPC (founded in 1921) and to build China into a 
modem socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious by the 
centenary of the PRC (founded in 1949). 

[2~| Strategies of the States (Zhan Guo Ce), a collection of stories of political strategists of the 
Warring States Period (475-221 BC). 

[3] See note 1, p. 46. 

[4] Yuan Mei: Sequel to Discourses on Poetry (Xu Shi Pin). Yuan Mei (1716-1797) was a poet and 
critic of the Qing Dynasty. 

[5] The Great Learning (Da Xue) is one of the “Four Classics of Confucianism,” the other three 
being The Analects of Confucius, The Mencius and The Doctrine of the Mean. 

[6] The Discourses of the States (Guo Yu) records important events taking place during the Western 
Zhou Dynasty (1046-771 BC) and the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). The book is believed to 
have been written by Zuoqiu Ming (556-451 BC), a noted historian of the State of Lu. 

[7] Lei Feng (1940-1962) was a PLA soldier and a role model. He served the people wholeheartedly, 
was ready to help others, and loved whatever work he was assigned to. He died at his post in an accident. In 
1963 Mao Zedong wrote “Learn from Comrade Lei Feng,” starting a national campaign for people to copy 
his selfless deeds. March 5 is a national memorial day to leam from him. 

The Chinese Dream Will Benefit Not Only the People of China, 

But Also of Other Countries 

May 2013 

* Part of the answers in a written interview with reporters from Trinidad and Tobago, Costa Rica and 

The Chinese nation has emerged resilient from trials and tribulations, and it 
never gave up the pursuit of its beautiful dreams. Realizing the Chinese Dream 
of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has been a long-cherished wish of the 
Chinese people since the advent of modern times. 

In this new historical period, the essence of the Chinese Dream is to make 
our country prosperous and strong, revitalize the nation and make the people live 
better lives. Our objectives are to double the 2010 GDP and per capita income of 
urban and rural residents, and complete the building of a moderately prosperous 
society in all respects by 2020. By mid-century, we aim to build China into a 
modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally 
advanced and harmonious, and realize the Chinese Dream of the great renewal 
of the Chinese nation. 

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must adhere to the path of socialism with 
Chinese characteristics. We have followed this path for over 30 years, and 
history has shown us that this is the correct path that suits China’s national 
conditions, a path that makes the people rich and the country strong. We will 
firmly continue along this path. 

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must carry forward the Chinese spirit. 
We need to use the national spirit of patriotism and spirit of the times centered 
on reform and innovation to bring forth the vigor and vitality of the whole 

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must build up cohesive strength. Empty 
talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish. We need to use the 

wisdom and strength of our country’s 1.3 billion people to build a strong China 
and a prosperous nation with the constant efforts of the Chinese people for 
generations to come. 

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must pursue peaceful development. We 
will always follow the path of peaceful development and pursue an opening-up 
strategy that brings mutual benefits. We will concentrate both on China’s 
development and on our responsibilities and contributions to the world as a 
whole. We will bring benefits to both the Chinese people and the people of the 
rest of the world. The realization of the Chinese Dream will bring the world 
peace, not turmoil, opportunities, not threats. 

Although there is a vast ocean between China and Latin America, we are 
connected heart and soul. We are bound together not only by profound 
traditional friendship and close interests, but also by our common pursuit of 
beautiful dreams. 

In recent years Latin American and Caribbean countries have made steady 
progress in achieving common development through joint efforts. The 
establishment of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States fully 
testifies to the vigorous efforts made by Latin America and the countries of the 
Caribbean to realize the dream of unity, coordination and common development 
championed by the pioneers of the Latin American and Caribbean independence 

China is ready to work with Latin American and Caribbean countries hand 
in hand, supporting one another and cooperating sincerely on the path to 
realizing the great dream of development and prosperity. 

Right Time to Innovate and Make Dreams Come True 

October 21, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the centenary celebration of the Western Returned Scholars Association^. 

Completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, 
accelerating socialist modernization and achieving China’s great rejuvenation, 
this is a glorious cause with a bright and splendid future. All people who are 
dedicated to this worthy cause can expect to accomplish great deeds. With 
hundreds of millions of fellow Chinese marching in their ranks, the Chinese 
students and scholars studying abroad are deciding that this is the right time to 
innovate and make their life-long dreams come true. You are called upon to 
integrate your patriotic love, your aspiration to make the country strong and your 
actions to serve it, and link your dreams with the stupendous efforts of your 
fellow countrymen to turn the Chinese Dream into reality, and by doing so have 
your names recorded in the annals of China’s great renewal. 

Here 1 would like to propose four points as my hope for Chinese students 
and scholars studying abroad. 

First, 1 hope you will adhere to patriotism. China’s history stretches over 
thousands of years, and patriotism has always been a stirring theme and a 
powerful force inspiring the Chinese of all ethnic groups to carry on and excel. 
No matter how long the shadow it may cast, the tree strikes deep roots in soil 
forever. No matter where they are, Chinese students should always keep the 
home country and its people in their hearts. Qian Xuesen^ once said, “As a 
Chinese scientist, 1 live to serve the people. 1 hope the people are satisfied with 
the work 1 have done in my lifetime. Their approval will be my highest reward.” 

1 hope that you will carry forward the glorious tradition of studying hard to 
serve the country and be defenders and messengers of patriotism, always bearing 
in mind the ideal of “being the first to worry about the affairs of the state and the 
last to enjoy oneself,”^ always taking the well-being of the country, the nation 

and the people as the goal of your endeavors, and willingly associating the fruits 
of personal success with the evergreen tree of patriotism. The Party and the 
country respect the choice you make. If you decide to return, we will welcome 
you with open arms. If you decide to stay abroad, we will support you in serving 
the country in various ways. All of you should remember that wherever you are 
you are a member of the Chinese family; the country and the people back home 
always care about their sons and daughters, and your homeland is always a warm 
spiritual land for you. 

Second, I hope you will study hard. Learning is a lasting theme for one to 
conduct oneself in life and society. It is also an important basis for one to serve 
one’s country and people. A dream starts with learning, and careers with 
practice. In the world today, knowledge and information are quickly updated, 
and if one slackens even a little in study, one is likely to fall behind. Some say 
that the world is a circle for everyone, with the amount of knowledge as the 
radius. He who has a bigger radius has a broader scope to act within. 

I hope that you will orient yourselves to modernization, to the whole world 
and to the future, and aim to broaden your knowledge in advanced knowhow, 
technologies and management expertise. You should keep the perseverance and 
diligence in reading as related in stories of Confucius^, Sun Jing and Su Qin^, 
Kuang Hcng^J, and Che Yin and Sun Kangdi You should learn by reading and 
from other people’s practical experiences with equal devotion, temper your 
moral character, and make yourselves competent and well-versed in genuine 
skills. Those who have completed their study programs need to broaden their 
horizon, renew their knowledge promptly, improve their knowledge structure, 
and make themselves outstanding talented people capable of assuming heavy 
responsibilities and accomplishing great deeds. 

Third, I hope you will be more innovative and creative. Innovation is the 
soul of a nation’s progress, the inexhaustible force enhancing a country’s 
prosperity, and indeed the profound endowment of the Chinese nation. Against 
the backdrop of international competition, only those who innovate can make 
progress, grow stronger and prevail. Students and scholars studying abroad have 
a broad vision, and they ought to take the lead in making innovations. China’s 
reform, opening-up and modernization drive provide all ambitious pioneers of 
innovation with a wide stage for success. 

I hope you will throw yourselves into extensive efforts of innovation and 
creation, and dare to lead the way forward with vision, courage and stamina, so 
that you can succeed in making breakthroughs and achievements. Trying to 
accomplish something in China, one must set oneself firmly on the soil of the 
home country, keep in mind the expectations of the people, correctly identify the 
point where one’s professional strength and the needs of social development 
converge and where advanced knowledge and China’s conditions meet. Only in 
this way can innovation and creativity succeed and deliver real benefits. 

Fourth, I hope you will work for dynamic exchanges with other countries. 
China cannot develop without the rest of the world; nor can the world as a whole 
prosper without China. We must open still wider to the outside world, 
strengthening our connectivity and interaction with it, and enhancing our 
understanding and friendship with other peoples. Growing up in China and 
living overseas extensively, you have been steeped in inter-personal 
relationships and cross-cultural communications. Many foreigners have got to 
know China through you while many Chinese have learned about the outside 
world also through you. 

I hope you will make full use of your advantages to strengthen connections 
and exchanges between China and other countries, acting as unofficial 
ambassadors to promote people-to-people friendship, and explaining China’s 
culture, history and points of view in such a way that the people from other 
countries can understand and identify with China, and be ready to give it greater 
appreciation and support. 

Founded 100 years ago when the survival of the nation was at stake, the 
Western Returned Scholars Association practiced patriotism by organizing its 
members to participate in patriotic and democratic movements and join the cause 
for national salvation and people’s liberation, thus becoming a famous patriotic 
association for democracy and science at that time. After the People’s Republic 
was founded in 1949, the Association became a progressive association under 
the leadership of the Party and government by vigorously encouraging the return 
of Chinese students abroad. Since the beginning of China’s reform and opening 
up, the Association has energetically carried out the “serve the country 
program,” making itself a people’s organization dedicated to socialism with 
Chinese characteristics. In 2003, with approval from the central authorities, the 
Association was given an additional name - the Chinese Overseas-educated 

Scholars Association - with its scope of operation expanded to cover the entire 
country and its members spreading all over the world. Its influence as a people’s 
organization has thus become more extensive. 

Facing a new situation and new tasks, the Western Returned Scholars 
Association and Chinese Overseas-educated Scholars Association must give full 
play to its advantages as a people’s organization and united front with prominent 
intellectuals as its members, based in China while reaching out overseas to turn 
itself into a talent pool in the service of the country, a think tank of good ideas 
and proposals and a vital force in people-to-people diplomacy; and strive to 
become a bridge between the Party and the overseas students and scholars, an 
assistant in the work of the Party and government towards them, and a warm 
home to rally overseas students and scholars closely around the Party. The 
Association should care for the work, study and life of overseas Chinese students 
and scholars, reflect their wishes and views, protect their lawful rights and 
interests, and constantly enhance the Association’s appeal and cohesion. 

“Exaltation of the virtuous is fundamental to governance.”^ Party 
committees and governments at all levels must earnestly implement Party and 
government policies concerning students and scholars studying abroad, and train 
more effectively and on a larger scale all kinds of talented people badly needed 
by our reform, opening up and modernization. When the environment is sound, 
talented people will gather, and our cause will thrive; but when it is not, they 
will go their separate ways, and our cause will fail. We must improve our 
working mechanisms, and enhance the awareness of service, strengthen 
education and guidance, build more platforms of innovation, be good at finding, 
uniting with and using talented people, and help bring forth people of high 
caliber by creating an environment favorable for the students to return and serve 
China, and in general to realize their potential. We should support the 
Association in its work by strengthening its organization, improving its working 
apparatus and personnel, and providing the necessary conditions for its 

In the course of its development and opening up, China needs still more 
overseas talented people and welcomes their arrival with open arms. Empty talk 
harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish. We are convinced that as 
long as students and scholars studying abroad remember this and choose to stand 

and work with the people, they will surely write a brilliant page in the book of 
the Chinese Dream, a page that is worthy of our times, of our people and of 

Notes 08

[1] The Western Returned Scholars Association was founded in October 1913. It is a voluntary group 
composed of Chinese scholars who have returned to China after studying overseas. In 2003 it was given the 
additional name of the Chinese Overseas-educated Scholars Association. 

[2] Qian Xuesen (1911-2009) went to study in the United States in 1935, and returned to China in 
1955. He served as vice minister of the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National 
Defense and president of the China Association for Science and Technology. He was directly involved in 
the organization and guidance of the research and development of China’s carrier rockets, missiles and 
satellites, and made an outstanding contribution to China’s space development. 

[3] Fan Zhongyan: The Yueyang Tower. Fan Zhongyan (989-1052) was a statesman and literary 
scholar of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127). 

[4] Confucius is said to have read The Book of Changes (Yi Jing) so many times that the leather 
strings binding the bamboo slips upon which the book was written broke three times. 

[5] Sun Jing of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) loved reading. He tied his hair to a roof beam to 
prevent himself from falling asleep when reading. Su Qin of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) poked 
himself in the thigh with an awl to keep him from dropping off when studying at night. These stories are 
used to describe studious persons. 

[6] Kuang Heng of the Han Dynasty studied hard when young, but he could not afford candles. So he 
bored a hole in a wall to make use of a neighbor’s light to study by. This metaphor is used to describe a 
studious person. 

[7] Che Yin of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420) was too poor to afford lamp oil. He caught dozens 
of fireflies and placed them in a bag made of thin white cloth so that he could study by their light at night. 
Sun Kang of the Southern Dynasties (420-589) could not afford candles, so he had to read by the reflected 
light from snow on winter nights. These stories are used to describe studious persons. 

[8] Mo Zi, a collection of works of the Mohist school of thought. 

The Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation Is a Dream Shared by All 


June 6, 2014 

* Main points of the speech to representatives attending the Seventh Conference of Friendship of 
Overseas Chinese Associations. 

For Chinese people both at home and abroad, a united Chinese nation is our 
shared root, the profound Chinese culture is our shared soul, and the 
rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is our shared dream. The shared root fosters 
eternal brotherhood, the shared soul links our hearts, and the shared dream holds 
us all together - we will go on to write a new chapter in the history of the 
Chinese nation. 

We Chinese often say, “Your eyes brim with tears when you encounter a 
fellow townsman in a distant land.” It makes me feel at home to meet you today. 
On behalf of the CPC and the State Council, 1 would like to extend my 
congratulations to the convening of the Seventh Conference of Friendship of 
Overseas Chinese Associations, my warm welcome to overseas Chinese 
attending the conference, and my sincere greetings to overseas Chinese all over 
the world. 

The tens of millions of overseas Chinese across the world are all members 
of the Chinese family. In the best of Chinese traditions, generations of overseas 
Chinese never forget their home country, their origins, or the blood of the 
Chinese nation flowing in their veins. They have given their enthusiastic support 
to China’s revolution, construction and reform. They have made a major 
contribution to the growth of the Chinese nation, to the peaceful reunification of 
the motherland, and to the friendly people-to-people cooperation between China 
and other countries. Their contribution will always be remembered. 

At present, the Chinese people are striving to realize the Two Centenary 
Goals and the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 
Overseas Chinese will play an essential role in this process. The Chinese Dream 

is a dream of the country, the nation as well as all Chinese individuals. With a 
strong sense of patriotism, economic strength, rich intellectual resources, and 
extensive business connections, overseas Chinese constitute a major force for 
realizing the Chinese Dream. As long as all Chinese both at home and abroad 
unite as one and contribute whatever they can, be it strength or intelligence, they 
can marshal great power for realizing this dream. 

Chinese civilization, with a history going back more than 5,000 years, 
provides strong intellectual support for the country’s ceaseless self-improvement 
and growth. No matter where a Chinese is, he always bears the distinctive brand 
of the Chinese culture, which is the common heritage of all the sons and 
daughters of China. I hope all Chinese will continue to carry forward Chinese 
culture and draw strength from it, while promoting exchanges between Chinese 
civilization and other civilizations. Let us tell the stories of China well, and 
make our voices heard; let us promote mutual understanding between the people 
of our own country and those of other lands, and create a better environment for 
achieving the Chinese Dream. 

The Chinese Dream is a desire for happiness, similar to the dreams of the 
people of other countries. The people can attain happiness only when their 
country and nation thrive. China will thrive only when the world prospers. China 
provides positive energy for world prosperity and development by holding to the 
path of peaceful development. Overseas Chinese should take full advantage of 
their strengths and their circumstances to serve as a bridge for wide-ranging 
exchanges and cooperation between China and their new home countries. They 
should better integrate themselves into their local communities and contribute to 
world peace and development. 

All-round and Deeper-level Reform 

Reform and Opening up Is Always Ongoing and Will Never End 

December 31, 2012 

* Main points of the speech at the second group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

Reform and opening up is a long-term and arduous cause, and people need 
to work on it generation after generation. We should carry out reform to improve 
the socialist market economy of China, and adhere to the basic state policy of 
opening up to the outside world. We must further refonn in key sectors with 
greater political courage and vision, and forge ahead steadily in the direction 
determined by the Party’s 18th National Congress. 

The past, the present, and the future are all interconnected. History is about 
the past, while the present is the history of the future. To implement the major 
propositions on reform and opening up raised at the 18th National Congress, we 
need to review reform and opening up, better understand its historical necessity, 
conscientiously master its laws, and firmly assume the responsibility of 
extending it. 

We must review and apply the useful experience we have gained in reform 
and opening up. 

First, reform and opening up is an in-depth revolution, and we must follow 
the correct direction and stay on the correct path. Regarding the issue of 
direction, we must keep a cool head. Our direction is to continuously promote 
the self-improvement and development of the socialist system, and stride 
forward with resolve on the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

Second, reform and opening up is a cause that has never before been 
pursued. We must adopt the right methods and advance this cause through 
continuous exploration and practice. Wading across the river by feeling for the 
stones is a reform method with Chinese characteristics and in line with the 
prevailing conditions in China. Wading across the river by feeling for the stones, 

we can identify the laws that apply, and acquire knowledge in practice. Wading 
across the river by feeling for the stones and top-level design are two component 
factors for our reform effort. Reform and opening up in a region at a certain 
stage should be subject to top-level design; top-level design should be 
strengthened on the basis of progressive reform and opening up in the region at a 
certain stage. To continue reform and opening up, we need to strengthen our 
macroscopic thinking and top-level design, and make sure that reform is 
systematic, integrated and coordinated. At the same time, we must still 
encourage bold experiments and breakthroughs. 

Third, reform and opening up is a systematic project, which should be 
pushed forward in an all-round way with all kinds of reforms well coordinated. 
Reform and opening up is an in-depth and all-round social transformation. Every 
reform will have great impact on other reforms, and all reforms support each 
other and interact positively. We will promote both all-round progress and 
breakthroughs at key points, and form a strong force for the further advance of 
reform and opening up. 

Fourth, stability is a prerequisite for reform and development. We must 
make sure that reform, development and stability proceed in tandem. Social 
stability makes it possible for us to carry out reform and development which in 
turn provide a solid foundation for social stability. We should take into full 
consideration the momentum of reform, the speed of development, and the 
capacity of the general public to sustain change. And improvement of the 
people’s well-being should be regarded as an important link in balancing reform, 
development and stability. 

Fifth, reform and opening up is a cause of the Chinese people. We must 
respect the people’s pioneering spirit and advance this cause under the 
leadership of the Party. Every breakthrough and step forward in theory and 
practice that we make in this cause comes from the experience and wisdom of 
the people, so does every new thing we bring into being and develop, and every 
experience we gain. The more arduous the task of balancing reform, 
development and stability, the more we need to strengthen and improve the 
Party’s leadership and maintain close ties between the Party and the people. We 
should be adept in formulating and implementing sound guidelines and policies 
and use them to direct the people forward, and be good at improving our policies 
through the work and experience of the people and their demands for 

development. We must ensure that more fruits of reform and development are 
shared by the people in a fairer way, and secure solid popular support for 
continuing reform and opening up. 

Reform and opening up is always an ongoing task and will never end. 
Without reform and opening up, China would not be what it is today, nor would 
it have the prospects for a brighter future. Problems occurring in reform and 
opening up can only be solved through reform and opening up. To advance 
reform and opening up, we must carry out the guidelines of the 18th National 
Congress, and follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important 
thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. In 
response to the call of the people and their expectations for further reform and 
opening up, we should build a social consensus, and promote reforms in all 
sectors in a coordinated way. 

Explanatory Notes to the “Decision of the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning 

Comprehensively Continuing the Reform” 

November 9, 2013 

* Explanatory notes made to the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. 

On behalf of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee, 1 will 
now explain to the plenary session the “Decision of the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning 
Comprehensively Continuing the Reform.” 

I. The Drafting Process of the Decision 

Since the reform and opening-up initiative was introduced in 1978 the third 
plenary sessions of past CPC central committees have provided the public with 
important information for judging the governance policy and focus of the new 
generations of Party leadership. The discussion topics, decisions made, measures 
to take, and signals released bore great significance for the Party’s work in the 
five to ten years following the plenary sessions. 

After the Party’s 18th National Congress, the Central Committee set out to 
determine the topics for discussion at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee. The 18th National Congress set the goal of completing the 
building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and continuing 
reform and opening up, and emphasized that the Party must, with greater 
political courage and wisdom, lose no time in continuing the reform in key 
sectors, and resolutely discard all notions and systems that hinder efforts to 
pursue sustainable development. It also pointed out that the Party should set up a 
well-developed, standardized and effective framework of systems, and ensure 
that operating institutions in all sectors are fully functioning. To achieve the 
strategic goals and carry out the plans set at the 18th National Congress, we must 
lose no time in promoting reform comprehensively. 

Thirty-five years have passed since the Party made the historic decision of 
shifting the focus of the work of the Party and state to economic development 
and initiating the reform and opening-up drive at the Third Plenary Session of 
the 11th CPC Central Committee^. The propelling force behind the 
improvement of the Chinese people’s life, the advancement of our socialist 
country, the progress of our Party, and the fact that China has gained important 
international status is no other than our perseverance in carrying forward the 
reform and opening-up drive. 

During his inspection tour of the South in 1992, Deng Xiaoping said, “If we 
did not adhere to socialism, implement the policy of reform and opening to the 
outside world, develop the economy and raise living standards, we would find 
ourselves in a blind alley.”^ Today, in retrospect, we have a better 
understanding of his remarks. This is why, as we are well aware, only socialism 
can save China, and only reform and opening up can develop China, socialism 
and Marxism. 

In light of the historical lessons we have learned and the needs of the 
current times, the Party Central Committee has been repeatedly stressing since 
its 18th National Congress that reform and opening up plays the decisive role in 
determining the destiny of contemporary China. It is also the key to realizing the 
Two Centenary Goals and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. There 
are no bounds to practice and development, to freeing the people’s minds, or to 
the reform and opening-up effort. We will reach an impasse if we stall or go into 
reverse on our path; reform and opening up is always ongoing and will never 
end. Facing the new situation and new tasks, we must continue the reform 
comprehensively to strive for solutions to the major problems challenging 
China’s development, and work tirelessly to promote the improvement and 
progress of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

As extensive and profound changes are taking place domestically and 
internationally, China’s development faces a series of prominent dilemmas and 
challenges, and there are quite a number of problems and difficulties on its path 
of development: Unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development 
remains a big problem. We are weak in scientific and technological innovation. 
The industrial structure is unbalanced and the growth mode remains inefficient. 
The development gap between urban and rural areas and between regions is still 

large, and so are income disparities. Social problems are markedly on the rise. 
There are many problems affecting the people’s immediate interests in 
education, employment, social security, health care, housing, the ecological 
environment, food and drug safety, workplace safety, public security, law 
enforcement, administration of justice, etc. Some people still lead hard lives. 
Formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance are serious problems. 
Some sectors are prone to corruption and other types of misconduct, and the 
fight against corruption remains a serious challenge for us. To solve these 
problems, the key lies in continuing the reform. 

In April this year, after deep thinking and research, and after soliciting 
opinions extensively both inside and outside the Party, the CPC Central 
Committee’s Political Bureau decided that continuing the reform 
comprehensively would be the central topic for discussion at the Third Plenary 
Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee and that the session would come up 
with a decision. 

On April 20 the CPC Central Committee issued the “Notice on Soliciting 
Opinions on Continuing the Reform Comprehensively for Discussion at the 
Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee.” It was unanimously 
agreed by all regions and departments that by selecting this topic for discussion 
at the session, the Party answered the calls of the Party members, officials and 
common people in an effort to address the issues that are of most concern to the 
whole of society. The public showed widespread support for the decision. 

All the third plenary sessions of the CPC Central Committees convened 
since the reform and opening-up initiative was introduced in 1978 have focused 
on the discussion of how to continue the reform, sending an important signal that 
our Party will unswervingly uphold reform and opening up, and firmly adhere to 
the theories, guidelines and policies put forth since the Third Plenary Session of 
the 11th Party Central Committee. In a word, it is to answer the question of what 
banner to hold and what path to take in the new historical conditions. 

Continuing the reform comprehensively as the central topic at the Third 
Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee was an important 
proclamation made by our Party, which well reflects the CPC’s adherence to the 
guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three 
Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. In the new conditions, 

the Party is unswervingly implementing its basic guidelines and political 
program, learning from its past experiences and meeting its fundamental 
requirements, and firmly upholding reform and opening up. 

After the topic was decided upon, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central 
Committee set up a drafting group for the Decision of the plenary session. 1 
served as the head of the group, with Liu Yunshan^ and Zhang Gaoli^ as 
deputy heads. Persons in charge of related departments and leaders of some 
provinces and municipalities also took part. The drafting work was overseen by 
the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. 

Over a period of about seven months following its founding, the drafting 
group extensively solicited opinions, carried out appraisals of important topics, 
conducted investigations and researches, and held discussions and revised the 
document many times. During this period, three meetings of the Standing 
Committee of the Political Bureau and two meetings of the Political Bureau were 
held to review the draft Decision. The draft was also circulated among a certain 
number of Party members and retired Party officials for their suggestions. 
Opinions were also heard from the central committees of other political parties, 
heads of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce and individuals 
with no party affiliation. 

The feedback showed that all consulted groups and individuals had reached 
the consensus that the Decision offers an in-depth analysis of the key issues 
challenging China’s reform, development and stability both in theory and 
practice, and expounds on the significance of continuing the reform 
comprehensively and the future of our reform. It sets forth the guidelines for 
continuing the reform comprehensively, as well as the goals, tasks and 
underlying principles; it delineates a new blueprint for the reform effort, and 
envisions the new targets with vigor; it includes the new thoughts, judgments 
and measures for continuing the reform comprehensively, and reflects the calls, 
appeals and aspirations of society; and it epitomizes the Party’s and the general 
public’s political consensus and wisdom in action to continue the reform 

A consensus was reached among all groups and individuals that the 
Decision lays out a balanced plan for the strategic key areas in continuing the 
reform comprehensively, with prioritized goals and focal points. It also 

introduces the working mechanism, methods of implementation, and the 
timetable and road map for the reform plan, making a series of major 
breakthroughs in the theories and policies guiding the reform effort. It once 
again makes overall plans for continuing the reform comprehensively, serving as 
a general mobilization for the nation to take action. The Decision is bound to 
exert a significant and far-reaching influence on the development of the socialist 
cause with Chinese characteristics. 

In the course of soliciting opinions, people from all sides offered many 
valuable ideas and suggestions. With careful study and discussion of these ideas 
and suggestions within the drafting group, as instructed by the Party Central 
Committee, important revisions were made to the Decision. 

II. The General Framework and Key Issues of the Decision 

The Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee believes that, facing 
the new situation with new tasks and new requirements, China must take 
comprehensive measures to continue its reform. To do this, the key lies in 
further developing an environment for fair competition, further invigorating 
economic and social growth, further enhancing the efficiency of the government, 
further achieving social equality and justice, further promoting social harmony 
and stability, and further improving the Party’s leadership and governance. 

To carry out these resolutions, it must be stressed that we should be fully 
aware of our problems, focus on the key issues for further study and research, 
and strive to solve the major dilemmas and problems challenging our 
development. As the CPC has fought its way through revolution, construction 
and reform, its sole aim has always been to solve the problems of China. It is fair 
to say that existing problems force us to reform, and reforms are going deeper 
while problems being tackled and solved. 

In the past 35 years we have overcome many problems hindering the 
development of the Party and the state through reform. But new problems 
always replace old ones during our course of exploration and transformation. 
This is why our system needs to be constantly improved, why reform cannot be 
accomplished in one stroke and why we cannot rest on our laurels indefinitely 
once existing problems are solved. 

The draft Decision stressed five major considerations. One, it had to meet 
the new requirements for the development of the Party and state, and carry out 
the strategic task of continuing the reform comprehensively, as set forth at the 
Party’s 18th National Congress. Two, it had to center on reform and foreground 
the new measures for continuing it comprehensively, leaving out general and 
repetitive measures and measures solely for enhancing development. Three, it 
had to address the key issues, properly deal with the pressing concerns of the 
people, respond to their calls and aspirations, focus on important areas and 
crucial segments, and highlight the leading role of the reform of the economic 
system in promoting development. Four, it had to take an active yet discreet 
attitude when designing the reform measures. Five, it had to plan the tasks 
according to the timetable, which set forth that by 2020 decisive results would 
have been achieved in the reform of important areas and crucial segments. 

The plenary session set as the framework of the Decision the important 
issues that China needs to deal with, and arranged the Decision according to its 
various points. In addition to the Foreword and Conclusion, there are 16 parts 
divided into three main sections. The first part is also the first section and the 
General Remarks, which mainly elaborates on the significance, guiding thoughts 
and overall direction of continuing the reform comprehensively. Section two 
consists of Parts 2-15, introducing the arrangement of the main tasks and 
important measures for continuing the refonn in six aspects - the economy, 
politics, culture, society, ecology and national defense/armed forces. The 
different aspects are arranged as follows: The economy from Part 2 to Part 7, 
politics from Part 8 to Part 10, culture in Part 11, society from Part 12 to Part 13, 
ecology in Part 14, and national defense/armed forces in Part 15. Part 16 
composes the third section, Organizational Leadership, which mainly elaborates 
on strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership in the course of 
continuing the reform comprehensively. 

Here, 1 would like to explain the considerations of the CPC Central 
Committee on the major issues and key measures mentioned in the Decision of 
the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. 

First, allowing the market to play the decisive role in allocating resources 
and letting the government perform its functions better. This is a major 
theoretical proposition in the Decision, because the reform of the economic 
system is still the focus of continuing the reform comprehensively, and the 

appropriate handling of the relationship between the government and the market 
is still the core issue of the reform of the economic system. 

In 1992 the Party’s 14th National Congress stipulated that China’s 
economic reform aimed at establishing a socialist market economy, allowing the 
market to play a basic role in allocating resources under state macro control. 
This key breakthrough in theory played an extremely important role in guiding 
China’s reform and opening-up effort, and its economic and social development. 
It also illustrated that theoretical innovation paves the way for innovation in 
practice. To comprehensively continue the reform we must renew our theory 

After 20 years of practice a socialist market economy has been basically 
established in China. But there are still many problems. The market lacks order, 
and many people seek economic benefits through unjustified means; the market 
for factors of production lags behind in development, unable to allocate the 
factors of production to meet the effective demand; the lack of unified market 
rules has resulted in rampant protectionism initiated by departments or local 
governments; and market competition is not good enough to select the superior 
and eliminate the inferior, and thus slows down economic restructuring. If left 
unsolved, these problems will hinder the development of a sound socialist 
market economy. 

Over the past two decades since the Party’s 14th National Congress we 
have kept searching for a new positioning for the relationship between the 
government and the market through practice and theoretical research. The 
Party’s 15th National Congress proposed that “the market plays a basic role in 
allocating resources under state macro control,” the Party’s 16th National 
Congress proposed to “give fuller play to the basic role of the market in 
allocating resources,” the Party’s 17th National Congress sought to “introduce 
institutions to give better play to the basic role of the market in allocating 
resources,” and the Party’s 18th National Congress stipulated that the Party 
should “leverage to a greater extent and in a wider scope the basic role of the 
market in allocating resources.” From the above progression it can be seen that 
we have been constantly deepening our understanding of the government-market 

During the discussion and consultation sessions regarding the Decision, 

many people suggested that the Party should further define the government- 
market relationship from a theoretical perspective, which would have great 
significance for continuing the reform comprehensively. With due consideration 
to these opinions and the current circumstances, and after much discussion and 
research, the Party Central Committee agreed that it was time to introduce a new 
theoretical expression concerning this matter, and that the “basic role” of the 
market in allocating resources should be revised to a “decisive role.” 

We have now basically established a socialist market economy in our 
country, with considerable improvement in the degree of marketization. We have 
gained better knowledge of the market rules and enhanced our capacity to use it 
to our benefit, and have improved the macro-control system. With both the 
subjective and objective conditions in place, we should take a new step forward 
to improve our socialist market economy. 

To further balance the relationship between the government and the market 
we need to decide which of the two is to play the decisive role in allocating 
resources. To boost the economy we must enhance the efficiency of the 
allocation of resources, especially that of scarce resources, so that we can use 
fewer resources to make more products and gain more benefits. Both theory and 
practice have proved that the allocation of resources by the market is the most 
effective means to this end. It is a general rule of the market economy that the 
market decides the allocation of resources, and a market economy in essence is 
one in which the market determines resource allocation. We have to follow this 
rule when we improve the socialist market economy. We should work harder to 
address the problems of market imperfection, too much government interference 
and lack of oversight. Positioning the market as playing a “decisive role” in 
resource allocation is conducive to establishing the correct notion of the 
government-market relationship in the whole Party and the whole of society, and 
conducive to transforming the economic growth pattern and government 
functions, as well as reining in corruption and other forms of misconduct. 

Our market economy is socialist, of course. We need to give leverage to the 
superiority of our socialist system, and let the Party and government perform 
their positive functions. The market plays a decisive role in allocating resources, 
but is not the sole actor in this regard. 

To develop the socialist market economy, leverage should be given to both 

the market and the government, with differentiated functions. The Decision put 
forth clear requirements for improving the functions of the government, 
emphasizing that scientific macro control and effective governance are the 
intrinsic requirements for giving more leverage to the advantages of the socialist 
market economy. The Decision also makes plans for improving macro control, 
correctly performing government functions in all areas, and improving the 
organization of government. It stresses that the main responsibility and role of 
the government is to maintain the stability of the macro economy, strengthen and 
improve public services, ensure fair competition, strengthen market oversight, 
maintain market order, promote sustainable development and common 
prosperity, and intervene in situations where market failure occurs. 

Second, adhering to and improving the basic economic system. The basic 
economic system with public ownership playing a leading role and all forms of 
ownership growing side by side is an important pillar of the socialist system with 
Chinese characteristics. 

Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy in 1978 the 
structure of ownership has undergone gradual adjustment, with the weights of 
the public and non-public sectors changing in their contribution to the economy 
and employment. The economy and society have grown more vigorous during 
this process. In such conditions, how to better recognize the leading role of 
public ownership and stick to this position and how to further explore the 
effective forms for materializing the basic economic system have become major 
topics for us. 

It is emphasized in the Decision that we must unswervingly consolidate and 
develop the public economy, persist in the leading role of public ownership, give 
full play to the leading role of the state-owned economy, and incessantly 
increase its vitality, leveraging power and impact. 

Adhering to and furthering the relevant deliberations made since the Party’s 
15th National Congress, the Decision proposes to vigorously develop the mixed- 
ownership economy. It stresses that such an economy, with cross-shareholding 
by and integration of state-owned capital, collective capital and non-public 
capital, is important to materialize the basic economic system of China. It will 
help to improve the functions of state-owned capital, maintain and increase its 
value and raise its competitiveness. It is an effective channel and inevitable 

choice for us to adhere to the leading role of public ownership and improve the 
vitality, leveraging power and impact of the state-owned economy in the new 

The Decision states that China will improve the state assets management 
system, strengthen state assets oversight with capital management at the core, 
and reform the authorized operation mechanism for state capital. State-owned 
capital investment operations must serve the strategic goals of the state, invest 
more in key industries and areas that are vital to national security and are the 
lifeblood of the economy, focus on offering public services, develop important 
and future-oriented strategic industries, protect the ecological environment, 
support scientific and technological progress, and guarantee national security. 
The government will transfer part of the state-owned capital to social security 
funds. We will increase the proportion of state-owned capital gains that are 
turned over to the public finance, to be used to ensure and improve the people’s 

State-owned enterprises (SOEs) constitute an important force for advancing 
modernization and protecting the common interests of the people. Through many 
years of reform SOEs have by and large assimilated themselves into the market 
economy. At the same time, however, they have also found problems and 
drawbacks in their system, which call for further reform. The Decision proposes 
a series of targeted reform measures: We must ensure that state-owned capital 
increases its input into public-service-oriented enterprises; in natural monopoly 
industries in which state-owned capital continues to hold controlling interests, 
carry out a reform focusing on separation of government administration from 
enterprise management, separation of government administration from state 
assets management, franchise operation, and government oversight, separate 
network ownership from operation, and deregulate control over competitive 
businesses in light of the conditions of different industries; improve the 
corporate governance structure to ensure smooth operation and effective checks 
and balances; establish a system of professional managers, and give better play 
to the role of business executives; establish a long-term incentive-and-restraint 
mechanism, and strengthen investigations into the accountability of SOE 
operations and investment; and explore ways to publicize important information, 
including SOE financial budgets. Moreover, SOEs should appropriately increase 
the proportion of market-based recruitment, and properly determine and strictly 

regulate the salary level, post-related benefits and expenses as well as business 
spending of SOE managerial personnel. These measures will stimulate SOEs to 
improve the modern corporate system, enhance their operating efficiency, better 
fulfill their social obligations and play a better role in the economy. 

We must adhere to the “two unswervinglys”^ in order to continue and 
improve our basic economic system. The Decision proposes reform measures on 
multiple levels to encourage, support and guide the development of the non¬ 
public sector of the economy, and to stimulate its vigor and creativity. On 
functional positioning, the Decision points out that both the public and non¬ 
public sectors are important components of the socialist market economy, and an 
important basis for China’s economic and social development. On the protection 
of property rights, the Decision points out that the property rights of both the 
public and non-public sectors are inviolable. On policy treatment, the Decision 
stresses equal rights, equal opportunities and identical rules, and a unified 
market access system. The Decision encourages non-public enterprises to 
participate in the reform of SOEs, encourages development of mixed-ownership 
enterprises in which private capital holds majority shares, and encourages 
qualified private enterprises to establish a modern corporate system. All these 
will contribute to the healthy development of the non-public sector of the 

Third, continuing the reform of the fiscal and taxation systems. Finance is 
the foundation and an important pillar of national governance. Good fiscal and 
taxation systems are the institutional guarantee for improving resource 
allocation, maintaining market unity, promoting social equity, and realizing 
enduring peace and stability. Developed on the basis of the tax distribution 
system^ reform initiated in 1994, the current fiscal and taxation systems have 
played an important role in increasing the government’s financial strength and 
promoting the rapid growth of the economy. 

As the situation changes, the current fiscal and taxation systems cannot 
effectively respond to the requirements for dividing powers between the central 
and local governments to improve national governance. They have lagged 
behind our effort to transform the economic growth pattern and promote the 
sustained and healthy development of the economy and society, and are causing 
problems that hinder economic and social development. 

Reform of the fiscal and taxation systems is one of the key points in 
continuing the reform comprehensively. The reform mainly includes 
improvement of the budgeting and taxation systems, and establishment of a 
system in which authority of office matches responsibility for expenditure. 

The Decision stipulates that we will adopt a complete, standardized, open 
and transparent budget system, and appropriately increase the authority of office 
and responsibility of expenditure of the central government, including those 
concerning national defense, foreign affairs, national security, and unified 
national market rules and management. The authority of office over some social 
security programs, and the construction and maintenance of major trans-regional 
projects will be shared by the central and local governments, and the authority of 
office will be gradually clarified in this regard. The central government can 
delegate some expenditure responsibilities to local governments through transfer 
payments. In terms of trans-regional public services with great impacts on other 
regions, the central government will shoulder some of the expenditure 
responsibilities of local governments through transfer payments. 

The main aim of the reform is to clearly define authority of office, reform 
the taxation system, make tax burdens stable and budgets transparent, and 
increase efficiency. It also aims to accelerate the development of a modern fiscal 
system that is conducive to the transformation of the economic growth pattern, 
the establishment of a fair market under unified rules, and the promotion of 
equal access to basic public services; develop fiscal and taxation systems that are 
compatible with the financial resources and authority of office of the central and 
local governments; and mobilize the initiative of both the central and local 

Reform of the fiscal and taxation systems is a step-by-step process, and will 
take some time to complete. The Party Central Committee has clearly stated that 
we must maintain the stability of the current financial patterns of the central and 
local governments, and further rationalize the division of revenues between 

Fourth, improving mechanisms and institutions for the integrated 
development of urban and rural areas. The unbalanced development between 
urban and rural areas is a serious problem hindering the development of our 
economy and society, a major problem we must solve in order to complete the 

building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and accelerate 
socialist modernization. Tremendous changes have taken place in China’s rural 
areas since the reform and opening-up policy was introduced in late 1978. 
However, the separate urban-rural structures have not changed fundamentally, 
and the widening gap between urban and rural development has not been 
reversed. To solve these problems, we must push forward the integrated 
development of urban and rural areas. 

The Decision states that we must improve the mechanisms and institutions 
to form new relations between industry and agriculture and between urban and 
rural areas in which industry promotes agriculture, urban areas support rural 
development, agriculture and industry benefit each other, and there is integrated 
urban and rural development, so that the overwhelming majority of farmers can 
participate in the modernization process on an equal basis and share the fruits of 

The Decision proposes reform measures to improve the mechanisms and 
institutions for the integrated development of urban and rural areas: One, 
accelerating the building of a new type of agricultural operation system. We will 
maintain the fundamental status of family operation in agriculture; encourage the 
transfer of contracted land-use right to big, specialized operators, family farms, 
farmers’ cooperatives and agrobusinesses; encourage rural areas to develop 
cooperative economies; encourage and guide industrial and commercial capital 
to invest in rural areas to develop modern planting and breeding industries suited 
to commercialized management; and allow farmers to develop industrialized 
operation of agriculture by becoming shareholders using their contracted land- 
use right, among other measures. Two, endowing farmers with more property 
rights. We will protect farmers’ contracted land-use right by law, safeguard the 
rights and interests of farmers as members of collective economic organizations, 
ensure rural households’ usufruct of their homesteads, and select several pilot 
areas to steadily and prudently push forward the mortgage, guarantee and 
transfer of farmers’ residential property rights. Three, promoting equal 
exchanges of factors of production and balanced allocation of public resources 
between urban and rural areas. We will ensure migrant workers receive equal 
pay for equal work, and ensure farmers equally share the gains from added value 
of land; improve the agricultural insurance system; encourage investment in 
rural development, and permit enterprises and social organizations to start all 

kinds of undertakings in rural areas; make a balanced allocation of compulsory 
education resources between urban and rural areas, integrate the basic old-age 
insurance and health-care insurance systems of urban and rural residents, and 
improve the balanced development of the minimum living allowance system in 
both urban and rural areas; and steadily make basic urban public services 
available to all permanent residents in cities, and incorporate farmers who have 
settled down in urban areas into the urban housing and social security network. 

Fifth, promoting wide, multi-tiered and institutionalized consultative 
democracy. Consultative democracy is a unique form and distinctive advantage 
of China’s socialist democracy, and an important embodiment of the Party’s 
mass line in the political field. Promoting consultative democracy is conducive 
to improving the people’s orderly participation in political affairs, strengthening 
the ties between the Party and the people, and promoting scientific and 
democratic decision-making. 

Promoting wide, multi-tiered and institutionalized consultative democracy 
is an important issue of political restructuring as stipulated in the Decision. The 
Decision stresses that, under the leadership of the Party, China will promote 
consultation throughout society with regard to major issues of economic and 
social development, and practical issues closely related to the interests of the 
people, and adhere to the principle of consultation before policy-making and 
during policy implementation. We will build a consultative democracy featuring 
appropriate procedures and complete segments to expand the consultation 
channels covering organs of state power, committees of the Chinese People’s 
Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), political parties, and community- 
level and social organizations; conduct intensive consultations on issues relating 
to legislation, administration, democracy, political participation and social 
problems; give full play to the important role of the united front^ in consultative 
democracy, make the CPPCC serve as a major channel for conducting 
consultative democracy, improve the system of the CPPCC, specify the contents 
and procedures for consultation, diversify forms of consultative democracy, and 
more actively carry out orderly consultations on particular issues with those 
working on these issues, with representatives from all sectors of society, and 
with the relevant government departments on the handling of proposals, and 
increase the frequency of consultations to improve their effectiveness. 

Sixth, reforming the judiciary and its operation mechanism. The judiciary is 
an important component of the political system. Miscarriage of justice has been 
a major concern of the people in recent years, and the judiciary suffers a lack of 
credibility largely due to its current defective system and operation mechanism, 
which need improvement. 

Judicial reform is one of the key points in continuing the reform 
comprehensively. The Decision puts forward a series of new and related 
measures in the following aspects: reform of the judicial management system, 
unification of the management of staff, funds and properties of courts and 
procuratorates at and below the provincial level and exploration of ways to 
establish a judicial jurisdiction system that is appropriately separated from the 
administrative divisions; improvement of the mechanism for the use of judicial 
power; improvement of the responsibility system for handling cases by the 
presiding judge and the collegiate bench, by which the judges hand down 
verdicts and the collegiate bench is responsible for carrying them out; strict 
regulation of the procedures of sentence commutation, release on parole and 
medical parole; improvement of the mechanism for preventing and correcting 
wrong cases and the accountability system, and strict implementation of the rule 
banning illegal evidence; establishment of a system for settling complaints 
involving law violations and lawsuits made in the form of letters and visits in 
accordance with the law; and abolition of the re-education through labor system, 
and improvement of laws for the punishment and correction of unlawful and 
criminal acts. 

These measures are of vital significance for ensuring that judicial 
departments independently exercise their judicial and procuratorial powers 
according to law, improving the judicial power operation mechanism in which 
rights and responsibilities are clear, improving judicial transparency and 
credibility, and safeguarding human rights. 

Seventh, improving leading and working mechanisms for anti-corruption 
efforts. Fighting corruption has always been a widely discussed topic inside and 
outside the Party. We are now mainly challenged by the following problems: 
Anti-corruption forces performing functions separately makes it difficult to build 
up synergy; some cases are not dealt with resolutely; and the accountability 
system is too lax to handle reoccurring corruption cases. 

The Decision lays out plans for promoting innovation in the anti-corruption 
mechanisms and institutions, and strengthening institutional guarantees. The 
main points are: strengthening the Party’s unified leadership to build a clean and 
honest government and combat corruption; ensuring that Party committees bear 
primary responsibility and the commissions for discipline inspection take the 
responsibility for oversight, and working out and implementing a feasible 
accountability system; improving the leading and working mechanisms for anti¬ 
corruption efforts, reforming and improving the functions of anti-corruption 
coordination groups at all levels, and leaving the investigation of corruption 
cases mainly to commissions for discipline inspection of higher levels; 
strengthening the leadership role of the higher levels over the lower levels of the 
discipline inspection commissions, and the simultaneous reporting of the related 
investigation process to the Party committee at the same level and the 
commission for discipline inspection at the next-higher level; and fully ensuring 
that the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection dispatches resident 
discipline inspection agencies to the central-level departments of the Party and 
the government, and improving the discipline inspection system at both the 
central and local levels, so that it covers all regions, all sectors, all enterprises 
and all public institutions. 

All these measures are based on past experience and the suggestions of 
various groups and individuals. 

Eighth, accelerating the improvement of the leadership for the management 
of the Internet. Cyber security and information security bear on national security 
and social stability, and pose new challenges for us in many aspects. 

Falling behind the rapid development of Internet technology and 
applications, our current management of the Internet is seriously flawed and 
cannot function properly. Different administrative bodies engaged in multi¬ 
channel management of the Internet, overlapping functions and mismatch 
between powers and responsibilities - all these have led to inefficient 
management. Also, as the Internet grows into a new form of the media, the 
management of this online medium and the industry is lagging far behind the 
development of the business. With fast growth in the number of the users of 
micro-blogs, WeChat and other social network services and instant 
communication tools, which spread information quickly over wide areas and can 
mobilize large numbers of users, how to strengthen oversight within a legal 

framework and guide public opinion and how to ensure the orderly 
dissemination of online information, while at the same time safeguarding 
national security and social stability, have become pressing problems for us. 

The Decision stipulates that we must adhere to the principles of proactive 
usage, well-planned development, management in accordance with the law and 
ensuring safety in strengthening management of the Internet in accordance with 
the law, and accelerating the improvement of the leadership for the management 
of the Internet. The aim of this is to integrate the functions of the related 
departments and form joint forces in the management of the Internet covering 
both technology and contents, and ranging from daily security to combating 
crimes, to ensure correct and safe Internet usage. 

Ninth, establishing the National Security Commission. National security 
and social stability form the basis for further reform and progress. Currently we 
are challenged by pressure from two sources: Internationally we must safeguard 
state sovereignty, national security and our development interests, and 
domestically we need to maintain political and social stability. All kinds of 
foreseeable and unforeseeable risks are increasing significantly, but our security 
system is not good enough to meet the demands of ensuring national security. 
We need to establish a strong platform to coordinate our national security work. 
For this purpose, establishing the National Security Commission to strengthen 
unified leadership of national security at the central level has become an urgent 

The main responsibilities of the National Security Commission are to 
formulate and implement national security strategy, promote national security 
legislation, design principles and policies for national security work, and discuss 
and resolve key issues concerning national security. 

Tenth, improving the country’s natural resource management and oversight 
systems. Improving the country’s natural resource management system is an 
important reform for developing the property right system for natural resources. 
It is also the intrinsic requirement for building an ecologically friendly country 
with complete support systems. 

Some of our major frustrations in ecological protection are caused by 
problems in the ecological management system. One problem lies in the vague 

concept of ownership of natural resources by the whole people, which leads to 
problems in the identification of the rights and interests of the owners. To solve 
this problem, the Decision puts forth measures for improving the natural 
resource management system. The guiding thoughts are: ensuring people’s 
property rights to natural resources according to the principle of separation 
between ownership and management, one issue belonging to one department, 
and establishing a unified responsibility mechanism for people who act on behalf 
of the public to manage public natural resource assets. 

There is a difference between the state’s exercise of power and 
management over the natural resource assets owned by the whole people and the 
state’s supervision and management of the natural resources within its territory. 
The former is the owner’s right, while the latter is the manager’s right. This 
requires us to improve the system of oversight of natural resources, and fulfill 
our duties as the managers of our territorial space. The owners of state-owned 
natural resource assets and the managers of state natural resources must act 
independently, while cooperating with and supervising each other. 

We need to realize that our mountains, waters, forests, farmlands and lakes 
form a living community. The lifeline of the people comes from the farmland, 
that of the farmland comes from the water, that of the water comes from the 
mountain, that of the mountain comes from the earth, and that of the earth comes 
from the tree. To control the exploitation of natural resources and restore the 
ecosystem, we must follow the laws of nature. If people only tend to their own 
responsibilities, for example, growing trees, regulating rivers or protecting 
farmland in isolation, they are prone to gaining in one area and losing in another, 
which eventually leads to systemic destruction of the ecology. Therefore, it is of 
the utmost importance to put one department in charge of the usage of the entire 
territory of a country, and carry out unified protection and restoration programs 
for its natural resources. 

Eleventh, establishing the Leading Group for Continuing the Reform 
Comprehensively under the CPC Central Committee. Continuing the reform 
comprehensively is a complicated system engineering project, which requires 
more than one or several departments to carry out. Therefore, leadership at a 
higher level should be established for this purpose. 

The Decision stipulates that the Party Central Committee will set up the 

Leading Group for Continuing the Reform Comprehensively. This is to give 
better play to the Party’s core function as leader having a picture of the whole 
situation and as chief coordinator of different aspects, so as to ensure the reform 
progresses smoothly and the assigned tasks are implemented as planned. The 
main responsibilities of this leading group are planning key national reforms, 
promoting coordinated reforms in various fields, coordinating various forces into 
a joint force for refonn, strengthening supervision and oversight, and promoting 
full implementation of the reform’s aim and tasks. 

III. Several Matters That Require Attention in Discussion 

The task of this plenary session is to discuss the guiding thought and plans 
for continuing the reform comprehensively as proposed in the Decision. For the 
discussion, please bear the following in mind: 

First, we must be more confident and courageous in pushing forward 
reform. Reform and opening up is a new great revolution of the Chinese people 
led by our Party in the new era. It is the most outstanding characteristic of 
contemporary China, and the distinctive feature of our Party. What has helped 
our Party inspire the people, unify them and pull their strength together over the 
past 35 years? What have we been relying on to stimulate the creativity and 
vitality of our people, realize rapid economic and social development and win a 
competitive advantage over capitalism? The answer has always been reform and 
opening up. 

Looking to the future, there is no alternative to continuing reform and 
opening up if we are to solve all sorts of difficult problems hindering our 
development, defuse risks and meet challenges in all aspects, give better play to 
the advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and promote the steady 
and healthy development of the economy and society. 

At the current stage, close attention to our reform and opening-up drive 
comes from inside and outside the Party and inside and outside the country as 
well. The entire Party and all sectors of society have high expectations for us. 
Our reform has come to a critical juncture. We must not waver in the slightest 
degree in carrying out reform and opening up, and we must continue to uphold 
and firmly adhere to the correct path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 
The whole Party must reaffirm our conviction to push forward reform with 

greater political courage and wisdom, and stronger measures and methods. 

Second, we must continue to free our minds and seek truth from facts. To 
keep our banner of reform and opening up flying high, we must also take 
pragmatic measures once we have a strong conviction. Actions speak louder than 
words. It is a strategic choice of the CPC Central Committee to make overall 
plans for continuing the reform comprehensively at the Third Plenary Session of 
the 18th CPC Central Committee. We must take this opportunity to make new 
breakthroughs in our reform. For this to happen, we need to further free our 

To break down the barriers of old notions and the fences of interest groups, 
freeing the mind is the first and most important step. Often, the roadblocks in our 
minds that hinder reform do not come from outside the system, but from within. 
If the mind is not freed we can hardly see the crux of our problems with the 
interest groups, or pinpoint the direction of our effort to break down the barriers. 
We will also find it difficult to come up with innovative reform measures. 
Therefore, we must have the courage and breadth of vision to seek self- 
improvement. We need to throw off the trammels of outdated ideas and 
overcome the constraints put in place by various departments for their own 
interests, and proactively conduct research and propose reform measures. 

Before putting forth a reform measure, we must research and discuss it 
carefully, but this does not mean being overcautious or hesitant to try anything 
new. It is not possible to carry out reforms while keeping our current work 
pattern and operation system intact, nor is it possible to do it in a rock-steady or 
risk-free manner. As long as we have done thorough research and appraisal, and 
know what we are going to do agrees with the actual conditions and needs to be 
done, we will go ahead without looking back. 

Third, we must put the interests of the state first when making deliberations. 
Continuing the reform comprehensively is a major strategic plan concerning the 
overall development of the Party and the state, rather than a single program to 
reform a certain aspect of a sector. “One who fails to plan for the whole situation 
is incapable of planning for a partial area.”^ You come from different 
departments and units, and you need to see things from a wider perspective. For 
major decisions, first we should judge whether a proposed reform measure meets 
the needs of the country, and whether it is conducive to the long-term 

development of the cause of the Party and the state. We must strive to look 
forward into the future, think beyond the times, and proactively draw up plans. 
This will enable us to put through reform measures that will genuinely promote 
the cause of the Party and the people. 

To continue the reform comprehensively, we should strengthen planning at 
the top level and adopt a holistic approach in doing so. We should study more 
intensively the connectedness, consistency and feasibility of our reform 
measures. As we say, “We must push reform forward boldly and steadily.” Here 
“steadily” means adopting a holistic approach in planning, doing overall 
research and making decisions scientifically. Reforms in the economy, politics, 
culture, society and ecology are closely connected to and integrated in the 
reform of Party building. Reform in one sector will always affect other sectors 
and require other sectors to reform accordingly. If reforms in different areas do 
not support each other, and the measures taken in some sectors turn out to check 
the progress of other sectors, we will find it difficult to continue the reform 
comprehensively; we will get into a muddle with the reform if we disregard 
these factors. 

Notes 08

[1] The Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee was convened in Beijing from 
December 18 to 22, 1978. At this plenary session, Marxism was reestablished as the guideline for the 
Party’s ideological, political and organizational work. This plenary session also made the historic decision 
to shift the focus of the Party and state to economic development and to introduce the reform and opening- 
up initiative, which marked a great transition of far-reaching significance in the history of the CPC since the 
founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, and thereby ushering in a new period of reform and opening up 
in China. 

[2] Deng Xiaoping: “Excerpts from Talks Given in Wuchang, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shanghai,” 
Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol. Ill, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1994, p. 358. 

[3j Liu Yunshan, bom in 1947 and a native of Xinzhou City, Shanxi Province, is currently a member 
of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee, a member of the 
Secretariat of the Party Central Committee and president of the Central Party School. 

[4] Zhang Gaoli, bom in 1946 and a native of Jinjiang, Fujian Province, is currently a member of the 
Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee and vice premier of the State 

[5] The “two unswervinglys” are: We will unswervingly consolidate and develop the public sector of 
the economy, and at the same time unswervingly encourage, support and guide the development of the non¬ 
public sector of the economy. 

[6] The tax distribution system is a model fiscal management system. It divides the distribution of all 
taxation items of the country between the central and local governments, so as to define the ranges of their 
respective revenues. Its nature is to specify the financial power of the central and local governments 
according to their authority of office, and to form the respective revenue systems of the central and local 
governments through the distribution of taxation items between them. China adopted the tax distribution 
system on January 1, 1994. 

[7] The united front refers to the political union formed by various social and political forces, 
including social classes and strata, political parties and groups, and even ethnic groups and nations, based 
on their common interests, to achieve a common goal under certain historical conditions. The united front 
under the leadership of the CPC is the broadest revolutionary, socialist and patriotic united front formed by 
all ethnic groups, all political parties, all social strata and people of all circles in China during the New 
Democratic Revolution (1919-1949), socialist construction and reform, to achieve national independence, 
democracy and prosperity and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 

[8] Chen Danran: “Proposals on Moving the Capital and Establishing Feudatories,” Enlightening 
Speeches (Wu Yan), Vol. 2. Chen Danran (1859-1930) was a litterateur in the Qing Dynasty. 

Align "Our" Thinking with the Guidelines of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee* 

 [The American: This is a fundamental difference - in the American system. A TOTAL "FLIP" - FROM THE WAY AMERICANS THINK.
   I was never a "politician" - but, in our "Representative" Government system - ORIGINALLY DESIGNED IN 1787 - (in theory) we "elect" persons [TO BE OUR REPRESENTATIVES] - in the "law making process" - by voting. We elect them to "represent" our "point of view"; OR they "promise" to "benefit us" - in some way. This is why - in America - many "politicians" - are characterized - as "dishonest" (when they fail to do - what they did promise); and, why some politicians want to "suppress some people from voting - at all. It also explains - Why the "American Middle-class" - is so important to all American politicians. And, the first TEN Amendments - were enacted - so quickly. ]

November 12, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the second plenary meeting of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee. 

We have to unify the thinking and will of the whole Party first in order to 
unify the thinking and will of the people of all China’s ethnic groups so that 
everyone works together to advance our reform. 

Here, 1 need to make a few points on how we should implement the 
guidelines of the plenary session, with the focus on the guiding principles, 
overall plans, objectives and tasks it has set forth. 

First, we must take improving and developing the socialist system with 
Chinese characteristics and modernizing our national governance system and 
capacity as the general goal of continuing the reform comprehensively. Deng 
Xiaoping said in 1992 that it would probably take another 30 years for us to 
develop a more mature and well-defined system in every field. Based on his 
strategic thought, the plenary session proposed modernizing our national 
governance system and capacity. This is something that must be done to improve 
and develop the socialist system and to achieve socialist modernization. We 
decided to focus on the question of continuing the reform comprehensively at the 
plenary session - not the reform of one or several fields, but of all areas. We 
made this decision out of the overall consideration of improving our national 
governance system and capacity. 

The national governance system and capacity of a country epitomize not 
only its many systems but also how well it can enforce them. Our national 
governance system is a system of institutions within which the country is 
governed with the leadership of the Party. It comprises economic, political, 
cultural, social and ecological as well as Party-building systems and 
mechanisms, laws and regulations. This is a complete set of closely connected 

and coordinated systems of the state. Our national governance capacity is the 
ability to use these systems to manage social affairs, including reform, 
development and stability, domestic and foreign affairs, national defense, and 
the running of the Party, state and military. Our national governance system and 
capacity complement each other and form an organic whole. An effective 
governance system will lead to greater governance capacity, while greater 
governance capacity can make the governance system more effective. 

Actually, how to govern a socialist society, a completely new society, has 
not been clearly addressed by world socialism so far. Karl Marx and Friedrich 
Engels had no practical experience in the comprehensive governance of a 
socialist country, as their theories about a future society were mostly predictive. 
Vladimir Lenin, who passed away a few years after the October Revolution 
(1917) in Russia, was thus unable to explore this question in depth. The Soviet 
Union tackled this question and gained some experience, but it made serious 
mistakes and failed to resolve the problem. Our Party has worked on the same 
question steadily ever since it came to national power, and, in spite of serious 
setbacks, has accumulated rich experience and achieved great success in 
improving our governance system and enhancing our governance capacity. The 
success has been particularly resounding since we adopted the policy of reform 
and opening up. Enjoying political stability, economic growth, social harmony 
and ethnic unity, today’s China poses a striking contrast to many regions and 
countries that suffer constant chaos. This shows that our national governance 
system and capacity are on the whole quite sound and suited to our national 
conditions and development needs. 

At the same time, we should also realize that, compared with China’s needs 
for social and economic development and our people’s expectations, and 
compared with today’s increasingly intense international competition, and the 
need to ensure prolonged stability at home, we still have many shortcomings to 
overcome in improving our national governance system and capacity. To realize 
genuine social harmony and stability, and lasting peace and security, we must 
rely on our effective institutions, our high capacity in governance and our high- 
caliber personnel. To give free rein to the advantages of Chinese socialism, we 
must promote the modernization of our national governance system and capacity 
in all fields. 

To modernize our national governance system and capacity we should 

adapt properly to the changing times, and reform outdated systems, mechanisms, 
laws and regulations, while building new ones to make our institutions in all 
respects more appropriate and complete and the governance of Party, state and 
social affairs more institutionalized, standardized and procedure-based. We 
should pay more attention to building our governance capacity, enhancing our 
awareness of the need to act in accordance with institutions and the law, and our 
skills in running the country with institutions and the law, transforming our 
institutional advantages into greater governance effectiveness, and enhancing the 
Party’s capacity to govern in an effective and democratic way, and in accordance 
with the law. 

Second, we must further free our mind, further release and develop the 
productive forces, and further stimulate and strengthen the vigor of society. The 
“three furthers” put forward at the plenary session are both objectives and 
conditions of our reform. Freeing our mind is a prerequisite or the ultimate 
switch for releasing and developing the productive forces, and strengthening the 
vigor of our society. Without freeing our mind, our Party would not have been 
able to make the historic decision to shift the focus of the work of the Party and 
the country to economic development and launch reform and opening up shortly 
after the ten-year turmoil of the Cultural Revolution, ushering in a new era in 
China’s development. Without freeing our mind, our Party would not have been 
able to promote theoretical and practical innovation, remove risks and challenges 
effectively to advance reform and opening up steadily, and remain at the 
forefront of the times. Releasing and developing the productive forces, and 
stimulating and strengthening the vigor of our society are an inevitable outcome 
as well as an important basis for freeing the mind. 

To complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, 
achieve socialist modernization and the great renewal of the Chinese nation, the 
most essential and urgent task is to further release and develop the productive 
forces. The purpose of freeing our minds, and stimulating and strengthening the 
vigor of society is to better release and develop the productive forces. Deng 
Xiaoping said, “Revolution means the emancipation of the productive forces, 
and so does reform. After the basic socialist system has been established it will 
be necessary to fundamentally change the economic structure that has hampered 
the development of the productive forces and to establish a vigorous socialist 
economic structure that will promote their development.”^ By continuing 

reform, we will unleash the vitality of work, knowledge, technology, 
management, capital and other factors to open an abundance of social wealth. In 
addition, we must keep vitality and order in proper balance, as society needs 
vitality to progress, but such vitality should be accompanied by order. Neither a 
pool of stagnant water nor a surging undercurrent is what we want. 

We stress the need to have confidence in our path, in our theories and in our 
system. In other words, we need to have strong will power and faith. At the same 
time, we also need a strong material power that bolsters such will power and 
faith. This requires constant reforms and innovations to ensure that Chinese 
socialism is more efficient than capitalism in releasing and developing the 
productive forces, stimulating and strengthening the vigor of society and 
promoting a well-rounded development of the person, and the arousing of 
greater enthusiasm, initiative and creativity among the people, create more 
favorable conditions for social development, and show a better edge in 
competition, thus fully displaying its advantages. 

Third, we must keep our focus on economic reforms, and give full play to 
their catalytic role. The plenary session presented a road map for furthering 
reform comprehensively, with “six centering-ons,”^ stressing the need to focus 
on economic reforms and their leading role. The basic fact that China is still in 
the primary stage of socialism and will long remain so has not changed; nor has 
the principal problem in our society, namely, inadequacy in meeting the ever¬ 
growing material and cultural needs of the people, because of backward social 
production; and nor has China’s international position as the world’s largest 
developing country. All this dictates that economic development will remain the 
focus of the work of the whole Party. 

Currently, most structural and institutional barriers hindering China’s 
proper development are found in the economy. Our economic reforms have not 
been completed, nor has the potential of such reforms been fully released. To 
keep economic development as our central task we must continue to focus on 
economic reforms without the slightest hesitation. 

The economic base determines the superstructure. Economic reforms have a 
significant and pervasive bearing on the reform of other fields. And the tempo of 
progress in major economic reforms determines that of a host of other reforms, 
playing a critical part in the overall situation. In the “Preface to A Contribution 

to the Critique of Political Economy ,” Karl Marx observed that “In the social 
production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which 
are independent of their will, namely, relations of production appropriate to a 
given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The 
totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of 
society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure 
and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.”^ As we 
continue to reform comprehensively, we should keep our focus on economic 
reforms, and strive to make breakthroughs in the reform of key fields, so that 
such breakthroughs will drive and stimulate reforms in other areas, and ensure 
that these reforms can work together and progress in concert. We should not take 
a fragmented and uncoordinated approach in this regard. 

Fourth, we must uphold the direction of reform towards a socialist market 
economy. Identifying our reform as aiming to establish a socialist market 
economy is a significant theoretical and practical innovation our Party made in 
the course of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. This resolved a 
major problem that other socialist countries had long failed to resolve. 

Over the past two decades or so we have advanced economic and other 
reforms centering on the goal of establishing a socialist market economy, and 
realized a great historic transition from a highly centralized planned economy to 
a robust socialist market economy, from seclusion and semi-seclusion to all- 
dimensional opening up, and from a life of subsistence to one of initial 
prosperity. The historic leap forward by which China’s economy rose to the 
second place in the world has greatly increased the enthusiasm of the Chinese 
people, greatly boosted the development of China’s productive forces, and added 
great vigor to the Party and the country. 

At the same time, we should also be aware that although our socialist 
market economy has taken shape initially, it is not complete as a system, and it is 
not yet mature. In particular, a balance between the role of the government and 
that of the market in effectively and unrestrictedly allocating resources is yet to 
be established. So we have to make strenuous efforts to fulfill the strategic task 
of quickly improving our socialist market economy set by the 18th Party 

The key to establishing a sound socialist market economy lies in striking a 

proper balance between the role of the government and that of the market, so 
that the market can play a decisive role in allocating resources and the 
government can play its own role more effectively. This represents another 
major step forward in our Party’s theoretical and practical exploration. 

Establishing a sound socialist market economy is not only the basic need 
for the economic reforms, but also the core requirement for comprehensively 
continuing our reform. Letting the market play a decisive role in allocating 
resources will mainly require economic reforms, but it will also inevitably affect 
politics, culture, society, ecological progress and Party building. Institutional 
reforms of all areas should be promoted in concert with establishing a sound 
socialist market economy, while ensuring that their related links better meet the 
demands of a growing socialist market economy. 

Fifth, we must make the promotion of social fairness and justice and the 
improvement of well-being both the starting point and ultimate goal. Since the 
beginning of reform and opening up, China has made remarkable achievements 
in economic and social development, which provide a solid material foundation 
and favorable conditions for social fairness and justice. Nevertheless, given the 
current level of development, injustice and inequality are still quite common in 
our society. As China develops further and the people’s living standards 
improve, public awareness of equality and democracy, and of rights and interests 
has been steadily enhanced, and hence people’s resentment at injustice becomes 
more pronounced. 

After comprehensively reviewing and analyzing China’s current social and 
economic development, the CPC Central Committee has concluded that this 
problem, if not resolved in good time, will reduce public confidence in our 
reform and opening up, and undermine social harmony and stability. As the 18th 
Party Congress pointed out, fairness and justice are inherent requirements of 
socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must, relying on the concerted efforts 
of all the Chinese people and based on economic and social development, step 
up efforts to develop institutions that are vital to ensuring social fairness and 
justice; establish in due course a system for ensuring fairness in society 
featuring, among other things, equal rights, equal opportunities and fair rules for 
all; and foster a fair social environment and ensure the people’s equal right to 
participation in governance and to development. 

This plenary session stressed that to comprehensively continue reform we 
must make the promotion of social fairness and justice, and improvement of the 
people’s lives both the starting point and ultimate goal. This is a necessary 
requirement of the fundamental purpose of our Party, which is to serve the 
people wholeheartedly. Comprehensively furthering the reform must be the 
guarantee of building a more equitable and just social environment, addressing 
breaches of equity and justice, and bringing more of the benefits of development 
to all the people in a fairer fashion. If we cannot deliver tangible benefits to the 
people, and create a fairer social environment, and, worse still, if we cause more 
inequality, then our reform will lose its meaning and cannot be sustained. 

Realizing social fairness and justice requires multiple factors, a higher level 
of social and economic development being the most crucial one. Understanding 
of and desires for social fairness and justice may differ when there are 
differences in development levels and historical periods, and people’s outlook 
and social background. When we speak of social fairness and justice, we mean 
to proceed from the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the 
people, and view and address this problem from the larger picture of social 
development, social harmony and the people as a whole. The violations of social 
fairness and justice in the country are mainly fundamental problems in the 
course of development, which can be resolved by institutional, legal and policy 
arrangements in tandem with continued development. We must take economic 
development as the central task, promote sustained and sound growth, and 
“make the cake bigger,” thereby laying a more solid material foundation for 
greater social fairness and justice. 

This does not mean that we should wait to address the problem of social 
fairness and justice until the economy is developed. The nature of the problems 
may differ from period to period, bearing the features of society - developed or 
not so developed - in which they are found. Even when the “cake” has indeed 
become bigger, we must cut it fairly. The Chinese people have always had a 
perception that “inequality rather than want is the cause of trouble.”^ Based on 
continued development, we should do a better job of promoting fairness and 
justice, trying our best while being mindful of our limitations so that we can 
keep making progress in ensuring people’s access to education, remunerable 
employment, health care, old-age care and housing. 

No matter what development level a society is at, institutions are always an 
indispensable guarantee of social fairness and justice. We should strive to 
overcome injustice and inequality caused by man-made factors through 
innovative institutional arrangements, and ensure our people’s rights to equal 
participation and development. We should take social fairness and justice and 
the living standards of the people as a mirror to examine our systems, 
mechanisms, policies and regulations in all respects, and introduce reforms 
accordingly by focusing on areas where the problems of injustice and inequality 
are most prevalent. As for problems caused by unsound institutional 
arrangements, timely measures should be taken to reflect better the principle of 
fairness and justice in our socialist society and better realize, maintain and 
develop the fundamental interests of our people. 

Sixth, we must rely on the people to promote reform. The people are the 
creators of history and the source of our strength. The fundamental reason why 
our reform and opening up has won the people’s wholehearted support and 
vigorous participation all along lies in the fact that from the very beginning we 
let the cause strike deep roots among the people. The Decision of this plenary 
session reviewed the valuable experiences of our reform and opening up, one of 
which highlighted the importance of putting people first, respecting their 
principal position in the country, giving free rein to their creativity, and 
promoting reform with the close support of the people. In the absence of the 
people’s support and participation, no reform can possibly succeed. No matter 
what difficulties and challenges we may encounter, we will prevail as long as we 
have the people’s support and participation. We must implement the Party’s 
mass line and rally closely with the people, sharing weal and woe with them, and 
working vigorously by their side. 

To push forward any key reform we must have the major issues concerning 
the reform examined and addressed from the people’s standpoint, while 
formulating guidelines and measures based on the people’s interests. Wang Fu of 
the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) said, “The roc soars lithely not merely 
because of the lightness of one of its feathers; the steed runs fast not merely 
because of the strength of one of its legs.”^ If China wants to fly high and run 
fast, it must rely on the strength of its 1.3 billion people. 

When we encounter complicated problems hard to weigh and balance in the 

course of comprehensively promoting reform, we should think of the actual 
conditions of the people. What are they expecting? How can their interests be 
safeguarded? Are they satisfied with our reform? To make our decisions on 
reform more appropriate, the most important thing is to listen extensively to the 
opinions and proposals of the people, promptly review their fresh experience, 
fully mobilize their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity, bring their wisdom and 
strength to the cause of reform, and work with them to move the cause forward. 

Notes 09

[1] Deng Xiaoping: “Excerpts from Talks Given in Wuchang, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shanghai,” 
Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol. Ill, Eng. ed.. Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1994, p. 358. 

[2] The “six centering-ons” is a road map for continuing the reform comprehensively contained in the 
“Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning 
Comprehensively Continuing the Reform” adopted at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central 
Committee of the CPC: We must continue economic system reform by centering on the decisive role of the 
market in allocating resources; we must continue political system reform by centering on the unity of 
upholding the leadership of the Party, the people being the masters of the country, and governing the 
country according to rule of law; we must continue cultural system reform by centering on building the core 
socialist value system and developing a strong socialist culture in China; we must continue social structural 
reform by centering on safeguarding and improving the people’s well-being and promoting social fairness 
and justice; we must continue ecological environment management reform by centering on building a 
beautiful China; we must continue the reform of the Party-building system by centering on enhancing the 
Party’s capacity to govern in a scientific and democratic way and in accordance with the law. 

[3] Karl Marx: “Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, ” Karl Marx and 
Friedrich Engels: Collected Works, Vol. 29, Eng. ed., Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1987, p. 263. 

[4] The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu) is one of the Confucian classics. Written by the disciples of 
Confucius, it records the words and deeds of Confucius, and also comprises dialogues between Confucius 
and his disciples. The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu), The Great Learning (Da Xue), The Doctrine of the 
Mean (Zhong Yong) and The Mencius (Meng Zi) are collectively known as the “Four Classics of 

[5] Wang Fu: Comments of a Recluse (Qian Fu Lun). Wang Fu (c. 85-c. 163) was a philosopher and 
political commentator in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). 


Push Ahead with Reform Despite More Difficulties

February 7, 2014 

* Part of an exclusive interview with the Russia Television. 

 (  http://en.qstheory.cn/2020-10/16/c_607590.htm  ) < Full TEXT

Sergey Brilyov [ Russian Journalist ]:
The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the ... 
What will China’s reform focus on next? What do you think of the 
prospects for China’s development? 

Xi Jinping: These are important questions concerning China’s development. 
It has been more than 35 years since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC 
Central Committee launched China’s reform and opening up in 1978. We have 
made remarkable achievements, but we should continue to make progress. We 
have set the Two Centenary Goals. At present economic globalization is 
progressing rapidly, intense competition in overall national strength is 
intensifying between countries, and the international situation is complicated and 
volatile. We have concluded from this that fundamentally speaking, caught in 
fierce international competition, we are like a boat traveling upstream: We must 
press ahead or we will fall behind. 

China’s reform has been greatly furthered in both breadth and depth. Top- 
level design is needed to advance reform. Last November the Third Plenary 
Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee made overall planning for 
advancing reform comprehensively, and formulated the road map and schedule 
for reform. The plan includes over 330 reform measures for 15 areas, such as the 
economy, politics, culture, society, ecological progress and Party building. So 
we have sounded the bugle to advance reform. Our general objective is to 
improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and 
modernize our national governance system and capacity. 

To concentrate on advancing reform, we founded the Central Leading 
Group for Comprehensively Continuing the Reform with me as the head. The 
group is designed to make overall planning and coordination for major issues, 
and share out the tasks to be implemented. Now that we have a plan, it is most 
important to implement it. 

It is no easy job to advance reform in China, which has a population of over 
1.3 billion. Having been pushed ahead for more than 30 years, China’s reform 
has entered a deep-water zone. It can be said that the easy part of the job has 
been done to the satisfaction of all. What is left are tough bones that are hard to 
chew. This requires us to act boldly and progress steadily. To act boldly means 
to advance reform despite difficulties and be eager to take on challenges, chew 
tough bones, and wade through dangerous shoals. To progress steadily means to 
stay on course and proceed in safety, and, more importantly, make no fatal 

1 have full confidence in the prospects for China’s development. Why? The 
underlying reason is that after long-term exploration we have found a correct 
development path suited to China’s actual conditions. As long as we rely closely 
on the 1.3 billion Chinese people and firmly stay on our own path we will 
overcome all difficulties and obstacles, make new achievements, and finally 
reach our goal. 

The CPC exercises state power for the people. The people’s aspiration for a 
better life is our goal. To put it briefly, 1 will govern by serving the people and 
fulfilling all my responsibilities. 

Brilyov: You have been the president of China for almost a year. How do 
you feel as the leader of such a big country? What hobbies do you have? What 
are your favorite sports? 

Xi: China covers a land of 9.6 million sq km and has 56 ethnic groups and a 
population of over 1.3 billion. China’s social and economic development level 
and its people’s living standards are not high. It is not easy to govern such a 
country, so 1 must ascend a height to enjoy a distant view while planting my feet 
on solid ground. 1 worked in different regions in China for a long time, so I am 
fully aware that the differences are great between the country’s east and west, 
between the central and local governments, between different localities and 

between different levels of local governments. Therefore, as a Chinese leader, 1 
must take all factors into consideration based on a correct understanding of 
China’s conditions, maintain an overall balance, and concentrate on priorities to 
promote the overall situation. 1 alternate my attention between major and minor 
issues, and, to put it figuratively, it is like playing the piano with all ten fingers. 

Since the people have put me in the position of head of state, 1 must put 
them above everything else, bear in mind my responsibilities that are as weighty 
as Mount Tai, always worry about the people’s security and well-being, and 
work conscientiously day and night; share the same feelings with the people, 
share both good and bad times with them, and work in concerted efforts with 

Speaking of hobbies, 1 like reading, watching movies, traveling and 
strolling. As you know, I almost have no private time in the position 1 am in. A 
song titled, “Where Did the Time Go” became popular in China during this 
Spring Festival. For me, the question is where my private time goes. 1 spend all 
of it on my work. Now, the only thing 1 have managed to keep as a hobby is 
reading, which has become my way of life. Reading invigorates my mind, gives 
me inspiration and cultivates my moral force. 1 have read many works by 
Russian writers, including Ivan Krylov, Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, 
Mikhail Lermontov, Ivan Turgenev, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolay Nekrasov, 
Nikolay Chernyshevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Mikhail Sholokhov. 1 
remember clearly many of their excellent chapters and stories. 

Speaking of sports, 1 like swimming and mountaineering. 1 learned to swim 
at the age of four or five. 1 also like football, volleyball, basketball, tennis and 
martial arts. Among snow and ice sports, 1 like to watch ice hockey, speed 
skating, figure skating and freestyle skiing. Ice hockey is my favorite. It requires 
not only individual strength and skill but also teamwork and collaboration. It is 
indeed a good sport. 

Notes 10

[1] "Sergey Brilyov" is a host of the Russia Television. [ https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4096529 ]

Improve Governance Capacity Through the Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics 

February 17, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at a provincial-level officials’ seminar on studying and implementing the 
decisions of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee on continuing reform. 

To keep up with the overall progress in the national modernization process, 
we must improve the CPC’s capability for scientific, democratic and law-based 
governance, and enhance the efficiency of government departments. We must 
improve the general public’s ability to manage state, social, economic and 
cultural affairs in accordance with the law. In this way, Party, state and social 
affairs will be administered in accordance with rules, standards and procedures, 
and we will become better able to govern the country through the socialist 
system with Chinese characteristics. 

The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee pointed out 
that the overall goal of continuing the reform to a deeper level is to develop the 
socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and modernize our national 
governance system and capacity. This is a prerequisite for adhering to and 
developing socialism with Chinese characteristics and for realizing socialist 

Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy some three 
decades ago, our Party has begun to ponder the issue of national governance 
system from a new perspective, and come to the conclusion that the issues of 
leadership and organizational systems are fundamental, comprehensive, stable 
and permanent ones. 

Today, we are tasked with an important historic mission, that is to make our 
socialist system with Chinese characteristics more mature and better established, 
and provide a set of more complete, more stable and more effective systems for 
the development of the Party and the nation, the well-being of the people, social 
harmony and stability, and the enduring prosperity and stability of the country. 

This is a grand project. It entails carrying out all-round and systematic 
reform, and integrating reform in various fields to promote the overall 
modernization of our national governance system and capacity. 

A country’s governance system and capacity are the major barometers of its 
system and that system’s governing efficiency. The two are complementary. Our 
governance system and capacity are good overall and have unique advantages. 
Moreover, they suit our national conditions and development needs. 

Nevertheless, our national governance system and capacity still have much 
room for improvement, and we should exert greater efforts to enhance our 
national governance capacity. Our governance system will become more 
efficient as long as we focus on improving the Party’s governance capacity while 
raising the moral and political standards, scientific and cultural levels, and 
professional abilities of officials at all levels and administrators of all areas, and 
as long as we make Party and government agencies, enterprises, public 
institutions, and social organizations more efficient. 

We must understand that the overall goal of continuing the reform to a 
deeper level consists of two aspects, that is, to improve and develop the socialist 
system with Chinese characteristics, and to modernize our national governance 
system and capacity. To accelerate the modernization of the national governance 
system and capacity, we must follow the socialist path with Chinese 

The kind of governance system best suited for a country is determined by 
that country’s historical heritage and cultural traditions, and its level of social 
and economic development, and it is ultimately decided by that country’s 
people. Our current national governance system has been developed and 
gradually improved over a long period of time on the basis of our historied 
heritage, cultural traditions, and social and economic development. 

Our national governance system needs to be improved, but we should have 
our own opinion on what improvements are necessary. The Chinese nation is 
open-minded. Over centuries, we have been continuously drawing on others’ 
strengths and shaping the character of our own nation. Without unwavering 
confidence in our system we cannot have the courage to further reform, and 
without continuous reform our confidence in the system cannot possibly be full and long-lasting. 

Continuing our reform to a deeper level involves improving our socialist 
system with Chinese characteristics. When we say boosting our confidence in 
the system, we do not mean to be complacent. Instead, we should continue to 
eradicate drawbacks in the system, and make it more mature and more enduring. 

To modernize our national governance system and capacity, we should 
foster and promote the core socialist values and the relevant system,^ and 
accelerate the building of a value system that fully reflects the characteristics of 
China, the Chinese nation and the times. To safeguard our value system and core 
values, we must let culture play its due role. 

A nation’s culture is a unique feature that distinguishes that nation from 
others. We should delve deeper into and better elucidate China’s excellent 
traditional culture, and make greater efforts to creatively transform and develop 
traditional Chinese virtues, promoting a cultural spirit that transcends time and 
national boundaries, and has eternal attraction and contemporary value. 

We should also present to the world China’s contemporary creative cultural 
products that carry both our excellent traditional culture and contemporary spirit, 
and that are based in China and oriented towards the outside world. 

As long as the Chinese people pursue lofty virtues generation after 
generation our nation will be forever filled with hope. 

Producing a good document is only the first step in the long march of 
thousands of miles. The key is to implement the document. We should 
meticulously and strenuously study and promote the guiding principles of the 
Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, and gain a solid 
understanding of continued reform. While studying the document, we should not 
stop at the surface, quote it out of context, copy it mechanically or apply it 
blindly. We should straighten out the relationship between the general policy 
arrangement and a particular policy, between a policy chain and a link, between 
top-level policy design and policy interfaces at different levels, between policy 
consistency and diversity, and between long- and short-term policies. We cannot 
replace the whole with any part, nor can we compromise principles for the sake 
of flexibility, or vice versa. 

While implementing the document we should avoid empty talk, hesitation 
or seeking quick success, and instant benefits. We should implement it with a 
very strong sense of urgency and responsibility. 

Reform is a gradual process. We should make bold breakthroughs while 
advancing step by step, so as to ensure the realization of the reform goals. 

Continuing all-round reform to a deeper level is aimed at serving the 
overall, basic and long-term interests of the country. We should avoid picking 
reform areas according to personal preferences, and should get rid of reform- 
hindering mindsets. We must firmly carry out reform that benefits the Party and 
the people, and contributes to prosperity and long-term stability. Doing this will 
enable us to fulfill our historic mission and our responsibilities to the people, the 
country and the nation. 

Notes 11

[1] The system of the core socialist values was introduced in the “Resolutions of the CPC Central 
Committee on Major Issues Regarding the Building of a Harmonious Socialist Society,” which was adopted 
at the Sixth Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee in October 2006. The system includes the 
guiding thoughts of Marxism, the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the national 
spirit centering on patriotism and the spirit of the times highlighted by reform and innovation, as well as the 
socialist maxims of eight honors and eight disgraces. 


Economic Development 

Economic Growth Must Be Genuine and Not Inflated 

November 30, 2012 

* Main points of the speech at a symposium with non-Party members held by the CPC Central Committee. 

Since the beginning of this year [January 2012], China has been confronted with a complex 
international economic situation, as well as the demanding tasks of reform, 
development and stability.

By taking a scientific approach to development, we 
have focused on transforming our economic growth model. Following the 
general guideline of making steady progress, we have acted promptly to improve 
macro control and placed more emphasis on sustainable development.
So far, we have seen positive results in many areas, including steady economic growth, 
adjustment of the economic structure, reform to a deeper level, and improvement 
of the people’s well-being. 

Although we have a generally positive analysis of China’s economic and 
social development, we must not underestimate the risks and challenges facing 
us now and in the near future.

We must be aware that the pace of world 
economic growth will continue to be slow, the problem between sluggish 
demand and over-production capacity continues to grow, and domestic 
companies are troubled by rising costs and weaknesses in their capacity to 
innovate. The conflicts between the environment, natural resources and 
economic growth are becoming more serious.
[ The American is "formally educated" in Environmental Science {UWGB 1982]

Every coin has two sides. We must see both the advantages and 
disadvantages in the international and domestic situations, make full 
preparations for adversity, and strive to get the best possible results. 

Next year will be the first full year to see the implementation of the 
decisions made by the Party’s 18th National Congress. It is very important to do 
a good job of our social and economic development. We should focus on 
improving the quality and efficiency of economic growth, make steady progress, 
encourage innovation, lay a solid foundation for future development, press forward
with reform and "opening up", and realize sustainable and healthy 
economic development together with social stability and harmony. 

First, we must maintain reasonable economic growth by continuing with 
our proactive fiscal and prudent monetary policies, and increase the natural 
vitality and motive force that drive economic growth. We must pursue real rather 
than inflated economic growth.

In other words, we want efficient, high-quality and sustainable growth. 

Second, we must consolidate the position of agriculture as the foundation of 
the economy, increase support for agriculture, improve our policies that benefit 
farmers and bring prosperity to them, accelerate modernized operation of 
agriculture, and ensure the supply of grain and other important agricultural 

Third, we must make substantial progress in economic restructuring, 
expand domestic demand while stabilizing external demand, intensify our 
industrial restructuring and upgrading, and promote well-planned and healthy "urbanization". 

Fourth, we must carry out reform to improve the "socialist market economy", [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_market_economy ]
have a good top-level design, carry out timely and targeted reform measures, 
combine steady progress in overall reform with breakthroughs in specific areas, 
experiment boldly, and pursue substantial results. 

Fifth, we must improve the people’s standard of living, with a particular focus on low-income groups,
 provide subsidies to poor students in colleges and universities, keep the employment market steady
 while doing all we can to expand it, and improve the urban and rural social security system.
We will encourage the people to achieve prosperity through hard work, thereby 
combining the aim of the Party and the government’s work with the goals that ordinary people strive for. 

Open Wider to the Outside World 

April 8, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at a discussion of representatives of Chinese and foreign entrepreneurs 
during the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2013^. 

The prospects for China’s economic development are bright. China will 
make greater contributions to the world as it pushes forward reform and opening 
up, accelerates the transformation of the growth model, implements the opening- 
up policy, and provides a better economic environment and favorable conditions 
for foreign enterprises. 

Entrepreneurs, who are also the main participants of this forum, are an 
important force in creating jobs and wealth and in promoting development and 
cooperation. Your decisions will have a major impact on the Asian economy as 
well as the wider world. 1 would like to take this opportunity to listen to your 
views and exchange ideas with you. 

The world economy is still in a phase of instability and uncertainty, and 
recovery will be a lengthy process of advances and setbacks. In contrast, 
economic growth in Asia is relatively robust. In this context, China’s economic 
prospects have become an issue of universal interest. I would like to share with 
you my views on this topic. 

China has maintained sound overall economic development. Its growth will 
continue in the foreseeable future as industrialization, informationization, 
urbanization and agricultural modernization greatly expand the domestic market. 
The basics of our social productive forces remain solid, our advantages in 
productive factors are obvious, and our management and control systems and 
mechanisms continue to improve. 

At the 18th CPC National Congress we set the Two Centenary Goals as our 
objectives, and committed ourselves to the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of 
the Chinese nation. We will continue to inject new energy into the Chinese 

economy as we strive to realize these objectives and the Chinese Dream. As a 
result of our endeavors, we can be very optimistic that the Chinese economy will 
maintain a relatively high growth rate. China will shift its development focus to 
improving the quality and efficiency of growth, and make every effort to 
promote a green, circular, and low-carbon economy. 

The Chinese market operates fairly. Every company registered in China is 
an important component of the country’s economy. Our commitment to the 
socialist market economy will remain resolute. We will continue to enhance the 
rule of law and actively improve our investment environment so that all 
enterprises can enjoy equal access to the factors of production, market 
competition and legal protection, and the Chinese market can become fairer and 
even more attractive. Our policies of utilizing foreign investment and protecting 
the legitimate rights and interests of foreign enterprises in accordance with law 
will not change. 

China will never close its door to the outside world. Over the past ten years 
it has fulfilled its promises to the WTO by creating a more open and 
standardized business environment. We will open up new areas and enable 
deeper access. Our economy will remain open to foreign investors, and we hope 
that other countries will extend the same access to Chinese investors. We firmly 
oppose protectionism in any form, and we are willing and ready to solve 
economic and trade differences with other countries through consultation. We 
actively promote the establishment of a multilateral trade system characterized 
by balanced and mutually beneficial development. 

China’s domestic development benefits the rest of the world, and first of all 
its neighbors. In 2012 almost 16 million Chinese people traveled to our 
neighboring countries in east and southeast Asia. China has made a substantial 
contribution to Asia’s economic development. In the next five years China’s 
imports will reach US$ 10 trillion-worth and its outbound investment is expected 
to grow rapidly. China is making great efforts to increase its connections with its 
neighbors, to the advantage of both the regional and the world economy. 

China remains committed to reform and opening up, and we will improve 
the relevant policies. We will continue to improve the capacity and quality of our 
services, and provide a better environment for foreign entrepreneurs to invest 
and launch ventures in China. We hope that foreign enterprises will seize these 

opportunities to achieve further development. 

Notes 12

[1] The Boao Forum for Asia (BFA) is a non-governmental and non-profit international organization 
with a fixed conference date and a fixed address. It was founded in Boao, Hainan Province, China, on 
February 27, 2001. With equality, mutual benefit and cooperation as its themes, the BFA bases itself in Asia 
and aims to expand economic exchanges, coordination and cooperation among Asian countries while 
enhancing dialogue and economic ties between Asia and the rest of the world. 

The “Invisible Hand” and the “Visible Hand”

May 26, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the 15th group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC  Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

We should let the market play the decisive role in allocating resources, while allowing the government to better perform its functions.
This is a theoretical and practical issue of great importance.
A correct and precise understanding of this issue is very important to further the reform and promote 
the sound and orderly development of the socialist market economy.

We should make good use of the roles of both the market, the “invisible” hand, and the government, the “visible” hand.
[ The American smiles AND Wonders: Does he know?;  historical "Adam Smith"  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invisible_hand 
 &  http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/italy801/video/video_index.html  ]

The market and the government should complement and coordinate with each other to promote sustained and sound 
social and economic development. 

The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee pointed out 
that economic structural reform is the focus of continuing the reform 

The underlying issue is how to strike a balance between the 
functions of the government and the role of the market, [ The American: The EverGrande Real Estate Group ] and let the market play 
the "decisive role" in allocating resources and the government better perform its  functions. 

The proposal to let the market play the "decisive role" in allocating resources 
is a breakthrough in our Party’s understanding of the laws governing the 
development of socialism with Chinese characteristics as well as a new 
achievement in the sinicization of Marxism. It symbolizes that the socialist market economy has entered a new stage. 

To let the market play the "decisive role" in allocating resources and the 
government better perform its functions we must have a good understanding of 
the relationship between the role of the market and that of the government, which represents a core issue in our economic structural reform. 

The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee changed the 
market’s role in allocating resources from “basic” to “decisive.” Although only 
one word was altered, the market’s role was redefined. “Decisive role” is a continuation and extension of “basic role.” 

Letting the market play the decisive role in allocating resources and letting 
the government better perform its functions are not contradictory.
It does not  mean that the market can replace the government’s functions, nor vice versa. 

Actually, this is an effort to keep our economic reform targeted at existing problems.
For more than two decades our socialist market economy has been 
developing, yet there are still quite a number of problems and drawbacks that 
inhibit the vitality of market entities and prevent the laws of the market and value from fully playing their roles. 

If these "problems" are not solved (properly) it will be difficult to establish a 
well-developed socialist market economy, further transform the development model and adjust the economic structure. 

[ The American asks you to consider "Freedom of the Press" - and, an anonomous Tip system - with published "anonymous" "Tips". For example, "EverGrande" has (apparently) "sold"  - and taken deposits from Chinese citizens - for 1,500,000 living units - that do not exist; and, may never exist. [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evergrande_Group  The Chinese people [that] I worked with - in software - were excellent - at math. How is IT possible - THE Evergrande people lost track? I owned and operated a small American business - with Hans - my husband and 8+ employees - from 1986 to 1996. My main role was to "run the company"... hire & "lay off" staff - based on contracted projects. We closed our doors - in 1995 - as a direct result of foreign competition; which, could do what we specialized in - for a fraction of our bid. IF THE LAND IS AVAILABLE - AN IDEA - IS TO PERMIT THE PEOPLE - WHO HAVE MADE THE DEPOSITS - TO "ORGANIZE" - AND BUILD THEIR OWN SINGLE FAMILY HOME - ON A LOT SPACE. MY FATHER (born 1902) HAD A "WALL-PAPER" BUSINESS - BUT, HE ALSO KNEW HOW TO: dig a basement, lay a footer, frame the building, apply a roof etc. My mother could paint - and, she did. Her sisters were married to plumbers and electricians. THE POINT IS - get creative!  THINK LIKE AN "AMERICAN"! ]

We should remain committed to the reform to establish and improve the 
socialist market economy and bring the reform to a deeper and wider level.

We should reduce the government’s direct involvement in resource allocation and its 
direct interference in micro-economic activities.

We should step up efforts to 
develop a uniform market system characterized by openness and orderly 
competition, and set fair, open and transparent market rules.

The government should refrain from getting involved in the economic activities that the market 
can regulate effectively, and let the market do what the government is not 
supposed to do, so that the market can play its role of maximizing the 
effectiveness and efficiency of resource allocation, and enterprises and 
individuals can have more room to develop the economy and create wealth with 
vigor and vitality. 

Scientific macro control and effective governance are the intrinsic 
requirements for giving full play to the strength of the socialist market economy. 

To ensure that the government "better performs" its functions, we should transform 
government functions, further the reform of the administrative system, use new 
administrative methods, improve the macro-control system and enhance the 
monitoring of market activities. We should strengthen and improve public 

services, and promote social fairness, justice and stability, as well as common 

Governments at all levels should exercise administration strictly in 
accordance with the law, and conscientiously fulfdl their responsibilities.
The government should manage well all matters that fall within its purview, and 
appropriately delegate powers that should be delegated. The government should 
make resolute efforts to avoid overstepping its bounds or failing to play its due role. 

We should uphold the Party’s leadership and let the Party play its role as 
the leadership core in exercising overall leadership and coordinating all efforts. 

This is an important feature of our socialist market economy.
Over the last three  decades - since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy, we have 
made marked achievements in our social and economic development, and the 
people’s living standards have improved noticeably.

These successes are  attributable to the fact that we have firmly upheld the Party’s leadership, and 
given full play to the roles of Party organizations at all levels and of all Party 

In China, the Party’s strong leadership is the basic guarantee for the government to play its due role. 

While comprehensively continuing the reform, we should uphold and 
develop our political advantages, and use them to guide and push forward the 
reform. We should motivate all the people to make constant efforts for a better 
socialist market economy. 

In the new situation today, officials at all levels, especially leading officials, 
should continue to learn through practice, and put what they have learned into 
practice, study new problems and draw on new experiences. They should learn 
to correctly use both the “invisible hand” and the “visible hand,” and become 
experts in balancing the relationship between the government and the market. 

Transition to Innovation-driven Growth 

June 9, 2014 

* Part of the speech at the 17th General Assembly of the Members of the Chinese Academy of 
Sciences and the 12th General Assembly of the Members of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. 

Currently, all Party members and people of all ethnic groups are striving for 
the completion of the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects 
and the realization of the Chinese Dream. The 18th CPC National Congress put 
forward an important plan for the implementation of an innovation-driven 
strategy, and emphasized that scientific and technological innovation is pivotal 
to improving social productivity and the comprehensive national strength, so it 
must be put in a core position in our overall national development. This is an 
important strategy made by the CPC Central Committee, following a general 
analysis of the domestic and international situations, and of the overall picture of 
our development. 

The 21st century heralds a new round of scientific, technological and 
industrial revolution. Global scientific and technological innovation has 
exhibited new trends and features. Cross-disciplinary integration is accelerating, 
new disciplines continue to emerge, and scientific frontiers keep spreading. 
Significant breakthroughs are being made or expected in basic scientific fields 
such as the structure of matter, the evolution of the universe, the origin of life 
and the nature of consciousness. Widespread diffusion of information, 
biological, new-material and alternative-energy technologies has brought about a 
green, intelligent and ubiquitous technological revolution. 

The boundaries between research into basic and applied sciences, 
technological development and industrialization in the traditional sense are 
becoming increasingly blurred. The chain of scientific and technological 
innovation has become more flexible, technology upgrading and conversion 
have become quicker, and industry upgrading continues to speed up. 

Scientific and technological innovation is constantly transcending 

geological, organizational and technological limitations. It intensifies the 
competition between innovation systems and makes innovative strategic 
competition more important in the competition for comprehensive national 
strength. Scientific and technological innovations, like a fulcrum which is said to 
be able to lever the earth, always create miracles. This has been proved in the 
development of contemporary science and technology. 

In face of the new trends of scientific and technological innovation, the 
world’s major countries are seeking to make new scientific and technological 
breakthroughs and gain competitive edges in future economic as well as 
scientific and technological development. We cannot afford to lag behind in this 
important race. We must catch up and then try to surpass others. 

Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy some three 
decades ago, China has made remarkable achievements in social and economic 
development. Its economy has leapt to No. 2 in the world, and many of its major 
economic indices rank high on the world’s list. 

Nevertheless we must be clear that our economy, though large in size, is not 
strong. Its growth, though fast, is not of high quality. The extensive development 
model featured by economic growth mainly driven by factor inputs such as 
natural resources is not sustainable. 

Now, the total population of well-off countries in the world is about 1 
billion, while China has more than 1.3 billion people. If we are all to become 
modernized, the well-off population must more than double. If we are to 
consume as much energy in production and daily lives as the present well-off 
people do, all the existing resources in the world would be far from enough for 
us! The old path seems to be a dead end. Where is the new road? It lies in 
scientific and technological innovation, and in the accelerated transition from 
factor-driven and investment-driven growth to innovation-driven growth. 

A few days ago, I read an article which argued that the Third Industrial 
Revolution would be a Robot Revolution. It asserted that robots would change 
the pattern of the global manufacturing industry, and China would become the 
world’s largest robot market. The International Federation of Robotics predicted 
that the Robot Revolution would create a market value of trillions of US dollars. 

Hardware and software for producing robots are becoming increasingly 
mature, the production cost keeps dropping and the functions robots can perform 
are more diversified thanks to the integration between robot technology and the 
new generation of information technology, such as big data, cloud computing 
and the mobile Internet, and the rapid development of 3D printing and artificial 
intelligence. Military unmanned aerial vehicles, self-driving cars and home- 
service robots have been put into application. Some artificially intelligent robots 
have pretty sturdy self-thinking and learning ability. 

Robots are dubbed “pearls on the crown of the manufacturing industry.” A 
country’s achievement in robotics research, development, manufacturing and 
application is an important yardstick with which to measure its level of scientific 
and technological innovation and high-end manufacturing. Major robot- 
producing companies and countries have stepped up their efforts to gain 
advantages in terms of technology and markets. 

I couldn’t help wondering: China will be the largest robot market in the 
world, yet can its technology and manufacturing capability sustain it through the 
competition? We should make better robots and seize bigger market shares. 
There are many such new technologies and new fields. We should size up the 
situation, take the overall picture into account, and make plans as soon as 
possible and implement them solidly. 

To carry out the innovation-driven strategy, the basic thing for us is to 
enhance our independent innovation ability, and the most urgent thing in this 
regard is to remove institutional barriers so as to unleash to the greatest extent 
the huge potential of science and technology as the primary productive force. 
Most importantly, we should unswervingly follow an independent innovation 
path featuring Chinese characteristics, stick to the guiding principles of 
independent innovation, leap-frogging development in key sectors, and 
development supported by science and technology and oriented towards the 
future, and speed up the pace of building an innovative country. 

Years of painstaking efforts have resulted in great progress for China in 
science and technology, and China has entered the advanced ranks in the world 
in some important fields. In certain fields, it has become a “forerunner” or 
“parallel runner” instead of a “follower.” China has entered a vital period, when 
new industrialization, application of information technology, urbanization and 

agricultural modernization are forging ahead simultaneously, in parallel or 
interactively. This has created ample space and an unprecedentedly strong 
momentum for independent innovation. 

1 have repeatedly said that the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation can 
in no way be realized easily. In fact, the stronger we become, the greater 
resistance and pressure we will encounter. That’s why we say that timing and 
resolution are vital, as historical opportunities are often ephemeral. Now we 
have an important historical opportunity to promote scientific and technological 
innovation. We must not miss it, but seize it tightly. 

We are blessed with a solid material foundation laid over the 30-plus years 
of reform and opening up, and the fruits of persistent innovation, which are 
favorable for the innovation-driven strategy. Hence, we should take the initiative 
and adopt a proactive strategy. As to scientific and technological policies of 
great strategic value to our country and nation, we should make up our minds 
and act without any hesitation. Otherwise, we will let slip the historical 
opportunity, and may even have to pay a higher price. 

In March 2013 I talked about scientific and technological innovation at a 
group discussion with scientists during the First Session of the 12th National 
Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Generally 
speaking, the foundation of our scientific and technological innovation is not 
solid enough; our independent innovation ability, especially in the area of 
original creativity, is not strong. We still have to depend on others for core 
technology in key fields. Only by holding key technology in our own hands can 
we really take the initiative in competition and development, and ensure our 
economic security, national security and security in other areas. 

We cannot always decorate our tomorrows with others’ yesterdays. We 
cannot always rely on others’ scientific and technological achievements for our 
own progress. Moreover, we cannot always trail behind others. We have no 
choice but to innovate independently. 

Facts prove that it is self-sufficiency that has enabled the Chinese nation to 
stand among the world’s independent nations, and independent innovation is the 
only path to the summit of science and technology. With this understanding, we 
should waste no time in making a difference. We cannot keep on talking year in 

and year out but do nothing about making a drastic change. 

Of course, we don’t mean to make independent innovation behind closed 
doors or all by ourselves. We shall never reject good experiences from others, 
from any part of the world. We should engage in international scientific and 
technological exchanges and cooperation more proactively, and make good use 
of both domestic and international resources. 

Science and technology are global and time-sensitive, so we must have a 
global vision when we move forward. Currently, important scientific and 
technological breakthroughs and their accelerated application are highly likely to 
reshape the global economic pattern, and change the nature of industry and 
economic competition. 

In traditional international playgrounds, the rules are set by others, and we 
play games by the established rules. Seizing the important opportunities made 
available by the new scientific, technological and industrial revolution means 
that we should be part of the games, and yet we can play a major role in the 
construction of the playgrounds, even at the beginning, so that we can make 
rules for new games. We will not have a chance if we are not capable enough to 
be part, indeed a major part, of the construction team. Opportunities are always 
for those who are fully prepared, and for those who are independent-minded, 
aspiring and persevering. We cannot move forward by leaps and bounds unless 
we do so with innovation. 

Geo-scientist Li Siguang^J said, “Science exists because of new discoveries 
made by it. It would die without new discoveries.”^ French writer Victor Hugo 
said, “Things created are insignificant when compared with things to be 
created.”^ The direction of our scientific and technological development is 
innovation, innovation and more innovation. We should attach great importance 
to breakthroughs in basic theories, step up the construction of scientific 
infrastructure, continue to push ahead with basic, systematic and cutting-edge 
research and development, and provide more resources for independent 
innovation. We should actively integrate and make good use of global 
innovation resources. In response to our current and future needs, we should 
selectively participate in the construction and use of the world’s major scientific 
appliances, and research and development bases and centers. 

We should seize strategic opportunities in key scientific and technological 
realms, select strategically important segments and priority areas relevant to 
overall and long-term development, and promote collaborated innovation and 
open innovation through effective and rational resource allocation. We should 
build an efficient and strong supply system of key generic technology, work hard 
to make great breakthroughs in key technology and hold key technology in our 
own hands. 

“A person with sharp ears can hear sounds others cannot, and a person with 
keen vision can see things others cannot.”^ There is no end to scientific and 
technological innovation. Scientific and technological competition is like short- 
track speed skating. When we speed up, so will others. Those who can skate 
faster and maintain a high speed longer will win the title. Xun Zi^ asserted, “If 
a gallant steed leaps only once, it can cover a distance of no more than ten steps; 
if an inferior horse travels for ten days, it can go a long way because of 
perseverance. If a sculptor stops chipping halfway, he cannot even cut dead 
wood, but if he keeps chipping, he can engrave metal and stone. 

Our scientists and engineers should bravely shoulder their responsibilities, 
overtake others, and find the right direction, to which they should stick. They 
should have the courage and confidence to blaze new trails, overcome 
difficulties and seek excellence, and audaciously make world-leading scientific 
and technological achievements. 

The implementation of an innovation-driven development strategy is a 
systematic project. Scientific and technological achievements can generate real 
value and pay off only if they meet the needs of the country, the people and the 
market, and only after they have gone through the stages of research, 
development and application. 

I have been wondering about the reason why our science and technology 
gradually lagged behind from the late Ming (1368-1644) and early Qing (1644- 
1911) dynasties. Studies show that Qing Emperor Kangxi 1 was very interested 
in Western science and technology. He invited Western missionaries to give him 
lectures on astronomy, mathematics, geography, zoology, anatomy, music and 
even philosophy. More than 100 books on astronomy were introduced to him. 
When did he study these subjects, and for how long? He continuously studied 

them for two years and five months sometime between 1670 and 1682. 

He began his study quite early, and learned quite a lot. The problem was 
that, at that time, although some people were interested in Western learning and 
learned quite a lot of it, they did not apply what they had learned to social and 
economic development. Rather, they simply talked about the knowledge. 

In 1708 the Qing government asked some foreign missionaries to draw a 
map of China. It took them ten years to complete The Map of Imperial China - 
the first of its kind at that time. However, this important work was confined to 
the imperial storehouse as a top-secret document, away from the public eye. 
Therefore, it had no impact on social or economic development. But the Western 
missionaries who had drawn the map took the data back to the West and had it 
published. Hence, for quite a long time the West knew China’s geography better 
than the Chinese people did. 

What can we learn from this story? It means that science and technology 
must be combined with social development. No matter how much one has 
learned, it cannot possibly have any impact on society if the knowledge is 
merely put aside as a novelty, refined interest, clever trick or doubtful craft. 

For years, our scientific and technological achievements could not be 
smoothly converted to productivity. Why? Because there were institutional 
bottlenecks in the scientific and technological innovation chain and loose 
connections between the various links in the innovation and conversion process. 
It is like a relay race: The second baton carrier is not there or has no idea of 
where to head when the first arrives. 

To solve this problem, we must further scientific and technological system 
reform, change mindsets and remove institutional barriers hindering scientific 
and technological innovation, properly handle the relationship between 
government and market, and better integrate science and technology with social 
and economic development. We must open a channel through which science and 
technology can boost industrial, economic and national development. We must 
spur innovation with reform, accelerate the construction and improvement of a 
national innovation system, and let the well water of innovation gush out fully. 

If we compare scientific and technological innovation to a new engine 

driving our development, reform is an indispensible ignition system with which 
to start the engine. We should take more effective measures to improve the 
ignition system, and let the new engine run at full speed. 

While carrying out the reform of the scientific and technological system we 
should prepare ourselves to solve difficult problems, and implement the relevant 
decisions made at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central 
Committee. We should put scientific and technological innovation in the center 
of our overall national development, speed up the preparations for the 
innovation-driven development strategy, and draw road maps and timetables for 
important tasks in this regard. 

The reform of the scientific and technological system should be carried out 
at the same time as social and economic reform. We should reform the planning 
and resource allocation mechanism for the national scientific and technological 
innovation strategy, improve the performance evaluation system and incentive 
policies for officials, further cooperation between industries, universities and 
research institutes, and solve key problems obstructing the conversion of 
scientific and technological achievements as soon as possible. 

We should vigorously improve coordination in scientific and technological 
innovation so as to avoid fragmentation and isolation, as well as overlapping and 
repetition in campaigns launched by departments in various fields. We should set 
up a national innovation system within which experts in all fields can interact 
and collaborate to achieve high efficiency. 

We should improve the infrastructure of scientific and technological 
innovation, build and improve the national scientific and technological reporting 
system, and make innovations in the survey system, and national scientific and 
technological management information system as soon as possible, so as to 
maximize resource sharing. We should deploy the innovation setup around the 
industrial setup as well as the capital setup around the innovation setup. We 
should focus on national strategic goals and pool resources to tackle key 
scientific and technological problems pertaining to the national economy and the 
people’s livelihood. 

We should move faster to improve the basic research system, with the focus 
on cutting-edge basic research, key common technology, and high-tech for 

public welfare and that of strategic importance. We should double our efforts in 
completing important national scientific projects, and race to the front of 
international scientific research. While centering on scientific and technological 
innovation, we should also accelerate innovation in product, brand, industrial 
structure and business model. We should carry out the innovation-driven 
strategy throughout the modernization process. 

While furthering the reform of scientific and technological systems, we 
should pay attention to a magic wand vital to our success - our socialist system. 
We have made many noticeable achievements in science and technology this 
way. This practice must not be given up! We should let the market play a 
decisive role in allocating resources and the government play its role better. We 
should step up planning and coordination as well as collaborative innovation. 
We should pool our efforts to accomplish big tasks, and focus on important, 
cutting-edge and basic research. 

“To accomplish extraordinary feats, we must wait for extraordinary 
persons.”^ Competent personnel are the most crucial factor for scientific and 
technological innovation. Respecting them has long been a fine Chinese 
tradition. As described in The Book of Songs King Wen of the Zhou 
Dynasty^ respected competent people, who hence flocked to him, so his 
country became strong and prosperous. They are the most important factors for a 
country’s long-term development. We need them for our great national 
rejuvenation. The more talented, the better; the more knowledgeable, the better. 

China is a country rich in manpower and wisdom. The wisdom of our 1.3 
billion people is our most precious possession. Knowledge is power, and 
competent personnel shape the future. If we want to get to the forefront of global 
scientific and technological innovation we must discover, nurture and retain such 
people throughout the whole process of innovation. We must train a large 
number of high-caliber, creative scientists and engineers. 

We are proud of having the greatest number of scientists and engineers in 
the world. Nonetheless, we face a serious structural deficiency of innovative 
scientists and engineers, particularly world-class and other leading and high- 
caliber ones. The education and training that our engineers have received so far 
are not geared towards production and innovation. 

“If you want one year of prosperity, then grow grain; if you want ten years 
of prosperity, then grow trees; if you want one hundred years of prosperity, then 
you grow people.”^ We should make human resource development a top 
priority for scientific and technological innovation. We should improve the 
mechanism for training, recruiting and using competent personnel. We should 
work hard to foster a contingent of world-class scientists and engineers and other 
leading and high-caliber ones, as well as high-level innovation teams. We should 
focus on training young innovative scientists and engineers for the front lines. 

We should perfect our competence-nurturing mechanism according to 
personnel development laws. “We should respect a tree’s nature, and let it grow 
freely.”^ We should not seek quick success and instant benefits, or try to help 
young shoots grow by dragging them up. We should encourage both competition 
and cooperation, and promote a rational and orderly flow of competent 
personnel. We should attract outstanding experts and scholars from overseas for 
our scientific and technological innovation. We should create a social 
environment that encourages innovation and values success while tolerating 
well-intentioned failure. We should improve the competent-personnel evaluation 
system and create ample space for such people to give full play to their talents. 

The future belongs to the young. Innovative young people are the source of 
our creativity and the best hope for our scientific and technological development. 
“I beg Old Man Heaven to bestir himself, and send down talented people of 
more kinds than one.”^ Academicians should not only be pioneers in scientific 
and technological innovation, but also guides for young people. I hope that they 
will shoulder their responsibility in nurturing young scientists and engineers, 
instruct them through words and actions, and continuously discover, train and 
recommend competent personnel, so that innovative people can stand out from 
the crowd. Young scientists and engineers should be dedicated to science, 
develop innovative thinking, tap innovative potential and enhance innovative 
ability. They should continue to push ahead while learning from previous 

Notes 13

[1] Li Siguang (1889-1971) was a famous Chinese geologist and one of the founders of China’s 

[2] Li Siguang: “What Have Geologists Done in the Scientific Frontline?”, The Complete Works of Li 
Siguang, Vol. 8, Chinese ed., Hubei People’s Publishing House, 1996, p. 243. 

[3] Victor Hugo: On William Shakespeare. 

[4] Sima Qian: Records of the Historian (Shi Ji). Sima Qian (c. 145 or 135-? BC) was a historian and 
writer in the Western Han Dynasty. The book, China’s first biographical-style historical and literary 
masterpiece, covers more than 3,000 years from the legendary Yellow Emperor to Emperor Wu of the Han 

[5] Xun Zi (c. 325-238 BC) was a philosopher, thinker and educator of the late Warring States 
Period. He believed that man could conquer nature, and that human nature was evil. His book Xun Zi 
summarizes and develops the philosophical thoughts of Confucianism, Taoism and Mohism in the pre-Qin 
Dynasty period. 

[6] Xun Zi: Xun Zi. 

[7] Emperor Kangxi (1654-1722) ruled the Qing empire from 1661 to 1722. 

[8] Ban Gu: The Book of the Han Dynasty (Han Shu), also known as The Book of the Western Han 
Dynasty (Qian Han Shu). This was the first chronological dynastic history of China. Ban Gu was a historian 
in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). 

[9] The Book of Songs (Shi Jing) was the earliest collection of poems in China. It contains 305 poems 
collected over some 500 years from the early Western Zhou Dynasty (c. 11th century-771 BC) to the 
middle of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). 

[10] King Wen of Zhou (dates unknown), also known as Ji Chang, was the founder of the Zhou 

[11] Guan Zi: Guan Zi. Guan Zi (c. 720-645 BC), also known as Guan Zhong, was a reform-minded 
official of the State of Qi during the Spring and Autumn Period. 

[12] Liu Zongyuan: Tree Planter Hunchback Guo. Liu Zongyuan (773-819) was a writer and 
philosopher in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). 

[13] Gong Zizhen: Miscellaneous Poems of 1839 (Ji Hai Za Shi). Gong Zizhen (1792-1841) was a 
thinker, historian and poet in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). 

Revolutionize Energy Production and Consumption 

June 13, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the sixth meeting of the Central Leading Group on Financial and 
F,conomic Affairs. 

Energy security is an issue of general and strategic significance in the 
economic and social development of a country. It is crucial to driving national 
development and prosperity, improving standards of living, and ensuring lasting 
social peace and stability. In the face of changes in energy demand and supply 
and new developments in the international energy landscape, China must ensure 
national energy security by increasing energy production and creating a 
revolution in consumption. This is a long-term strategy, but it must be supported 
by key tasks and major steps that require immediate action. 

After years of development, China has become the world’s largest energy 
producer and consumer, with an energy supply structure that includes coal, 
electricity, petroleum, natural gas, new energy, and renewable energy. 
Remarkable improvements have been made in technology and equipment, and in 
the efficiency of both domestic and industrial energy use. Although China has 
achieved great success in energy development, it still faces a range of 
challenges, including huge pressure on the demand side, a number of supply 
limitations, serious environmental damage caused by energy production and 
consumption, and outdated technology. We must develop a strategic overview of 
national development and security to assess the situation, and then define a 
sound energy blueprint for the future. 

First, we must revolutionize energy consumption, and rein in irrational 
energy use. We need to impose strict controls on overall energy use, effectively 
implement a policy in which energy conservation is the top priority, and save 
energy across the board in all spheres of economic and social activity. We 
should also adjust the structure of the energy industry, make energy conservation 
a priority in urbanization, and encourage an attitude to consumption 
characterized by diligence and thrift. We must build an energy-conserving 


Second, we must revolutionize energy supply. To ensure energy security we 
must set up a supply system reliant on diversified energy sources, promote the 
clean and efficient use of coal, and develop non-coal energy sources, thereby 
creating an energy supply system driven by coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear 
energy, new energy and renewable energy. At the same time, we should upgrade 
our transmission and distribution network, and build more storage facilities. 

Third, we must revolutionize energy technology, and upgrade the related 
industrial structure. We should encourage innovation in technology, in industry, 
and in business models, and pursue green and low-carbon energy development 
suited to our national conditions and adapted to positive international trends in 
the energy technology revolution. We will combine such innovation with new 
and high technology in other fields, and transform our energy technology and 
related industries into a new powerhouse to drive the overall industrial 
upgrading of our country. 

Fourth, we must revolutionize the energy market. We will proceed with 
reform, restore energy’s status as a commodity, build a system of workable 
competition, and put in place a mechanism in which energy prices are largely 
driven by the market. In addition, we will change the way that the government 
supervises the energy industry, and establish and improve the legal framework 
for energy development. 

Fifth, we must enhance international cooperation in all sectors, and ensure 
that opening up supports energy security. While relying mainly on domestic 
energy sources, we will strengthen international cooperation in all sectors related 
to energy production and consumption, and make effective use of resources from 
other countries. 

We need to study the 13th Five-year Plan for energy development, and 
work out a strategy to revolutionize energy production and consumption by 
2030. We will move faster in revising energy efficiency standards. All outdated 
regulations must be revised, updated on a regular basis and implemented. We 
will continue to build large coal-fueled electricity generating power bases each 
with a capacity of ten million kw. We will tighten the criteria for coal-burning 
power stations, upgrading all those that do not meet energy conservation and 

emission reduction standards within a specified time, and continue to develop 
long-distance, high-capacity power transmission technology. New nuclear 
projects on the coast will be launched as soon as possible, and they will be 
subject to the world’s highest safety standards. 

In addition, China will encourage energy cooperation through the “One Belt 
and One Road,”^ and expand oil and gas cooperation with countries in Central 
Asia, the Middle East, the Americas and Africa. We will also intensify our 
efforts in energy exploration and extraction, and build more oil and gas pipelines 
and storage facilities. We will improve our emergency response, enhance 
capacity building, improve systems providing energy statistics, and launch 
initiatives to create, revise and abrogate laws and regulations in the energy 

Notes 14

[1] “One Belt and One Road” refer to the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime 
Silk Road. 

Rule of Law 

Commemorate the 30th Anniversary of the Promulgation and 
Implementation of the Current Constitution 

December 4, 2012 

* Speech at the Meeting of the People from All Walks of Life in Beijing to Commemorate the 30th 
Anniversary of the Promulgation and Implementation of the Current Constitution. 

Comrades and friends: 

On December 4, 1982 the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People’s 
Congress (NPC) adopted the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. It 
has been 30 years since the Constitution was promulgated and implemented. 
Today, we are gathered here to solemnly commemorate this event of great 
historical and practical significance in order to ensure the comprehensive and 
effective implementation of the Constitution and carry out the guidelines of the 
18th CPC National Congress. 

History is always inspiring. Looking back on the progress of the Chinese 
constitutional system, we are deeply aware that it is closely connected with the 
arduous struggle and splendid achievements of the Party and the people, and 
with the trail we have blazed and the valuable experience we have gained. 

The current Constitution can be traced back to the Common Program of the 
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), which was 
promulgated in 1949 to serve as the provisional Constitution, and the 
Constitution of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the First Session of 
the First NPC in 1954. These documents affirmed the heroic struggle of the 
Chinese people against domestic and foreign enemies and their striving for 
national independence and people’s freedom and happiness over the previous 
100 years in modern China, and affirmed the history in which the CPC led the 
Chinese people in winning victory in the New Democratic Revolution^ and in 
acquiring state power. 

In 1978 the CPC convened the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central 

Committee, which was of great historical significance, ushering in a new 
historical period of reform and opening up. Developing socialist democracy and 
improving the socialist legal system became the unalterable basic principle of 
the Party and the state. It was at this meeting that Deng Xiaoping pointed out 
profoundly: “To ensure people’s democracy we must strengthen our legal 
system. Democracy has to be institutionalized and written into law, so as to 
make sure that institutions and laws do not change whenever the leadership 
changes, or whenever the leaders change their views or shift the focus of their 
attention.”^ In accordance with the guidelines, principles and policies set forth 
at the Third Plenary Session, we reviewed China’s positive and negative 
experience in building socialism, drew the hard lessons from the ten-year 
Cultural Revolution^ (1966-1976), learned from the gains and losses of world 
socialism, and adapted to the new requirements of reform and opening up and 
socialist modernization, and the new demands of socialist democracy and the 
legal system in China, whereby we promulgated the current Constitution. 
However, the Constitution must adjust to new circumstances, draw on new 
experiences and affirm new achievements, so as to maintain ever-lasting vitality. 
In 1988, 1993, 1999 and 2004, respectively, the NPC made necessary and 
important amendments to the Constitution, so as to ensure that it kept up with 
the times while maintaining its consistency and authority. 

As the fundamental law of the state, the Constitution verifies the 
developments concerning the path, theories and system of socialism with 
Chinese characteristics, demonstrates the common will and fundamental 
interests of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, and has become the supreme 
expression of the central work, basic principles, major guidelines and important 
policies of the Party and the state in the national legal system. 

Over the past 30 years the Constitution, relying on its supreme legal status 
and powerful legal force, has convincingly ensured that the Chinese people are 
the masters of the country, vigorously promoted reform and opening up and 
socialist modernization, advanced the building of a law-based socialist country, 
facilitated the cause of human rights, safeguarded national reunification, ethnic 
unity and social stability, and exerted a profound influence on the political, 
economic, cultural and social life of China. 

The Constitution has fully proved over the past 30 years that it is a good 

Constitution that suits China’s national conditions and reality, and the 
requirements of the times; that it is a cogent Constitution that demonstrates the 
common will of the people, safeguards their right to democracy, and protects 
their fundamental interests; that it is a vigorous Constitution that promotes 
national development and progress, guarantees a happy life for the people, and 
ensures that the Chinese nation achieves its great rejuvenation; and that it is the 
fundamental legal guarantee enabling our country and people to pass through all 
difficulties, risks and tests and to forge ahead along the socialist path with 
Chinese characteristics. 

From the implementation of the Constitution over the past 60-plus years 
since the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, we can see that the 
Constitution is closely bound up with the future of the country and the destiny of 
the people. Safeguarding the authority of the Constitution is safeguarding the 
authority of the common will of the Party and the people. Upholding the dignity 
of the Constitution is upholding the dignity of the common will of the Party and 
the people. Ensuring the implementation of the Constitution is ensuring the 
people’s fundamental interests. As long as we respect and implement the 
Constitution the people will be able to be masters of the country, and the cause 
of the Party and the state will be able to progress smoothly. If the Constitution is 
disregarded, weakened or even sabotaged, the people’s rights and freedoms 
cannot be guaranteed, and the cause of the Party and the state will suffer. 
Therefore, precious inspirations from long-term practice must be cherished. We 
should be more active in taking the initiative in abiding by the principles 
prescribed by the Constitution, carrying forward its essence and fulfilling the 
duties it prescribes. 

While fully affirming our achievements, we should also be aware of our 
shortcomings: The oversight mechanisms and pertinent systems to ensure the 
implementation of the Constitution are not yet complete; laws are not properly 
observed or strictly enforced, and lawbreakers are not prosecuted by some local 
regions and government agencies; problems concerning the people’s direct 
interests remain prominent in law enforcement and jurisdiction; abuse of power, 
malfeasance and dereliction of duty by government employees, and lawbreaking 
by law-enforcement personnel for personal gain have seriously damaged the 
authority of the national legal system; and awareness of the need to observe the 
Constitution among citizens and some officials needs to be further enhanced. We 

must pay close attention to and earnestly solve these problems. 

Comrades and friends, 

The 18th CPC National Congress stressed: The rule of law is a fundamental 
principle by which the Party leads the people in running the country; the rule of 
law is the basic way to run the country; we should give greater scope to the 
important role the rule of law plays in the country’s governance and social 
management; and we should promote law-based governance of the country in an 
all-round way, and accelerate the building of a socialist country based on the rule 
of law. To achieve this objective, we must comprehensively implement the 

Comprehensively implementing the Constitution is the primary task and 
groundwork for building a law-based socialist country. The Constitution is the 
fundamental law of the state and the general program for managing state affairs; 
enjoying supreme legal status, legal authority and legal validity, it is 
fundamental and consistent, and is of overall and long-term importance. The 
people of all ethnic groups, all government agencies, the armed forces, all 
political parties and public organizations, and all enterprises and public 
institutions in the country must take the Constitution as the basic standard of 
conduct and regard it as a duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and 
ensure its implementation. No organization or individual is privileged to act 
beyond the Constitution or the law. All acts in violation of the Constitution or 
the law must be investigated. 

The life of the Constitution is in its implementation, and so is its authority. 
We must persistently ensure the implementation of the Constitution, and raise 
the comprehensive implementation of the Constitution to a new level. 

First, we should uphold the correct political direction, and keep to the 
socialist path of making political progress with Chinese characteristics. Since the 
reform and opening-up policy was introduced in 1978 our Party, rallying and 
leading the people, has made major progress in developing socialist democracy, 
and successfully opened up and kept to the socialist path of making political 
advance with Chinese characteristics, thus charting the correct course for 
achieving the most-extensive-possible people’s democracy in China. The core 
thought, underlying component and basic requirement of this political path are 

all affirmed in the Constitution, their theoretical essence being closely related, 
integrated and mutually reinforcing. We must uphold, implement and develop 
the systems and principles set forth in the Constitution, namely, the basic system 
and basic tasks of the state, the core leadership and theoretical guidance of the 
state, the state system which is a socialist state under the people’s democratic 
dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and 
farmers, the system of people’s congresses as the system of government, the 
system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership 
of the CPC, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, the system of community- 
level self-governance, the patriotic united front, the socialist legal system, the 
principle of democratic centralism, and the principle of respecting and 
safeguarding human rights. 

The key to keeping to the socialist path of making political progress with 
Chinese characteristics is to ensure the unity of the leadership of the Party, the 
position of the people as masters of the country and law-based governance, so as 
to guarantee the fundamental position of the people, to reach the goal of 
enhancing the vitality of the Party and the country and keeping the people fully 
motivated, to expand socialist democracy and to promote socialist political 
progress. We must uphold the idea prescribed in the Constitution that all power 
of the state belongs to the people; extensively mobilize and organize the people 
to exercise state power through people’s congresses at all levels, and to manage 
state and social affairs and economic and cultural programs by various means 
and in various forms; and ensure that the people jointly participate in national 
development, share the benefits of progress, accomplish the common cause, and 
become the masters of the country, of society and of themselves. Adhering to the 
principle of democratic centralism, the system of state power and the standards 
of actions defined in the Constitution, we should exercise state power through 
the people’s congresses, ensure that decision-making power, executive power 
and oversight power function independently but are coordinated with each other, 
ensure that government agencies exercise their power and perform their duties in 
accordance with statutory mandates and procedures, and ensure that government 
agencies organize all undertakings concertedly and effectively. Abiding by the 
systems and principles established by the Constitution, we should correctly 
handle the relationship between the central and local governments, between all 
ethnic groups and between the interests of all parties, and mobilize all positive 
efforts to consolidate the political situation and make it more democratic, 

unified, stable and harmonious. We should adapt ourselves to the needs of 
expanding people’s democracy and promoting social and economic 
development, proactively and steadily advance political reforms, make people’s 
democracy more extensive, adequate and complete, give full play to the strength 
of our socialist political system, and constantly push forward the self- 
improvement and development of the socialist political system. 

Second, we should implement the rule of law as the basic strategy, 

and accelerate the building of a law-based socialist country. The 
Constitution establishes the fundamental principle of our socialist legal system, 
explicitly stipulates that the People’s Republic of China practices the rule of law 
and builds a law-based socialist country, and the state upholds the uniformity 
and dignity of the socialist legal system. To implement the rule of law as the 
basic strategy, and accelerate the building of a law-based socialist country we 
should make laws through proper procedures, enforce them strictly, administer 
justice impartially, and ensure that everyone abides by the law. 

We must take the Constitution as the supreme legal norm, continue to 
improve our socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics underpinned 
by the Constitution, bring all state undertakings and work onto the track of the 
legal system, ensure that there are laws to abide by, that laws are observed and 
strictly enforced, and that lawbreakers are prosecuted, safeguard social fairness 
and justice, and make state and social life more institutionalized and law-based. 
The NPC and its Standing Committee must enhance legislation in key fields, 
expand the channels for the people’s orderly participation in legislation, promote 
the implementation of the Constitution through well-established laws, and ensure 
the implementation of the systems and principles established by the Constitution. 
The State Council and local people’s congresses along with their standing 
committees with legislative power must formulate and amend administrative and 
local regulations in accordance with current laws, so as to ensure the effective 
implementation of the Constitution and laws. State administrative, judicial and 
procuratorial bodies at all levels must exercise government administration in 
accordance with the law, administer justice impartially, accelerate the building 
of law-based government, and constantly increase judicial credibility. The State 
Council and local people’s governments at all levels are the executive and 
administrative bodies of state power, and bear the major responsibility of strictly 
implementing the Constitution and laws, and so must promote procedure-based 

government conduct and conscientiously ensure strict, impartial and civilized 
law enforcement. We should continue the reform of the judicial structure to a 
deeper level, and ensure the independent and impartial exercise of judicial and 
procuratorial powers pursuant to law. The NPC and its Standing Committee and 
related state oversight bodies should fulfill their oversight duties, enhance 
oversight and inspection for the implementation of the Constitution and laws, 
improve oversight mechanisms and procedures, and resolutely correct breaches 
of the Constitution and laws. Local people’s congresses at all levels and their 
standing committees must exercise their powers in accordance with the law, and 
make sure that the Constitution and laws are observed and enforced in their 
respective administrative regions. 

Third, we must maintain the people’s dominant position in the country, and 
ensure that all citizens enjoy their rights and perform their duties. The 
fundamental rights and duties of citizens are the core of the Constitution, which 
in turn serves as the fundamental guarantee for every citizen to enjoy his rights 
and perform his duties. The underpinning of the Constitution is the people’s 
heartfelt support, and the power of the Constitution lies in the people’s sincere 
faith. Only by ensuring that all citizens are equal before the law, by respecting 
and protecting human rights and by ensuring that the people enjoy extensive 
rights and freedoms as prescribed by law, can the Constitution take root in the 
people’s minds, can it be well received by the people, and can all the people take 
the initiative in implementing the Constitution. 

We must ensure that all citizens enjoy extensive rights in accordance with 
the law, that their right of the person and property and basic political rights are 
inviolable, and that their economic, cultural and social rights are exercised. We 
must safeguard the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the 
people, and fulfill their aspirations for and pursuit of a better life. We should 
address public demands impartially and in accordance with the law, enable the 
people to feel that justice is served in every case before the courts, and eradicate 
elements that hurt their sentiments or damage their interests. We should enhance 
publicity and education about the Constitution widely in society, improve the 
awareness of the need to abide by the Constitution and legal system among all 
the people, especially among officials at all levels and government employees, 
carry forward the socialist rule of law, cultivate a law-based socialist culture, 
make the Constitution known to every household, and create a good social 

atmosphere of studying, observing and applying the law. We should make 
unremitting efforts to firmly establish the authority of the Constitution and laws, 
get the people to fully trust the law, consciously apply the law and be aware that 
the Constitution is not only the code of conduct that all citizens must abide by 
but also a legal weapon to safeguard their rights and interests. We should take 
education about the Constitution as a major element of Party officials’ training, 
ensure that officials at all levels and government employees master the basic 
knowledge of the Constitution, and cultivate the consciousness to be loyal to, 
abide by and uphold the Constitution. Law is written morality, while morality is 
conscious law. We should integrate the rule of law with rule by virtue, pay more 
attention to the rule of virtue in citizens’ conduct, and encourage citizens to 
protect their legitimate rights and interests in accordance with the law while 
conscientiously fulfilling their duties prescribed by law, which means enjoying 
rights while performing duties. 

Fourth, we should uphold the Party’s leadership, and lay greater emphasis 
on improving the way it exercises leadership and governance. In essence, the 
rule of law is rule by the Constitution; the key to law-based governance is 
Constitution-based governance. In the new circumstances, to perform its duty 
properly in state governance and national rejuvenation, our Party should exercise 
strict discipline, and govern the country in accordance with the Constitution. As 
it leads the people in formulating and implementing the Constitution and laws, 
the Party must act within the limits prescribed by the Constitution and laws, and 
ensure that it exercises leadership in legislation, guarantees law enforcement and 
takes the lead in observing the law. 

We must ensure that the Party plays its proper role as the leadership core in 
exercising overall leadership and coordinating the efforts of all, upholds the rule 
of law as the fundamental strategy and administration in accordance with the law 
as the basic way, turns the Party’s views into the will of the state through legal 
procedures, trains candidates recommended by Party organizations to become 
leaders of agencies of state power, exercises the Party’s leadership over the 
country and society through the agencies of state power, and supports the 
agencies of state power along with the administrative, judicial and procuratorial 
bodies to carry out their work separately yet concertedly in accordance with the 
Constitution and laws. Party organizations and officials at all levels should set an 
example in promoting the rule of law, constantly improve their law-based 

governance capacity and level, and persistently push ahead institutionalized and 
law-based management of state affairs. Officials at all levels should upgrade 
their ability in both thinking and action to further the reform to a deeper level, 
promote development, resolve problems and maintain stability, form a law-based 
approach to administering affairs, dealing with difficulties, handling problems 
and resolving conflicts, and advance all undertakings along the path of the rule 
of law. We should improve the mechanism for conducting checks and oversight 
on the exercise of power, through linking power with responsibility, supervising 
the exercise of power, enforcing accountability for dereliction of duty, and 
prosecuting breaches of the law, so that the power granted by the people can 
always be exercised in their interests. 

Comrades and friends, 

The whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups must rally closely 
around the Party Central Committee, uphold socialism with Chinese 
characteristics, follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important 
thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development, 
promote the rule of law and law-based governance and administration, build a 
law-based country, government and society, and conscientiously implement the 
guiding principles of the 18th CPC National Congress in all their work for the 
goals of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and ushering in 
a new stage of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

Notes 15

[1] The New Democratic Revolution (1919-1949) is a bourgeois democratic revolution against 
imperialism and feudal dictatorship under the leadership of the proletariat. It did not aim at founding a 
republic ruled by the bourgeoisie, but a people’s republic led by the proletariat, based on the worker-peasant 
alliance, and ruled by all the revolutionary classes. Spanning three decades from 1919, when the May 4th 
Movement began, to 1949, when the People’s Republic of China was founded, the revolution waged by the 
CPC against imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism is dubbed the New Democratic Revolution. 

[2] Deng Xiaoping: “Emancipate the Mind, Seek Truth from Facts and Unite as One in Looking to 
the Future,” Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol. II, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1994, p. 

[3] The Great Cultural Revolution, or Cultural Revolution for short, refers to the political movement 
wrongly launched by Mao Zedong that lasted from May 1966 to October 1976 and was participated in by 
the general public. Manipulated by Lin Biao and the counter-revolutionary group represented by Jiang 
Qing, it caused grave disasters to the CPC, the country and the people of all ethnic groups. 

Develop a Law-based Country, Government and Society 

February 23, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the fourth group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

Our efforts to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in 
all respects presuppose a higher demand for the rule of law. We should 
comprehensively implement the guiding principles of the 18th CPC National 
Congress, and follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important 
thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. We 
should take a well-designed approach to legislation, enforce the law strictly, 
administer justice impartially, and ensure that everyone abides by the law. We 
should exercise governance and administration in accordance with the law, 
develop a law-based country, government and society simultaneously, and 
thereby bring the rule of law to a new stage. 

A system of socialist laws with Chinese characteristics, with the 
Constitution to the fore, has been formed in China, so overall we have laws to 
abide by in all aspects of state and social life. This is a great achievement. The 
laws, based on practice, should develop as the situation changes. We will 
improve legislation plans, concentrate on priorities, attach equal importance to 
making new laws and revising and repealing existing ones, make legislation 
more appropriate and democratic, and make laws more targeted, timely and 
systematic. We should improve the working mechanism and procedures of 
legislation, expand the scale of orderly public participation, and give full 
consideration to the opinions of all parties involved, so as to make the laws 
properly reflect the needs of economic and social development, better coordinate 
interests, and give full play to the leading and motivational role of legislation. 

We should strengthen the enforcement of the Constitution and the law, and 
uphold the unity, dignity and authority of the socialist legal system, so that 
people neither want, nor are able, nor dare to break the law. We will make sure 
that laws are abided by and strictly enforced, and lawbreakers are prosecuted. 

Administrative bodies are important in implementing laws and regulations, so 
they should take the lead in enforcing laws and safeguarding public interests, the 
people’s rights and public order. Law executors should be faithful to the law. 
Leading bodies and officials at all levels should become better able to think and 
act based on law, and work to reach consensus on reform, promote procedure- 
based development, resolve conflicts, and safeguard social harmony in 
accordance with the law. We will strengthen the oversight of law enforcement, 
make sure that there is no illegal interference in law enforcement, and prevent 
and overcome regional and departmental protectionism. We will fight 
corruption, and make sure that those who have power take responsibility, the 
exercise of power is subject to oversight and lawbreakers are prosecuted. 

We will make every effort to ensure that the people feel that justice is 
served in every court case. Bearing this in mind, all judicial bodies should 
improve their work, focusing on resolving the deep-seated problems that affect 
judicial justice and constrain our judicial capacity. We should ensure justice for 
the people and improve our judicial working practices. We should provide good 
services to help people overcome barriers to justice, particularly by increasing 
legal aid for people in difficulties to safeguard their legitimate rights. Judicial 
workers need to maintain close ties with the people, carry out procedure-based 
judicial activities, increase judicial transparency, and respond to the people’s 
concern and expectations for judicial justice and transparency. We will ensure 
that judicial and procuratorial bodies exercise their power independently and 
impartially in accordance with the law. 

All organizations and individuals should act within the scope prescribed by 
the Constitution and the law. All citizens, social organizations and government 
agencies should act and exercise their rights and powers, and fulfill their 
obligations and duties in accordance with the Constitution and the law. We will 
make sure that the laws are well received by the people, foster socialist rule of 
law throughout society, encourage all the people to observe the law and solve 
their problems by the law, and form a favorable environment in which it is held 
to be honorable to observe the law. We will combine education in the legal 
system with law-based governance, and promote social administration under the 
rule of law. We should integrate the rule of law with rule by virtue and legal 
enforcement with ethical progress, encourage both regulation by laws and by 
self-discipline, and ensure that the rule of law and rule by virtue complement and 

reinforce each other. 

The CPC is the ruling party in China. The Party’s law-based governance is 
of great significance for ensuring the rule of law. We must ensure the unity of 
the Party’s leadership, the position of the people as masters of the country and 
law-based governance, and follow the Party’s leadership in the entire process of 
ruling the country by law. Party organizations at all levels should act within the 
scope prescribed by the Constitution and the law. Officials at all levels should 
perform their duties in accordance with the law and take the lead in abiding by 
the law. Organization departments of the Party at all levels should make the 
performance of officials in accordance with the law an important criterion for 
their assessment. 

Promote Social Fairness and Justice, Ensure a Happy Life for the 


January 7, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at a central conference on judicial, procuratorial and public security 


We should make safeguarding social stability our basic task, promote social 
fairness and justice as core values, and ensure a happy life for the people as our 
fundamental target. We should enforce the law strictly, administer justice 
impartially, further promote reform, strengthen and improve judicial, 
procuratorial and public security work, and safeguard the vital interests of the 
people. In so doing, we will ensure the realization of the Two Centenary Goals 
and the Chinese Dream of the nation’s great renewal. 

Judicial, procuratorial and public security departments should take a clear 
stand in upholding the leadership of the Party. This means upholding the 
people’s status as the masters of the country and implementing law-based 
governance, the Party’s basic strategy of leading the people in governing the 
country. We should unswervingly adhere to the Party’s leadership over judicial, 
procuratorial and public security work, and at the same time strengthen and 
improve its leadership. 

We should correctly balance the Party’s policies and the state’s laws. Both 
reflect the fundamental will of the people, and share the same nature. The Party 
leads the people in enacting and enforcing the Constitution and laws. It 
guarantees the enforcement of the laws enacted under its leadership and takes the 
lead in observing them. Judicial, procuratorial and public security officers should 
conscientiously safeguard the authority of the Party’s policies and the state’s 
laws, and make sure that both are executed properly. We should properly 
balance the need to uphold the Party’s leadership and the need for judicial, 
procuratorial and public security organs to exercise their power independently 
and impartially in accordance with the law. Party organizations and officials at 
all levels should support these organs in taking responsibility independently in 

accordance with the Constitution and laws, and carrying out their work in a 
concerted and coordinated way. Commissions for judicial, procuratorial and 
public security affairs under the Party committees should have clearly defined 
functions. They should apply the rule of law to their leadership over judicial, 
procuratorial and public security work and play a key role in modernizing the 
governance system and capacity of the state. 

It is a basic task for judicial, procuratorial and public security organs to 
maintain social stability. We should keep a careful balance between maintaining 
social stability and safeguarding the people’s legitimate rights and interests. We 
should address the people’s proper and lawful demands on matters affecting 
their interests, and improve the institutions that are important for safeguarding 
their vital interests. We should assert the authority of the law in solving 
conflicts, so that people are convinced that their rights and interests are protected 
impartially and effectively. In addition, we should identify a balance between 
enlivening development and maintaining public order. We need to deal with 
social conflicts systematically and comprehensively at the source and in 
accordance with the law, as well as to mobilize the whole of society to safeguard 
social stability. 

Judicial, procuratorial and public security work is aimed at achieving social 
fairness and justice as core values. In a sense, promoting fairness and justice is 
the lifeblood of this work, and judicial, procuratorial and public security organs 
are the last line in defense of social justice and fairness. Judicial, procuratorial 
and public security officers should use the scales of fairness and the sword of 
justice to guarantee a fair and just society with concrete actions, and ensure 
access to fairness and justice for every individual. We should focus on 
addressing serious violations of people’s rights and interests. We should never 
turn down people who ask us for help, never refuse to accept their cases because 
they cannot pay, never abuse power to violate people’s legitimate rights and 
interests, or violate the law to create injustices and wrongly decided cases. 

It is the fundamental purpose of judicial, procuratorial and public security 
work to ensure that the people lead a happy life. Judicial, procuratorial and 
public security organs and officers should address the people’s problems the way 
they do their own, and work on the people’s small problems the way they do 
their own big problems. We will work for the satisfaction of the people and 
correct any of our practices they are not happy about. We will provide effective 

legal protection for the people’s happy life. We should strengthen the 
comprehensive maintenance of public order, and resolutely reverse the rising 
incidence of serious crimes to protect the people’s lives and property. 

To accomplish their noble mission entrusted by the Party and people, 
judicial, procuratorial and public security organs must enforce the law strictly 
and administer justice impartially. Justice breeds trust, and honesty fosters 
credibility. We should uphold our professional conscience and enforce the law 
for the good of the people. We should guide judicial, procuratorial and public 
security officers to act within the bounds of their professional code of conduct, 
never tolerate what the people detest, act quickly if the people so require, and 
strictly administer justice with awe-inspiring integrity. We should believe in and 
implement the rule of law, acquire a good knowledge and profound 
understanding of the law, and abide by and defend the law. We should hold our 
position firm, uphold righteousness, and respect only facts and the law in law 

Impartial law enforcement should be guaranteed by institutions. We will 
apply institutions to every aspect of law enforcement as a “wall” wired with 
“high-tension electricity line.” Violators will be subject to the severest possible 
penalties, or be prosecuted for criminal liability if the circumstances constitute a 
crime. Open trials promote justice, and transparency ensures impartiality. We 
should take the initiative in making trials open and inviting oversight to render 
manipulation and judicial corruption impossible. 

Officials at all levels should take the lead in acting in accordance with the 
law, and make sure that they do not do anything that violates the law. They 
should not exercise power that is not allowed for them by law or, even worse, 
override the law by fiat or bend the law. We should establish a sound 
registration, filing and reporting mechanism, as well as an accountability 
mechanism for officials’ intervention injudicial affairs in violation of statutory 

On the whole, our judicial, procuratorial and public security officers are 
good. They are loyal to the Party, serve our people, are able to take on tough 
challenges, and brave death. They are highly competent functionaries the Party 
and the people can absolutely trust. Party committees and governments at all 
levels should implement preferential policies and measures for these officers, 

and help them with their practical problems. We should build a contingent of 
judicial, procuratorial and public security officers who have firm political 
beliefs, strong professional expertise, a good sense of responsibility and 
discipline, and good moral character, are firm in their faith, enforce the law for 
the people, are not afraid to take on responsibilities, and are upright and honest. 

It is essential for our judicial, procuratorial and public security officers to 
have firm ideals and convictions. We should give top priority to education in this 
regard for these officers. We should make sure that they uphold socialism with 
Chinese characteristics, faithfully follow the orders of the Party, and remain true 
to their mission. We should see to it that they put the Party’s cause, the people’s 
interests and the Constitution and laws above everything else, and remain 
politically loyal to the Party, nation, people and law. 

Judicial, procuratorial and public security officers should fully shoulder 
their responsibility to fight crimes instead of turning a blind eye to them. When 
facing dangerous, urgent or intractable tasks, they should go all out and complete 
them without hesitation. We should strengthen education in discipline and 
improve the mechanism that maintains discipline, and use iron discipline to train 
a strong contingent of judicial, procuratorial and public security officers. We 
should improve their professional expertise to make sure that they complete their 
tasks. We should wipe out corruption in the judicial, procuratorial and public 
security fields with the strongest will and the most resolute actions, and remove 
the bad apples from them. 

Judicial reform is a major part of our political reforms, and greatly helps 
modernize the state’s governance system and capacity. We should provide 
stronger leadership and better coordination, and focus on real results in the 
process of building a just, efficient and authoritative socialist judicial system in 
order to better uphold the Party’s leadership, give full play to the special features 
of China’s judicial system, and promote social fairness and justice. 

Meeting Chinese and foreign journalists at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on 
November 15, 2012, soon after he was elected general secretary of the CPC Central 
Committee at the First Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, along with 
other newly-elected members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau: Li 
Keqiang (3rd from right), Zhang Dejiang (3rd from left), Yu Zhengsheng (2nd from right), 
Liu Yunshan (2nd from left), Wang Qishan (1st from right)and Zhang Gaoli (1stfrom left). 

Shaking hands with Hu Jintao, his predecessor, when meeting with specially-invited 
deputies and non-voting deputies to the 18th CPC National Congress, at the Great Hall of 
the People in Beijing, November 15, 2012. 

Visiting “The Road to Rejuvenation ” exhibition at the National Museum of China, along 
with other leaders, namely Li Keqiang, Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, 
Wang Qishan and Zhang Gaoli, November 29, 2012, when he for the first time put forward 
the idea of the Chinese Dream of great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 

Talking with those who had participated in the construction of the Shenzhen Special 
Economic Zone in Lianhuashan Park of Shenzhen, during his inspection tour of Shenzhen, 
December 8, 2012, when he emphasized the continuation of reform and opening up in the 
new conditions. 

Talking with a salesperson about the price and supply of vegetables at Wuquan Vegetable 
Market, Lanzhou in Gansu Province, February 4, 2013, shortly before the Spring Festival. 

Giving a keynote speech at the closing ceremony of the 12th National People’s Congress, 
March 17, 2013. He was elected president of the People’s Republic of China at the First 
Session of the Congress three days earlier. 

Putting on a bamboo hat given to him by local Li ethnic people at Lande Rose Cultural Park 
on Yalong Bay, during an inspection tour of Hainan Province, April 9, 2013. 

Greeting astronauts Nie Haisheng, Zhang Xiaoguang and Wang Yaping prior to the 
launching of the Shenzhou 10 manned spacecraft at the Jiuquan Satellite Launching 
Center in Gansu Province, June 11, 2013. 

Visiting Yangluo Container Harbor in Wuhan, during his inspection of reform and 
economic development in Hubei Province, July 21, 2013. 

Reviewing the marine guard of honor on The Liaoning, China ’s first aircraft carrier, 
August 28, 2013. 

Chatting with fanners of Shibadong Village, Huayuan County, Xiangxi Tujia and Miao 
Autonomous Prefecture, during an inspection of Hunan Province, November 3, 2013. 

Holding the hand of 83-year-old Wang Kechang, a war veteran, when visiting Zhucun 
Village, Linshu County, an old revolutionary base area in Shandong Province, November 
25, 2013. 

With a soldier on a patrol along the border in Arxan area of the Inner Mongolia 
Autonomous Region, January 26, 2014. The local temperature was below -30°C. 

Awarding a banner of honor to the Falcon Task Force, during his inspection of the Special 
Police Academy of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, April 9, 2014. 

Talking with farmers of Ayagemangan Village, Siuifu County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous 
Region, April 28, 2014. 

Checking the growth of wheat in Zhangshi Township, Weishi County, on an inspection tour 
in Henan Province, May 9, 2014. 

Culturally Advanced China 

Enhance Publicity and Theoretical Work 

August 19, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at a national meeting on publicity and theoretical work. 

Our publicity and theoretical work must help us accomplish the central task 
of economic development and serve the overall interests of the country. 
Therefore, we must bear the big picture in mind and keep in line with the trends. 
We should map out plans with focus on priorities and carry them out in 
accordance with the situation. 

Economic development is the Party’s central task, and ideological progress 
is one of its top priorities. 

Since the convocation of the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central 
Committee in 1978 the Party has made economic development its central task, 
devoting itself to accelerating the economy and improving the people’s lives. 
This central task will not and should not change as long as the domestic or 
international situation does not change dramatically. It is a basic requirement for 
the Party to adhere to its basic line for 100 years and to solve all the problems of 
contemporary China. 

Moreover, to enhance the cause of Chinese socialism we must promote 
material, cultural and ethical progress, strengthen the nation materially, 
culturally and ethically, and improve the material, cultural and ethical lives of 
the people of all ethnic groups. 

Our publicity and theoretical work aims to consolidate Marxism as the 
guiding ideology in China, and cement the shared ideological basis of the whole 
Party and the people. Both Party members and officials must hold a firm belief 
in Marxism and communism, make unremitting and pragmatic efforts to realize 
the Party’s basic program at the present stage, take every step needed for 
progress and pass the baton dutifully to our successors. 

Officials, especially high-ranking ones, should master the basic theories of 
Marxism as their special skill and diligently study Marxism-Leninism and Mao 
Zedong Thought, and especially Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought 
of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. 

Marxism must be a required course in Party schools, executive leadership 
academies, academies of social sciences, institutes of higher learning and groups 
for theoretical studies. These places should serve as the centers for studying, 
researching and disseminating Marxism. 

New and young officials in particular should work hard to study Marxist 
theory, learn to observe and solve problems from the Marxist stand, viewpoint 
and method, and become firm in their ideals and convictions. 

More efforts should be made to enhance the awareness of socialism with 
Chinese characteristics among the people of all ethnic groups, so as to inspire the 
people to strive for Chinese socialism. 

We should intensify the recognition of the core socialist values, foster and 
practice these values, improve civic morality, and cultivate the social trends of 
recognizing honor and disgrace, practicing integrity, encouraging dedication and 
promoting harmony. 

Party spirit and the idea of serving the people have long been interrelated. 
Preserving Party spirit means keeping a correct political direction, taking a 
committed political stand and disseminating the Party’s theories, lines, principles 
and policies, in addition to the major work plans of the CPC Central Committee 
and its major analyses and judgments on the country’s situation. It also means 
maintaining a high degree of unity with the Party Central Committee and 
upholding its authority. All departments, institutions and all Party members and 
officials specializing in publicity and theoretical work must preserve their Party 
spirit without fail. 

Serving the people means putting the people first and making realizing, 
safeguarding and developing the fundamental interests of the overwhelming 
majority of the people our starting point and goal. Our work should focus on 
serving the people. We should serve the people while educating and guiding 
them, satisfy their demands while upgrading their personal quality, disseminate 

and report more on their great endeavors and vigorous lives, role models and 
their moving stories. This way, we can enrich the people culturally and ethically, 
enhance their moral strength, and meet their cultural and intellectual demands. 

An important platform for publicity and theoretical work is the stressing of 
unity, stability and encouragement, and putting the focus on positive publicity. 
We are new to a battle with many new historic features. We are facing 
unprecedented challenges and difficulties. Therefore, we must continue to 
enhance and intensify the underlying trend of thought in our country, advocate 
the themes of the times, popularize positive energy, and encourage the whole 
country to strive as one for progress. 

The key to success lies in raising the quality and level of our publicity and 
theoretical work. We should have the proper timing, tempo and efficiency, make 
this work more attractive and influential, inform the people about what they love 
to hear, read and watch, and let positive publicity play its role in encouraging 
and inspiring the people. 

When it comes to major issues, including those of political principle, we 
must take the initiative in helping officials and the people draw a line between 
right and wrong and acquire a clear understanding in this regard. 

Over the years, our Party has accumulated abundant experience in publicity 
and theoretical work. Hard-earned and extremely precious, this experience 
serves as major guidance for our future work, and should be thoroughly 
reviewed and carried forward on a long-term basis, and continuously enriched 
and developed. 

As an old Chinese saying goes, “A wise man changes his way as 
circumstances change; a knowledgeable person alters his means as times 
evolve.”^ As for publicity and theoretical work today, we should pay close 
attention to innovation in the fields of ideas, methodologies and grassroots work, 
and move forward with new ideas to tackle difficulties, with emphasis on work 
in local communities. We should step up cultural reforms, push forward the 
culture industry, and build China into a country with a strong socialist culture. 

At this time when China is opening its door wider to the outside world, it 
has become an important task for those engaged in publicity and theoretical 

work to help guide the people to a better understanding of present-day China 
while learning about the rest of the world more comprehensively and 

To explain and publicize the special characteristics of modern China, we 
need to make it clear that 1) because different countries and nations have 
different historical traditions, cultural accomplishments and basic conditions, 
their development paths are different; 2) Chinese culture encompasses the 
deepest cultural and ethical pursuits of the Chinese nation, nourishing the people 
for generations; 3) fine traditional Chinese culture is a great strength of the 
Chinese nation and its most profound cultural soft power; 4) rooted in Chinese 
culture, socialism with Chinese characteristics represents the Chinese people’s 
aspirations, suits the times and facilitates the development of the country, and is 
based on a long history and solid reality. The time-honored Chinese culture is 
capable of adding glory to it today and in the days to come. 

It is inevitable for China, a country with a unique culture, history and basic 
conditions, to choose a development path featuring its own characteristics. As 
for traditional Chinese culture and foreign things, we should make the past serve 
the present and foreign things serve China; discard the dross and select the 
essential; eliminate the false and retain the true, and adopt traditional Chinese 
culture and foreign things after a thorough scientific review of both. 

We should intensify our publicity of and report on the changes and 
developments worldwide, and the new thoughts, ideas and discoveries in other 
countries, so as to help draw on the achievements of other civilizations. 

We should enhance our foreign-oriented publicity work through trying 
methods with new concepts, domains and expressions that are understood by 
both China and the rest of the world, telling the true story of our country and 
making our voice heard. 

The departments concerned with publicity and theoretical work have an 
extremely important task to shoulder. They should play their part well and try 
their best. They should improve their work starting from their leaders and 
leading bodies. Therefore, those leaders should intensify their study and practice 
in order to become real experts. 

Successful publicity and theoretical work requires joint efforts by the whole 
Party. Party committees at all levels should take political and leading 
responsibilities. They should redouble their efforts to study and address major 
issues, and to coordinate and guide major strategic campaigns. They should 
steadily upgrade their leadership skills. With a grand publicity blueprint, we 
should mobilize as many departments as possible in all walks of life and link 
publicity and theoretical work more closely to administrative, industrial and 
social governance in all areas. 

Notes 16

[1] Huan Kuan: On Salt and Iron (Yan Tie Lun), an important work for the study of the history of 
economics and thought during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25). The author (dates unknown) was 
a court minister of that dynasty. 

Strong Ethical Support for the Realization of the Chinese Dream 

September 26, 2013 

* Main points of the speech when meeting the fourth group of nominees and winners of national 
ethical model awards. 

Paragons of morality are important banners for building public ethics. We 
need to carry out campaigns to publicize such paragons of morality and let 
people learn from them, foster the true, the good and the beautiful, and spread 
positive energy. We should inspire the people to esteem virtue, perform good 
deeds and emulate virtuous people. Moreover, we should encourage the whole of 
society to cultivate morality by practicing virtue and to exert a positive influence 
through ethical behavior. In this way, we will marshal strong spiritual and ethical 
support for realizing the Chinese Dream of national renewal. 

Inner strength is infinite, as is moral strength. Chinese civilization has a 
long history stretching back to antiquity; it gave birth to the precious character of 
the Chinese nation and cultivated the Chinese people’s pursuit of noble values. 
The pursuit of constant self-improvement and embracing the world through 
virtue have been the stimuli behind the Chinese nation’s ceaseless self¬ 
regeneration, and today this pursuit is still a powerful motivation for us to carry 
out reform and opening up, and for socialist modernization. 

To meet the requirements of the central authorities, local governments and 
departments have long worked hard to promote public morality, advocated 
traditional Chinese virtues and fostered the new trends of the times. 
Consequently, ethical models have emerged in large numbers. National ethical 
models are outstanding representatives of these people. Some of you have hearts 
of gold and are always ready to help others; some act bravely for a just cause 
without considering personal safety; some are honest and trustworthy, and keep 
to the right way; some work diligently at their posts dedicating their lives to 
serving the public; and some treat the elderly and their relatives with filial 
respect. With noble characters, you have warmed and touched the hearts of our 
people, and have set good examples for the whole of society. 

A great era calls for a great spirit, and a worthy cause demands role models 
to take the lead. Now the people of China are working hard for the Chinese 
Dream. In line with the requirement to cultivate and practice the core socialist 
values raised at the Party’s 18th National Congress, we should pay close 
attention to advocating socialist morals, intensify education in public morality, 
professional ethics, family virtues and individual integrity, promote basic moral 
standards such as patriotism, dedication to work, integrity and friendliness, and 
cultivate social trends of recognizing honor and disgrace, practicing integrity, 
encouraging dedication and promoting harmony. 

Now I’d like to introduce Gong Quanzhen, a national ethical model. She is 
the widow of General Gan Zuchang, a veteran Red Army officer from Jiangxi 
Province and a founding general of the People’s Republic. In 1957 Gan 
voluntarily resigned his post to be a farmer, and Gong Quanzhen returned with 
him to the countryside in Jiangxi. Half a century later, Gong still maintains the 
spirit of hard work and plain living. For this, she was elected a national ethical 
model, and is present at this meeting. I feel gratified and want to express my 
greatest respects to her. We must carry forward the spirit of hard work and plain 
living generation after generation. 

Enhance China’s Cultural Soft Power 

December 30, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the 12th group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

The strengthening of our cultural soft power is decisive for China to reach 
the Two Centenary Goals and realize the Chinese Dream of rejuvenation of the 
Chinese nation. 

We should carry forward advanced socialist culture, further the reform of 
the cultural system, develop and enrich socialist culture, inspire the whole nation 
to engage in cultural creation, beef up the growth of cultural enterprises, enrich 
the people’s cultural life, ignite their inspiration, strengthen our cultural power 
and competitiveness, and reach the goal of building China into a socialist 
cultural power. 

To strengthen our cultural soft power, we should reinforce the cornerstone 
of our national cultural soft power. We should adhere to a development path of 
socialist culture featuring Chinese characteristics, intensify the study of and 
education in the core socialist value system, carry forward the national spirit and 
the spirit of the times, encourage people to have their ideals and beliefs, establish 
prosperous cultural undertakings, and speed up the growth of cultural 

To reinforce the foundation for domestic cultural progress, one of the major 
tasks is to enhance ideological and moral education, and build up social morality 
by starting with every individual. We should carry forward and foster the 
traditional morality long cultivated and developed by our ancestors. 

Under the guidance of Marxist and socialist ethics, we should make the past 
serve the present and put forth new ideas on the basis of eliminating the false 
and retaining the true for the creative transformation and progress of traditional 
Chinese ethics, so as to lead the people on the way to yearning for and aspiring 

to life-long learning, respecting and obeying moral standards, so that every one 
of the 1.3 billion Chinese citizens can be part of a team to disseminate Chinese 
morality and culture. 

To strengthen our cultural soft power, we should disseminate the values of 
modern China. Modern Chinese values are also those of socialism with Chinese 
characteristics, representing advanced Chinese culture. China has blazed a 
successful socialist path featuring Chinese characteristics. Facts prove that our 
path and system, theoretical and social, are successful. More work should be 
done to refine and explain our ideas, and extend the platform for overseas 
publicity, so as to make our culture known through international communication 
and dissemination. 

We should relate the Chinese Dream to modern Chinese values during our 
dissemination and explanation. The Chinese Dream is a dream cherished and 
aspired to by the Chinese people and nation, a dream of building China into a 
well-off society in an all-round way and rejuvenating the Chinese nation, a 
dream for everyone to make his own dream come true, a dream that the whole 
nation strives for, and a dream to show the world China’s commitment to 
making a greater contribution to the peace and development of mankind. 

To strengthen our cultural soft power, we should showcase the unique 
charm of Chinese culture. 

During its 5,000-year history, the Chinese nation has created a brilliant and 
profound culture. We should disseminate the most fundamental Chinese culture 
in a popular way to attract more people to participate in it, matching modem 
culture and society. We should popularize our cultural spirit across countries as 
well as across time and space, with contemporary values and the eternal charm 
of Chinese culture. We should tell the rest of the world about the new 
achievements of modern Chinese culture, which feature both excellent tradition 
and modern spirit, both national and international. 

To this end, efforts should be made to sort out traditional cultural resources 
and bring back to life relics sleeping in closed palaces, legacies of the vast land 
of China and records in ancient books. We should convince the people with 
reason and morality, improve cultural communication with other countries and 
intensify our system of cultural and educational exchanges, blaze new trails, and 

use various means, such as mass media, group dissemination and interpersonal 

To build a beautiful image of our country, we should display the Chinese 
civilization of a long history and unity of diversified ethnic groups with varying 
cultures; an Oriental power with honest and capable political administrations, 
developed economy, thriving culture, stable society, unified people and splendid 
landscapes; a responsible great power that is committed to peaceful 
development, common growth, international fairness and justice, and 
contributions to mankind; and a socialist power opening its door wider to the 
outside world, full of hope, vigor and vitality. 

To strengthen our cultural soft power, we should intensify our international 
right of speech, enhance our capability of international communication and spare 
no efforts in establishing a system for international speech to tell, in the right 
way, the true story of our country and make our voices heard through giving full 
play to the emerging media and enhancing our creativity, influence and public 

We should disseminate the glorious history and excellent culture of the 
Chinese nation and people. We should also enhance education in patriotism, 
collectivism and socialism with the help of all possible means, such as classroom 
teaching, theoretical research, historical study, films and television programs, 
and literary works, and help our people build up and persist in a correct concept 
of history, national viewpoint, state outlook and cultural perspective, so as to 
fortify the will of the Chinese people, who should be prouder of being Chinese. 

Cultivate and Disseminate the Core Socialist Values 

February 24, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the 13th group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

We must take cultivating and disseminating the core socialist values as a 
fundamental project for integrating the people’s mindset and reinforcing our 
social foundations. We should inherit and carry forward the fine traditional 
Chinese culture and virtues, disseminate the core socialist values and educate the 
people extensively, guide and encourage the people to act according to them, to 
respect and follow moral standards, to pursue lofty moral ideals, and to reinforce 
the ideological and moral foundation of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 

Core values, a fundamental factor for the texture and orientation of a 
culture, are the soul of cultural soft power and a key to building a nation’s 
cultural soft power. In essence, cultural soft power depends on the vitality, 
cohesion and appeal of the core values of a nation. Therefore, cultivating and 
disseminating the core values and effectively integrating the people’s mindset is 
an important means of ensuring that the social system operates in a normal 
manner and that the social order is effectively maintained. It is also a major 
aspect of a nation’s governing system and capacity. 

Facts prove that to successfully build a set of core values with strong appeal 
is connected with a country’s social harmony and stability, as well as its long¬ 
term peace and order. 

To cultivate and disseminate the core socialist values we must take 
traditional Chinese culture as the base. All concrete core values are deeply 
rooted. So, to renounce such values is tantamount to severing our cultural 
lifeline. The extensive, profound and outstanding traditional Chinese culture is 
the foundation for us to stand firm upon in the global mingling and clashing of 

The long-developed Chinese culture embraces our deepest intellectual 
pursuits. It is an icon of the unique Chinese nation, and has ensured the lineage, 
development and growth of the Chinese nation. Traditional Chinese virtues are 
the essence of Chinese culture, and embody rich ethical and moral resources. 
Only by etching these values in our minds can we forge ahead, and only by 
carrying forward what our ancestors have left us can we learn to be more 

With regard to values, perceptions and ethics handed down for generations, 
we should make the past serve the present, discard the dross and keep the 
essential, eliminate the false and retain the true, and put forth new ideas. That is 
to say, we should treat and inherit them with a critical approach, and cultivate 
and educate the people with the Chinese cultural legacy. 

We need to explain clearly the historical origin, evolution and basic 
tendency of the outstanding traditional Chinese culture and its uniqueness, 
perceptions and distinctive features, so as to enhance confidence in Chinese 
culture and values. 

We should work hard to absorb the philosophical and moral essence of 
traditional Chinese culture, foster and disseminate our national character with 
patriotism at the core and at the call of the times, highlighted by reform and 
innovation, and identify and explicate their essential features of benevolence, 
people-orientation, integrity, righteousness, concordance and common ground. 

We should properly handle the relationship between inheritance and 
innovation, with the focus on transforming and developing the fine traditional 
Chinese culture in a creative way. 

We should make the core values the people’s pursuit and conscious actions 
through education, publicity, cultural edification, habitual development and 
institutional guarantee. 

A fine example has boundless power. All Party members and officials must 
take the lead in studying and spreading the core socialist values, influence and 
encourage other people to follow their exemplary behavior and noble 

We should spread the socialist values among children and students, 
ensuring their inclusion in textbooks and lectures so as to let everyone be aware 
of them. 

Like spring drizzle falling without a sound, we should disseminate the core 
socialist values in a gentle and lively way by making use of all kinds of cultural 
forms. We should inform the people by means of fine literary works and artistic 
images what is the true, the good and the beautiful, what is the false, the evil and 
the ugly, and what should be praised and encouraged, and what should be 
opposed and repudiated. 

The core socialist values can hardly be effective unless they are put into 
practice, for only then may the people understand and observe them. What we 
advocate must be in line with what the people need in their daily life in a manner 
as detailed and practical as possible. We must uphold the core socialist values 
when strengthening rules and regulations in all sectors, formulating codes of 
conduct for students and other citizens in both urban and rural areas so as to turn 
the core socialist values into basic guidelines for the people’s daily life and 

We should create some forms of ceremonies and conduct various memorial 
and celebration events to disseminate mainstream values and enhance the 
people’s sense of identity and of belonging. 

Efforts should be made to integrate the requirements of the core socialist 
values into various activities concerning intellectual and cultural progress, so as 
to attract more people to participate in such activities, upgrade their moral 
outlook and foster civic virtues in society for family happiness, extending care to 
others and contributing more to society. We should make use of every 
opportunity to make this happen, anytime and anywhere. 

We should give full play to our policies concerning the economy, politics, 
culture and society to better serve the cultivation of the core socialist values. 
Laws and regulations should act as a driving force for the spread of the core 
values. Moreover, all social administrative agencies should make it their 
responsibility to advocate the core socialist values and reflect them in their 
routine work so that all activities conforming with the core values are 
encouraged and those running counter to the core values are rebuffed. 

Young People Should Practice the Core Socialist Values 

May 4, 2014 

* Speech at the seminar with teachers and students of Peking University. 

Dear students, teachers and friends, 

Today, as we celebrate China’s Youth Day^J I’m glad to be here with you, 
honoring the 95th anniversary of the May 4th Movement^. First of all, I’d like 
to extend, on behalf of the Party Central Committee, my festival greetings to the 
teachers, staff and students at Peking University and young people of all ethnic 
groups across the country. Also, I want to express my deepest respects to those 
who work in the fields of education and youth work throughout the country! 

Just now, Zhu Shanlu^ briefed us on the university’s work, and students 
and young teachers also shared their ideas with us. I was greatly inspired. This is 
my fifth visit to Peking University since I started to serve on the Party Central 
Committee, and each time I am here I find something new that impresses me. 
My feelings soar whenever I walk on this campus full of vigor and vitality, and I 
can’t help but sigh: The current generation of college students is just adorable, 
trustworthy and reliable, and you are bound to have a bright future. 

The May 4th Movement gave birth to the May 4th spirit of patriotism, 
progress, democracy and science, kicking off the New Democratic Revolution in 
China, promoting the dissemination of Marxism in the country and laying the 
groundwork for the founding of the CPC. 

Since the May 4th Movement, under the leadership of the Party, 
generations of highly motivated young men and women have written inspiring 
chapters in the struggles to save the country and rejuvenate the Chinese nation, 
with the motto “Devoting my youth to creating a family of youth, a country of 
youth, a nation of youth, a mankind of youth, a planet of youth and a universe of 

Peking University was the base of the New Culture Movement^ as well as 
a cradle of the May 4th Movement, witnessing this glorious period in modern 
history. For a long time, teachers and students here have shared a common 
destiny with the country and the people, and advanced with the times and 
society, making remarkable contributions to our country’s revolution, 
construction and reform in all respects. 

The Two Centenary Goals were put forward at the 18th CPC National 
Congress. As 1 have said before, we have never been so close as now to reaching 
the goal of the great renewal of the Chinese nation, and we are more confident 
and more capable than ever of fulfiling this goal. 

Nevertheless, “A thing is yet to be done until it is done,”^ as an old saying 
goes. The closer we approach the goal the more we should redouble our efforts. 
We can afford no slackening. More importantly, we should encourage more 
young people to join the great cause of making the dream come true. 

The river of time flows nonstop day and night, and things change as the 
seasons change. Every generation of young people is offered the opportunities of 
the era for drawing a picture of life and creating history. Young people, the most 
sensitive weatherglass of an era, are entrusted with the responsibilities of the 
times and share the glory of their days. 

Today, we are here to honor the May 4th Movement. The best way for us to 
have the May 4th spirit display widely is to join the team of builders, pioneers 
and dedicators, and together with the people of all ethnic groups shoulder our 
historic responsibilities with firm beliefs, high morality, a wealth of knowledge 
and competent skills. 

Students and teachers, 

University is a place not just for academic studies but for seeking truth. 
Today, I’d like to take this opportunity to share with you my insights into the 
core socialist values. 

1 was inspired by the spirit of the May 4th Movement, which embodies the 
values the Chinese people and nation have pursued in modern history. Today, we 
should still adhere to and carry out these core values, highlighted by patriotism, 

progress, democracy and science. Young people, as well as everyone else in the 
country, should uphold and carry out these core values. 

Looking at human history and social development, we find that the most 
lasting and profound power for a nation and country is the core values 
acknowledged by all. Core values carry the spiritual aspiration of a nation and 
country, and represent the standard for judging right and wrong. 

An ancient proverb goes, “The way to great learning is to manifest bright 
virtue and to treat the people as one’s own family, thereby arriving at supreme 
goodness.”^ Core values are in fact individual virtues, as well as public, social 
and national virtues. A country cannot prosper without virtues, nor can anyone 
succeed without virtues. Without shared core values, a nation and country will 
be at a loss to know what is right and what is wrong, and its people will have no 
code of conduct to follow, the result being that the nation and country can never 
progress. It has commonly occurred in our history, and still happens across the 

China is a big country with 1.3 billion people and 56 ethnic groups. Upon 
the recognition of the values with the “greatest common denominator” by the 
people of all ethnic groups, they work with one heart and one mind to strive in 
unity. This concerns our nation’s future and destiny, as well as our people’s 
happiness and wellbeing. 

Every era has its spirit, and likewise its values. In ancient China our 
ancestors developed core values highlighted by “propriety, righteousness, 
honesty and a sense of shame - the four anchors of our moral foundation, and a 
question of life and death for the country.”^ This was our ancestors’ 
understanding of their core values. 

What are the core values for our people and country today? This is both a 
theoretical and a practical question. We should eventually agree upon this after 
sorting out opinions and understandings from all walks of life. The core socialist 
values that we should cultivate and practice are prosperity, democracy, civility, 
harmony, freedom, equality, justice, the rule of law, patriotism, dedication, 
integrity and friendship. 

The values of prosperity, democracy, civility and harmony are for the 

country; those of freedom, equality, justice and the rule of law for the society; 
and those of patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship for citizens. They 
explain what sort of country and society we are striving for, and what kind of 
citizens we are cultivating. 

Since ancient times the Chinese people have developed their country 
through studying the nature of things to acquire knowledge, correcting thoughts 
with sincerity, cultivating the moral self, managing the family, governing the 
state and safeguarding peace under Heaven. As we see it today, the principles of 
“studying the nature of things, correcting thoughts with sincerity and cultivating 
the moral self’ are for individuals; the principle of “managing the family” is for 
the society; and those of “governing the state and safeguarding peace under 
Heaven” are for the country. 

What we put forward for the core socialist values is a combination of 
requirements for the country, society and citizens, which represent the nature of 
socialism, carry forward the fine traditional Chinese culture, draw on the best of 
world civilization and reflect the spirit of the times. 

Prosperity, democracy, civility, harmony, freedom, equality, justice, the 
rule of law, patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship are all ideas that 
inherit the essence of the outstanding traditional Chinese culture, embody the 
ideals and faith formed by modern Chinese people through unremitting and 
painstaking efforts, and reflect the wishes and vision of every Chinese citizen. 

We should foster the core socialist values throughout society. The people 
should join hands and work persistently to make China richer and stronger, more 
democratic, more harmonious and more beautiful, so that our country can be 
confident enough to stand proudly among all other nations. 

Since the Opium War of the 1840s the Chinese people have long cherished 
a dream of realizing a great national rejuvenation and building China into a 
strong, democratic and harmonious modern socialist country - the highest and 
most fundamental interests of the nation. And that’s what our 1.3 billion people 
are striving for. 

China used to be a world economic power. However, it missed its chance in 
the wake of the Industrial Revolution and the consequent dramatic changes, and 

thus was left behind and suffered humiliation under foreign invasion. Things got 
worse especially after the Opium War, when the nation was plagued by poverty 
and weakness, allowing others to trample upon and manipulate us. We must not 
let this tragic history repeat itself. 

The construction of a strong, democratic and harmonious modern socialist 
country is our goal and responsibility - for the nation, for our forefathers and for 
our future generations. Therefore, we should maintain our willpower, intensify 
our faith, and walk unswervingly along the road towards our destination. 

China has stood up. It will never again tolerate being bullied by any nation. 
Yet it will never follow in the footsteps of the big powers, which seek hegemony 
once they grow strong. Our country is following a path of peaceful development. 

Why are we so confident? Because we have developed and become 
stronger. China has won worldwide respect with its century-long efforts. Its 
prestige keeps rising, and its influence keeps expanding. Today’s China forms a 
sharp contrast to China in the 19th century when the country was humiliated, its 
sovereignty was infringed upon, and its people were bullied by foreigners. 

Chinese civilization has formed a unique value system over several 
millennia. The brilliant traditional Chinese culture is the essence of the nation 
and has deep roots in the Chinese people’s mentality, influencing their way of 
thinking and behavior unconsciously. 

Today, we advocate and carry forward the core socialist values through 
absorbing the rich nourishment of Chinese culture, so as to invigorate its vitality 
and broaden its influence. 

Here are some quotations from ancient classics that I’d like to share with 
you today: 

“The people are the foundation of a state, 

“The harmony of Nature and man,”^ 

“Harmony without uniformity,”^ 

“As Heaven changes through movement, a gentleman makes unremitting 
efforts to perfect himself,”^ 

“When the Great Way prevailed, a public spirit ruled all under Heaven,”^ 
“Everyone is responsible for his country’s rise or fall,”^ 

“Govern the country with virtue and educate the people with culture,” 

“A gentleman has a good knowledge of righteousness,”^ 

“A gentleman is broad-minded,”^ 

“A gentleman takes morality as his bedrock,”^ 

“Be true in word and resolute in deed,”^ 

“If a man does not keep his word, what is he good for?”^ 

“A man of high moral quality will never feel lonely,”^ 

“The benevolent man loves others,”^ 

“Do things for the good of others,”^ 

“Don’t do unto others what you don’t want others to do unto you,”^ 

“Care for each other and help one another,”^ 

“Respect others’ elders as one respects one’s own, and care for others’ 
children as one cares for one’s own,”^ 

“Help the poor and assist those in difficulty,” 

“Care less about quantity and more about quality.”^ 

These thoughts and ideas all displayed and still demonstrate distinctive 
national features, and have the indelible values of the times. We have updated 
them in keeping abreast of the times, while carrying them forward in an 

unbroken line. 

As Chinese, we should always keep our own unique inner-world spirit, 
uphold values that we practice every day without noticing. The core socialist 
values we advocate today represent the inheritance and upgrading of outstanding 
traditional Chinese culture. 

Values appear and develop in the process of human beings getting to know 
and shape nature and society. Core values vary in different nations and countries 
due to different natural conditions and courses of development. The core values 
of a nation and country are closely related to its history and culture, as well as to 
what its people are striving for and to the present issues it needs to resolve. 

There are no two leaves exactly alike on earth. A nation, or people of a 
country, must know who they are, where they came from and where they are 
heading. Keep on going when you have made your choice. 

On December 26 last year, 1 said at the meeting commemorating the 120th 
birthday of Mao Zedong: 

Boasting a vast land of 9.6 million sq km, a rich cultural heritage and a 
strong bond among the 1.3 billion Chinese people, we are resolved to go our 
own way. We have a big stage to display our advantages on, a long and rich 
history to draw benefit from, and a powerful impetus to push us ahead. We 
Chinese people - every single one of us - should draw confidence from this. 

We should modestly learn from the best of other civilizations, but never 
forget our own origin. We must not blindly copy the development models of 
other countries nor accept their dictation. 

What I mean here is that we should enhance our confidence in the path we 
have chosen, in the theories we have devised and in the system we have 
established to reach our goal of development and make the Chinese Dream come 
true. “In the face of all blows, not bending low, it still stands fast. Whether from 
east, west, south or north the wind doth blast.”^ Our confidence is supported 
by our core values. 

Why am I talking about the core socialist values with you young people? 

Because your value orientation will decide the values of the whole of society in 
the years to come. Besides, young people are at the time of life when they form 
and establish their values. It is therefore very important to offer some guidance. 
That reminds me of something that happens in our daily life. When we button up 
our coat, we may inadvertently put the first button in the wrong button hole, and 
that will result in all the other buttons being put in the wrong holes. That’s why 
we say that young people should “button right” in the early days of their life. “A 
deep well is dug starting with a shallow pit.”^ Every young person should 
learn about the core socialist values starting right now, take them as his basic 
rules and disseminate them throughout society. 

When young people adopt the core socialist values they should emphasize 
the following points: 

First, work diligently to acquire true knowledge. Knowledge is an important 
cornerstone for the cultivation of the core values. The great philosophers of 
ancient Greece believed that knowledge was a virtue. Our ancestors also 
asserted, “One cannot enhance one’s ability and wisdom if one does not work 
hard; neither can one succeed without ambition.”^ 

A person enjoys only once the youthful days at college, so you should 
cherish them. To acquire knowledge, one has to study diligently, intensively and 
persistently. Lu Xun^ once said, “Who said I’m a genius? I spent all my time 
working when others were sipping coffee.”^ In college days, “Young we were, 
schoolmates, at life’s full flowering.”^ One can totally throw oneself into 
seeking knowledge without any distractions, learning from teachers, exchanging 
views with classmates and rummaging through piles of books. So there is no 
reason not to study hard. Work hard, acquire more knowledge and turn what you 
have learned into your own views and ideas. I hope that you will not only 
concentrate on book knowledge but also care about the people, the country and 
the world, and assume your responsibility for society. 

Second, cultivate morality and virtue, and pay attention to them in practice. 
“Virtue is the root.”^ Mr Cai Yuanpei^ believed, “He who is strong 
physically and talented but has no virtue will end up on the side of vice.”^ 
Virtues are fundamental for both individuals and society. What is most important 
is to cultivate morality. This explains why we select those who are both talented 

and morally cultivated for our work, with morality as priority. One can be placed 
in the right position only if one recognizes virtue, follows social ethics and 
restricts personal desires. 

When talking about cultivating morality, one needs to have high ambitions 
as well as pragmatic plans. To devote oneself to one’s country and serve one’s 
people, this is the great virtue with which one is able to accomplish the great 
cause. In the meantime, one needs to start to do small things well and be self- 
disciplined even in small matters. “Learning from fine things that may appear 
and correcting any mistakes that may occur,one needs to cultivate public 
and personal virtues, learn to work, to be thrifty, to be grateful, to help others, to 
be modest, to be tolerant, to examine oneself and to exercise self-restraint. 

Third, learn to tell right from wrong and make correct decisions. As our 
ancestors believed, “Reading without thinking makes one muddled; thinking 
without reading makes one flighty.”^ Knowing what is right or wrong, what is 
the correct direction and what is the proper way to follow, one is bound to reap 
the reward of one’s work. 

Facing a complex and fast-changing world, an information era with the 
surge of various schools of thought, a multifaceted society of genuine and false 
ideas, and the pressure associated with one’s academic pursuit, relationships and 
employment, you may feel somewhat confused, hesitant or frustrated. This is a 
normal experience everybody will go through. The key is to learn to think about 
and analyze situations before making decisions in order to arrive at correct 
decisions. You should be sturdy, confident and self-reliant. You must form a 
correct world outlook, view of life and values, then you will see - crystal-clear - 
the true nature of society and have a better understanding of your life’s 
experience, and be able to tell what is right and what is wrong, what is primary 
and what is secondary, what is true and what is false, what is good and what is 
evil, and what is beautiful and what is ugly before making judgments and 
decisions. As a Tang verse goes, “Gold glitters only after countless washings and 

Fourth, be honest and sincere; do solid work and be an upright person. The 
correct way needs to be pursued in practice, while morality requires no empty 
talk. One should be more pragmatic. Knowledge and action should go hand in 

hand, and the core values should be turned into moral pursuits as well as a drive 
to make people engage in conscious action. The Book of Rites^ says, “Learn 
extensively, inquire earnestly, think profoundly, discriminate clearly and 
practice sincerely.”^ 

Some people believe that “sages are mediocre people who work hard, while 
mediocre people are sages who refuse to work hard.” With more opportunities, 
young people should make their steps steady, lay a solid foundation and make 
unremitting efforts. It is no good for study or running a business if one works 
intermittently, or chops and changes. “Difficult things are done starting from 
easy ones; a great undertaking begins with minor work.”^ 

No matter what you opt to do, success always favors hard workers. Young 
people should take a difficult environment as a challenge or test. “Little strokes 
fell great oaks.” Success awaits those who work doggedly and unyieldingly, and 
those who are never daunted by repeated setbacks. 

The cultivation of the core values can’t be done overnight. It requires 
efforts from the easy to the difficult, from close-up to faraway until it becomes a 
faith and idea that we follow conscientiously. When things are smooth, you may 
be confident; when there are frustrations, you may have doubts and waver. In all 
circumstances we should always uphold the core socialist values which have 
been formed and developed here in our country, make contributions to the great 
cause in the modern era and fulfill our lifetime expectations. 

Students and teachers, 

The Party Central Committee has decided to build world-class colleges and 
universities - a strategic policy that we should follow without hesitation. To 
make them world-class, they must feature Chinese characteristics. It won’t do to 
copy others mechanically, because we always believe that “the more national the 
more international.” 

In this world there is only one Harvard University, University of Oxford, 
Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and University of 
Cambridge; likewise, there is only one Peking University, Tsinghua University, 
Zhejiang University, Fudan University and Nanjing University in China. We 
should draw on the world’s best experience in running institutions of higher 

learning, follow the rules of education, and establish more excellent colleges and 
universities on Chinese soil. 

Lu Xun asserted, “Peking University is always innovative and plays a 
pioneering role in reforming movements, leading China along an upward path 
towards a better future.”^ 

The decision on advancing the reform in an all-round way was made at the 
Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, defining the 
demands for the further reform of higher education in China. What we must do 
now is to turn this blueprint into reality. 

Institutions of higher learning should take the lead in educational reform 
throughout the country, centering on the fundamental tasks of building virtues 
and morality, and moving faster in establishing an educational system and 
mechanism that is full of vigor and vitality, efficient, more open and favoring 
educational development in a scientific way. I do hope that Peking University 
can realize its long-cherished dream as soon as possible of advancing into the 
ranks of world-class universities through painstaking efforts, reform and 

Teachers are entrusted with the noblest mission in this world. Mr Mei 
Yiqi J opined that the key to the success of a university lies in having a lot of 
highly accomplished gurus rather than imposing buildings.^! What he meant by 
“highly-accomplished gurus,” as I see it, are people most knowledgeable in their 
academic fields and who are also virtuous. Always bearing in mind their 
responsibilities, teachers should be ready to serve as human ladders, inspiring 
the souls of the students whom they are teaching with the help of their personal 
charisma and scholarly attainments. 

Party committees and governments at all levels should pay closer attention 
to colleges and universities, show more concern for the students and erect a 
platform for them to dream upon and make their dreams come true. We should 
accelerate the reform in an all-round way, create a fair and just social 
environment, promote social mobility and inspire the vigor and creativity of 
young people. We should improve the system of employment and business 
startups so as to assist graduates at the beginning of their life-long careers. 
Leading officials at all levels should keep in communication with the students, 

make friends with them and listen to what they have to say. 

Today, the majority of college students are around the age of 20; and they 
will be under the age of 30 by 2020, when we complete the building of a 
moderately prosperous society in all respects. They will be around 60 by the 
mid-21st century, when we basically realize our country’s modernization. That is 
to say, you will participate in the cause of reaching the Two Centenary Goals 
along with myriads of other young people. 

1 believe that life is meaningless for anyone without faith, without dreams, 
without concerted endeavors and without contributions. 1 hope that you can 
create your own wonderful life while making the Chinese Dream come true 
since you have never been given a platform as spacious as this or as promising 
as this. 

1 believe that young Chinese people today are more than capable of 
undertaking the historic mission entrusted to them by the Party and the people, 
and will go on to write a brilliant chapter worthy of our times in their efforts to 
take advantage of their youthful vigor, explore life and contribute to society! 

Notes 17

[1] The year 1939 saw the nomination of China’s Youth Day on May 4th by the Northwestern Youth 
Association of National Salvation in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region to carry forward and foster 
the glorious revolutionary tradition of the Chinese young people since the May 4th Movement in 1919. In 
December 1949 the Government Administration Council - the predecessor of China’s State Council - of 
the Central People’s Government officially named it China’s Youth Day. 

[2] The May 4th Movement, which started in Beijing on May 4, 1919, was a patriotic movement of 
the Chinese people against imperialism and feudalism. Soon after the end of World War I, victorious 
nations, including Britain, the United States, France, Japan, and Italy held the Paris Peace Conference, 
awarding Germany’s rights in Shandong Province to Japan. China was one of the victorious nations, but the 
Chinese Beiyang (Warlord) Government was about to sign the treaty. On the afternoon of May 4, 1919, 
over 3,000 students of Peking University and other schools protested against the treaty and the compromise 
of the Beiyang Government, provoking a quick response throughout the country. By June 3 the movement 
turned out to be a patriotic movement against imperialism and feudalism, with participants from the 
working class, urban petite-bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie. It also sparked off the New Culture 
Movement against feudal Chinese culture. Bolstered by the founding of the journal Youth (later known as 
New Youth) in 1915, the New Culture Movement called for Mr Science and Mr Democracy by replacing old 
moral standards and old literature with the new. The May 4th Movement marked the end of the Old 
Democratic Revolution and the start of the New Democratic Revolution in China, thereby opening a brand- 
new chapter of revolution in Chinese history. 

[3] Zhu Shanlu, bom in 1953, serves as Party secretary of the Peking University Committee. 

[4] Li Dazhao: Youth. Li Dazhao (1889-1927) was a pioneer in acquiring and disseminating Marxism 
and one of the founders of the CPC. 

[5] See note 2 on this page. 

[6] See note 2, p. 60. 

[7] The Great Learning (DaXue). 

[8] Guan Zi. 

[9] The Book of History (Shang Shu). 

[10] An ancient Chinese philosophical viewpoint, from the Idea of God’s Will of the Western Zhou 
Dynasty (1046-771 BC), which believed that Heaven and Man were closely related. 

[11] The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 

[12] The Book of Changes (Zhou Yi), also known as the I Ching, one of the Confucian classics. The 
book was used as a work for the divination of natural and social changes through the calculation of the 
Eight Trigrams representing Heaven, Earth, Thunder, Wind, Water, Fire, Mountain and Lake, believing that 
the interactions of the yin and yang give birth to everything in the universe and advocating simple yet 
dialectical viewpoints, such as “Changes derive from the mutual acceleration of the hard and soft.” 

[13] The Book of Rites (Li Ji). 

[14] Gu Yanwu: Records of Daily Knowledge (Ri Zhi Lu). Gu Yanwu (1613-1682) was a thi nk er and 
historian in the late Ming (1368-1644) and early Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. 

[15] The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 

£16] Ibid. 

£17] Ibid. 

£18] Ibid. 

£19] Ibid. 

[20] Ibid. 

[21] The Mencius (Meng Zi), one of the Confucian classics compiled by Mencius and his disciples. 
The book is a collection of anecdotes and conversations of the Confucian thi nk er and philosopher Mencius 
during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC). It is one of the “Four Classics of Confucianism,” the other 
three being The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean and The Analects of Confucius. 

£22] Ibid. 

[23] The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 

[24] The Mencius (Meng Zi). 

£25] Ibid. 

[26] See note 4, p. 111. 

[27] See note 2, p. 26. 

[28] Liu Zhou: Liu Zi. Liu Zhou (514-565) was a man of letters of the State of Northern Qi during the 
Northern and Southern Dynasties (386-589). 

[29] Zhuge Liang: Advice to My Son. Zhuge Liang (181-234), also known as Kong Ming, was a 
legendary prime minister and statesman of the Shu Kingdom during the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280). 

[30] Lu Xun (1881-1936), also known as Zhou Zhangshou and Zhou Shuren, was a litterateur, 
thinker and revolutionary as well as one of the founders of modem Chinese literature. 

[31] “Postscripts of Selected Works of Lu Xun,” Selected Works of Lu Xun, Vol. 20, Chinese ed., 
People’s Literature Publishing House, Beijing, 1972, p. 663. 

[32] Mao Zedong: “Changsha,” Mao Zedong Poems, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 
1998, p. 5. 

[33] The Great Learning (Da Xue). 

[34] Cai Yuanpei (1868-1940) was a democratic revolutionary, educator and scientist. He served as 
president of Peking University from 1916 to 1927. 

[35] Cai Yuanpei: “Speech at the Patriotic Girls School,” Complete Works of Cai Yuanpei, Vol. 3, 
Chinese ed., Zhonghua Book Company, Beijing, 1984, p. 8. 

[36] The Book of Changes (Zhou Yi). 

[37] The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 

[38] Liu Yuxi: Nine Poems (Jiu Shou). Liu Yuxi (772-842) was a man of letters and philosopher of 
the Tang Dynasty (618-907). 

[39] The Book of Rites (Li Ji), one of the Confucian classics, is an important work for the study of 
ancient China’s social forms, laws and regulations, and traditional Confucian canon, covering the realms of 
society, politics, moral principles, philosophy and religion. 

[40] The Doctrine of the Mean (Zhong Yong), one of the Confucian classics, used to be a part of The 
Book of Rites. Published as an independent book during the Song Dynasty (960-1279), it became one of the 
“Four Classics of Confucianism,” the other three being The Great Learning, The Analects of Confucius and 
The Mencius. 

[41] Lao Zi or Dao De Jing. This is an important philosophical work from ancient China, which 
proposed the thought of the “Tao” and advocated the ideas of “governing by doing nothing” and “going 
along with Nature.” 

[42] Lu Xun: “Peking University in My Eyes,” Complete Works of Lu Xun, Vol. 3, Chinese ed., 
People’s Literature Publishing House, Beijing, 1972, p. 155. 

[43] Mei Yiqi (1889-1962) served as the president of Tsinghua University from 1931 to 1948. 

[44] This is an idea for running schools initiated by Mei Yiqi in his inaugural speech on accepting the 
presidency of Tsinghua University on December 2, 1931. 

Foster and Practice Core Socialist Values from Childhood 

May 30, 2014 

* Speech at a discussion held at the Minzu Primary School of Haidian District in Beijing. 

Dear students, teachers and friends, 

Good morning! We’re happy to be here today to attend your Young 
Pioneers^ event and initiation ceremony for new Young Pioneers. International 
Children’s Day is just around the corner. Here I wish you and children of all 
ethnic groups in China a happy festival! 

Attaching great importance to moral cultivation, Minzu Primary School of 
Haidian District has organized many activities and achieved good results. Just 
now I listened to some thought-provoking speeches from you students, teachers 
and parents. You all talked about the need to strengthen moral education and to 
guide children to foster and practice core socialist values from childhood. This is 
great! I have the same idea. And 1 want to discuss this issue with you. 

The cultural progress of a nation and the development of a country require 
continuous efforts of generations and various driving forces. Among these 
forces, core values are the deepest and most everlasting. The Chinese nation 
boasts a long history and splendid culture of over 5,000 years, and our 
civilization has developed in an unbroken line from ancient to modern times. 
How could our nation survive and develop over this long course of history? One 
important reason is that our nation has a moral pursuit and ethos that have been 
carried on for generations. The written Chinese characters we now use are not 
basically different from the oracle bone inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty (c. 
1600-1046 BC), and the brilliant insights of Lao ZP1, Confucius^, Mencius^, 
Zhuang Zi and other ancient sages have been passed down to us today. Our 
civilization has developed for several thousand years without interruption. This 
is a unique achievement in world history. 

Today, our nation is set to make further progress. We must take stock of the 

current conditions and carry on our national spirit and culture, especially our 
traditional virtues. 

The core socialist values we now uphold are prosperity, democracy, 
civility, harmony, freedom, equality, justice, the rule of law, patriotism, 
dedication, integrity and friendship. These values embody the thoughts of the 
ancient sages, the aspirations of public-spirited people, the ideals of the 
revolutionary martyrs and the expectations of ordinary people. All Chinese 
people should act conscientiously to foster and practice these values. 

1 have stressed this issue on several occasions. In February this year, the 
Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee held a special group study 
session on the topic. I made a speech, in which I raised the requirements for the 
whole of society in this regard. I also talked about this issue when visiting the 
students of Peking University on Youth Day, May 4, and when meeting leading 
officials in Shanghai a few days ago. Today, I want to talk about it to you pupils. 
Because in order for an idea to be established and developed on a long-term 
basis, we must start by telling our children about it. 

Children are the future of our country and the hope of the Chinese nation. 
As Liang Qichao said in his “Young China”^: “If the youth are wise, the 
country will be wise. If the youth prosper, the country will prosper. If the youth 
are strong, the country will be strong.... If the youth progress, the country will 
progress.” The new replacing the old is an irresistible law; and the future will 
always be created by today’s children. Last year, on International Children’s 
Day, I said that every adult grew up from childhood. The realization of our 
dream is reliant on us, and, more importantly, on you. Children are sensitive and 
are ready to accept all beautiful things. “Since antiquity, it is from adolescents 
that heroes emerge.” To create a better future for our nation we need to 
encourage our children to set great goals and shape their characters, and ensure a 
sound environment for their growth. 

How should children foster and practice the core socialist values? They 
should do so in a different way from adults, a way which conforms to their ages 
and traits. Here I want to raise four points: remembering the requirements, 
following role models, starting from childhood and accepting help. 

First, remembering the requirements means that children need to learn by 

heart the core socialist values, and always keep these values in mind. You pupils 
are still studying at school and don’t have much social experience; so you may 
not thoroughly understand the meanings of these values. But you will acquire 
more knowledge and experience as you grow up, and thus gain a better 
understanding of them, as long as you bear them in mind. In this process, you 
need to think about the requirements and acquire a better understanding in your 
studies and life. Through the ages, most people with great achievements have 
been strict with themselves since childhood. 

Second, following role models means that children need to learn from 
heroes and advanced figures, and to cultivate good characters through study. 
There are many young heroes in our history and in the revolution, construction 
and reform drive of our people under the leadership of the Party. You may have 
heard some of their names from films such as Red Children, Zhang Ga the 
Soldier Boy, The Feathered Letter, Little Hero Soldier and Young Heroic Sisters 
of the Mongolian Grassland. Now we have more exemplary children. I know 
that some students in your school have won the title of “the most beautiful 
children.” Besides, there are many other role models from all professions whose 
examples we should follow. For example, astronauts, Olympic champions, 
scientists, model workers, young volunteers, and many other people who are 
ready to help others or to take on a just cause, and who are honest, trustworthy, 
filial, or dedicated to their work. The power of role models is infinite. You 
should take them as examples in pursuing virtues. Confucius said, “When we see 
men of virtue, we should think of equaling them; when we see men of a contrary 
character, we should examine ourselves.”^ 

Third, starting from childhood means that children need to start with 
themselves, and make every possible effort to cultivate good morality. “A young 
idler, an old beggar.”^ And “a journey of one thousand miles begins with the 
first step.” Everyone’s life consists of small matters. Starting with small virtues, 
you can nurture great virtues. Being young, you may not be able to do as many 
things for our society as adults do. But you can start from minor things. You can 
ask yourself every day: Do I love my country? Do I love my school? Do I study 
hard? Do I care about my classmates? Do I respect my teachers? Do I honor my 
parents? Do I conform to social morality? Do I admire good people and good 
deeds? Do I feel angry at bad people and bad things? The more you think, the 
more you will urge yourself to act; the more you act, the more virtues you will 

acquire. I heard that some students like to compete with each other in food, 
clothes or parents’ jobs, and some even take pride in having cars to take them to 
school and then back home. Such competition makes them stray from the correct 
path. You should never vie with each other in these matters. “A hard life breeds 
great talents, whereas an easy life is not the way to cultivate great men.” “Work 
hard when young, and you will have a future; time flies, and you should not 
slacken your efforts.”^ However, you can compete with each other as to who is 
more ambitious, who works harder, who loves work more, who loves physical 
training more or who is more caring. 

Fourth, accepting help means that children need to accept both suggestions 
and criticisms, and grow up in a good environment where you correct your 
mistakes and make yourself a better person. No one is flawless. We make 
progress by overcoming shortcomings and correcting mistakes. As the saying 
goes, “A jade uncut will not be a useful vessel; a man without learning will not 
know the way.”^ At your age, you children are establishing a world view, an 
outlook on life and values, and you need help. Don’t complain that parents talk 
too much, that teachers are too strict, or that classmates are overreaching. Think 
about whether they are right, or if they are doing so for your good. If they are, 
you should accept their admonitions. You may not do well in all aspects. It 
doesn’t matter. As long as you see where you have fallen down and are willing 
to improve, you are making progress. Sometimes you may not know where you 
are going wrong, but your parents, teachers and classmates may point it out. 
Then you are also making progress if you correct what you have done wrong. Of 
course, good medicine tastes bitter, and good advice is harsh to the ear. We 
should be strict with ourselves, and make a habit of modestly accepting criticism 
and help. A bright future awaits you, as long as you take a correct path from 
childhood, practice what you learn and do your best. 

Families, schools, organizations of the Young Pioneers of China, and our 
society as a whole should all take the responsibility of promoting core socialist 
values among children. 

The family is the first classroom, and a parent is the child’s first teacher. 
Parents should always set a good example for their children, and guide them 
with correct actions, ideas and methods. Parents should teach children to 
appreciate the true, the good and the beautiful, and to keep away from the false, 

the bad and the ugly in everyday life. Parents should observe children closely for 
any change in idea or action, and educate and guide them when needed. 

Schools should attach greater importance to moral education, and work 
hard to enhance the school spirit and teachers’ professional ethics. Teachers 
should take into consideration children’s personalities and traits, and patiently 
impart knowledge and cultivate virtues. Schools should ensure that their 
activities are good for the students’ physical and mental health, and will exert a 
favorable influence on their characters. Schools should also ensure that all 
students receive sincere care and help, making the seeds of core socialist values 
take root and grow in their hearts. 

The Chinese Young Pioneers need to launch educational campaigns and 
activities to better serve students in fostering and practicing core socialist values, 
and unite, educate and guide children through these activities. Meanwhile, our 
society needs to understand, respect, care about and offer help to children, 
provide a favorable environment for them, and oppose and prevent violations of 
their rights and damage to their physical or mental health. 

The waves behind drive on those before, and the younger generation will 
excel the previous one. 1 believe that children of this generation will have great 
goals and beautiful dreams, love study, work and our country, and 
conscientiously foster and practice core socialist values from childhood. 1 
believe you have made yourselves ready to realize the Chinese Dream, guided 
by your flag of the star and torch^. 

Notes 18

[1] The Young Pioneers of China is a national organization for children run by the Communist Youth 
League, an organization of young adults, that is under the CPC. It was named the Youth and Children of 
China Movement when it was founded on October 13, 1949 by the Communist Youth League, and was 
given its present name on August 21, 1953. 

[2] Lao Zi (dates unknown), also known as Li Dan and Li Er, was a philosopher and the founder of 
philosophical Taoism in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). His ideas include: “The Tao follows 
Nature,” “existence and non-existence give birth to each other,” and “governance by doing nothing.” It was 
said that he wrote Lao Zi or Dao De Jing. 

[3] Confucius (551-479 BC), also known as Kong Qiu and Zhongni, was a philosopher, educator, 
statesman and the founder of Confucianism in late Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). He created a 
school of thought with benevolence (yen') as the core. He devoted himself to education and compiled 

numerous ancient classics. His main ideas and doctrines were recorded in The Analects of Confucius. From 
the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), Confucianism became the mainstream of traditional Chinese culture 
for over 2,000 years, and Confucius was respected as a sage by China’s feudal rulers. 

[4] Mencius (c. 372-289 BC), also known as Meng Ke and Ziyu, was a philosopher and educator in 
mid-Warring States Period (475-221 BC). He believed that “man is an integral part of Nature,” put forth a 
theory that man is born good, and summarized moral rules as four virtues: benevolence, justice, propriety 
and wisdom. He carried forward and developed the idea of benevolence and the rule of virtue propounded 
by Confucius, and raised a new idea that “the people are more important than the ruler.” He was the most 
famous Confucian after Confucius, or secondary sage. He wrote The Mencius (Meng Zi). 

[5] Zhuang Zi (369-286 BC) was a Taoist philosopher of the Warring States Period. He carried 
forward Lao Zi’s thought, and believed that Taoism was the highest principle of the world. His philosophy 
embodies the goal that “Heaven, Earth and I were produced together, and all things and I are one.” 

[6] “Young China” was an essay written by Liang Qichao (1873-1929), a thi nk er and scholar, and 
one of the leaders of the Hundred Days’ Reform (or 1898 Reform) in late Qing Dynasty. 

[7j The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 

[8] Selected Yuefu Ballads (Yue Fu Shi Xuan), Chinese ed., People’s Literature Press, Beijing, 1954, 

p. 16. 

[9] Du Xunhe: For Nephews at School. Du Xunhe (846-904) was a poet of the Tang Dynasty (618- 


[10] Three-character Classic (San Zi Jing), a textbook for elementary education in ancient China. It 
was said to have been written by Wang Yinglin (1223-1296) or Ou Shizi (1234-1324) in the Song Dynasty 
(960-1279), and was supplemented in the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. Written in 
triplets of characters for easy memorization, the book focuses on moral education. 

[11] The flag of the Young Pioneers of China is composed of a five-pointed star and a torch, the 
former symbolizing the leadership of the CPC and the latter symbolizing brightness. 

Social Undertakings 

Eliminate Poverty and Accelerate Development in Impoverished Areas

December 29 and 30, 2012 

* Main points of the speech during an inspection of poverty-alleviation and development work in 
Fuping County, Hebei Province. 

It is the essential requirement of socialism to eradicate poverty, improve the 
people’s livelihood and achieve common prosperity. We should pay close 
attention to people in straitened circumstances, and extend care to them with 
respect and love. We should do our best to solve their problems and keep their 
needs and sufferings in mind, and bring the solicitude and concern of the Party 
and the government to the people in the impoverished areas. 

The old revolutionary base areas and the people there made an enormous 
contribution to the victory of the Chinese revolution, which will never be 
forgotten by the Party and the people. Since the reform and opening-up policy 
was introduced over 30 years ago, the people’s overall living conditions have 
been substantially improved. However, China is still in the primary stage of 
socialism, so the number of people living in poverty is still quite large. With 
regard to completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all 
respects, the hardest and most arduous tasks lie in the rural areas and the 
poverty-stricken regions in particular. We cannot say we have realized a 
moderately prosperous society if the rural areas, especially the backward parts of 
the countryside, are left behind. The central leadership has always attached great 
importance to development-oriented poverty alleviation. Party committees and 
governments at all levels should strengthen their sense of responsibility and 
mission in development-oriented poverty alleviation. To free them from 
destitution so that they can live a better life as soon as possible, we must work 
diligently and effectively to map out plans, allocate funds, set targets, work out 
detailed measures, and carry out evaluations in this respect. 

As we often say, “With confidence, even barren clay can be turned into 
gold.” Party committees and governments at all levels should make it a priority 

to help people in difficulties, especially those in the old revolutionary base areas 
and poverty-stricken areas, to break away from poverty and achieve prosperity. 
To this end, we will make full use of local advantages, improve plans, and 
provide specific and targeted guidance. When formulating policies concerning 
poverty alleviation, more considerations should be given to the old revolutionary 
bases and the impoverished areas. At the same time, we should bolster our 
confidence, find the correct method, and make strenuous efforts to facilitate 
development in those areas. Leading officials at all levels should keep people 
living in deprivation in mind, help them in good time and work for them 

The rural areas long for development and the farmers demand a better life. 
The key to their prosperity lies with the Party committees at the primary level. 
You local officials work in the forefront, face poor conditions, and toil all year 
round. It’s not easy for you. 1 would like to express my sincere gratitude to you 
all. We should work together with one heart to put the Party’s policies into full 
practice, and make every effort to ensure a better life for our fellow-countrymen 
in the rural areas. 

Better and Fairer Education for the 1.3 Billion Chinese People 

September 25, 2013 

* Main points of the video message for the first anniversary of the UN Global Education First 

Education is the foundation of national development in the long run. It is 
the fundamental way for mankind to pass on culture and knowledge, raise new 
generations and create a better life. 

China will continue to support this initiative led by the UN. With 260 
million students and 15 million teachers, the task for China to develop education 
is an arduous one. China will resolutely implement the strategy of reinvigorating 
the country through science and education, and will always give priority to 
education. China will increase its investment in education, promote universal 
and life-long education, and build itself into a society in which people enjoy 
learning. Moreover, the country will work hard to ensure that every child has the 
opportunity to go to school, and enable its 1.3 billion people to enjoy a better 
and fairer education, so that they can acquire the ability to develop themselves, 
contribute to society and help others. In addition, China will strengthen 
educational exchanges with other countries, open its educational field wider to 
the outside world, and actively support the development of education in 
developing countries. We are determined to work with peoples of all other 
countries towards a brighter future. 

Accelerate the Development of Housing Security and Supply 

October 29, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the tenth group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

Accelerating housing supply is important for meeting the people’s basic 
need for housing and ensuring that all of them have access to housing. It is a 
requirement for social fairness and justice as well as an important measure for 
the people to share the fruits of reform and development. Party committees and 
governments at all levels should exercise better leadership to ensure that all the 
relevant objectives, tasks, policies and measures are implemented, and regard 
housing security and supply as a project of good governance that can stand the 
test of practice, time and the people’s expectations. 

Housing is an issue related not only to the people’s livelihood but also the 
development of our country. It concerns the people’s immediate interests, 
determines whether they can live and work in contentment, and affects the 
country’s overall economic and social development, as well as social harmony 
and stability. The Party and government have always attached great importance 
to the housing issue. Thanks to protracted efforts, great achievements have been 
made in China’s housing industry. However, we must realize that we cannot 
solve our housing problems overnight as there is still a large number of people 
having difficulty getting decent housing, a general inadequate supply of basic 
housing, and an inappropriate and unbalanced allocation of housing resources. 
Many people lack their own dwelling, so we must be more resolved and make 
greater efforts to address all the problems standing in the way of housing supply. 

In the matter of housing security and supply, we must properly handle the 
relationship between public services provided by the government and services 
provided by the market, between the economic and social functions of housing 
supply, between needs and possibilities, and between the need to provide 
housing security and the need to avoid total welfare dependence. We must carry 
out market-oriented reforms in order to fully enliven the market and meet the 

multilevel needs for housing. However, there are always people who have 
housing difficulties due to labor skill mismatch, being out of a job or low 
income, so the government must step in to provide them with basic housing. 

As conditions stand in China, we in general should build a housing supply 
system for the government to provide basic housing security and for the market 
to satisfy multilevel housing demands. We should review and sum up our 
experience in housing reform and development, leam from other countries in 
solving their housing problems, study the rules of housing supply, emphasize 
top-level design, and speed up the establishment of a uniform, standardized, 
mature and stable housing supply system. While making every effort to increase 
the housing supply, we must also do our best to satisfy the people’s demands for 
better housing, establish a sound system of housing standards so that houses are 
economical, affordable, eco-friendly, energy-conserving and safe, and advocate 
a housing consumption mode fitting China’s conditions. 

According to the 12th Five-year Plan^ (2011-2015), the number of basic- 
need housing units built and houses in run-down areas rebuilt will be 36 million, 
and by 2015 the basic-need housing coverage will hit around 20 percent. This is 
a commitment made by the government to the people, and we should do 
whatever we can to fulfill this promise. We should focus on the development of 
public-rental housing, build low-rent housing more quickly, and accelerate the 
rebuilding of houses in all the run-down areas. In carrying out this project, we 
must do our best according to our abilities, and endeavor to meet the people’s 
basic need for housing. A residence is home to a family, so its quality and safety 
are essential. We must improve the planning, accompanying facilities and design 
of housing to meet the basic need. 

We should improve supporting policies for housing, give full play to the 
supportive, guiding and leading roles of such policies, and maximize the 
enthusiasm and initiative of all sectors. We should improve the land policy, give 
priority to ensuring that land is used to enhance the people’s well-being, 
introduce a land supply plan in a scientific way, increase residential land supply, 
and give priority to allocating land for constructing basic-need housing. We 
should improve our fiscal policy and use more public funds to build such 
housing. We should adopt policies and measures to encourage enterprises and 
other institutions to build and manage public-rental housing. We should also 

actively explore systems and mechanisms for non-profit organizations to build 
and manage basic-need housing, so that all sides involved can join forces in this 

Building basic-need housing is a great endeavor that benefits both the 
country and the people, but to accomplish this task and ensure that those in need 
get housing we must strengthen management, and establish procedures for entry, 
use and exit of such housing, so as to ensure that people have fair access to 
public resources. We must make sure that basic-need housing is fairly allocated, 
and that the people who are entitled to it get it. We must stop illegal acquisition 
of basic-need housing, and block institutional loopholes in this regard. Those 
who acquire basic-need housing illegally must be punished according to laws 
and regulations. 

Notes 19

[1] The 12th Five-year Plan refers to the 12th Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social 
Development of the People’s Republic of China (2011-2015). 

Always Put People’s Lives First 

November 24, 2013 

* Main points of the speech in the Huangdao Economic and Technological Development Zone of 
Qingdao when assessing the relief effort following an oil pipeline leak explosion. 

This accident has sounded an alarm for us once more. We must maintain 
constant vigilance against workplace accidents, pay close attention to this 
problem, and guarantee without fail workplace safety, otherwise accidents will 
cause irreversible damage to the country and the people. We must establish a 
sound workplace safety responsibility system, highlight the key responsibilities 
of enterprises, enhance workplace safety inspections, apply lessons learned to 
analogous situations, and strengthen workplace safety. 

This heart-rending accident has caused grave loss of lives and severe 
damage to property. Now, through the joint efforts of the relevant departments 
under the State Council, Shandong provincial committee of the CPC and 
Shandong provincial people’s government, Qingdao municipal committee of the 
CPC and Qingdao municipal people’s government, we have achieved 
preliminary results. Next, we should direct all our attention to treating the 
injured, making proper arrangements for the funerals of the deceased, consoling 
their families, and seeing to bringing the people’s life back to normal. We should 
conduct a prompt investigation into the accident and hold those involved 
accountable in accordance with the law. 

Party committees, governments and leading officials at all levels should be 
keenly aware of the importance of safety issues, and always put people’s lives 
first. All regions, government departments, and enterprises should be relentless 
in applying the highest standards of workplace safety, stringently supervise 
workplace safety when pursuing investment and implementing projects, increase 
the weighting of workplace safety in performance indicators, and follow the 
approach of “one vote against meaning veto”^J for ensuring workplace safety 
and guarding against the risk of major work-related accidents. 

The responsibility of ensuring workplace safety is paramount. To reinforce 
the workplace safety responsibility system, senior Party and government 
officials should be personally involved. We must make sure that responsibility 
for workplace safety is assigned to relevant government departments and 
officials. Officials in charge of industrial sectors and officials responsible for 
businesses must ensure workplace safety. We should strengthen supervision and 
inspection concerning workplace safety, strictly implement the assessment, 
reward and punishment system, and constantly promote workplace safety. 

Every enterprise must fulfill its principal responsibility for workplace safety 
with absolute dedication, and guarantee funding, training, basic management 
measures, and emergency rescue provisions to ensure workplace safety. Central- 
government-owned enterprises should take the lead and set a good example in 
this regard. Governments at all levels should perform their due responsibilities in 
places within their jurisdiction, and exercise strict supervision over workplace 
safety in full accordance with laws and regulations. 

To ensure workplace safety, we should forestall any possible work-related 
risk. We should continue with large-scale workplace safety inspections that 
cover all work places, defuse all risks with zero tolerance, strictly enforce laws 
and regulations, and ensure substantial results. In conducting inspections we 
should neither give prior written or verbal notice, nor listen to second-hand 
reports, nor accept escort or reception. Instead, we should go directly to the front 
line and conduct confidential investigations, especially in terms of concealed 
risks like underground oil pipelines. We should intensify our efforts in 
addressing potential safety risks, establishing an inspection accountability 
system for workplace safety in which whoever conducts the inspection must take 
full responsibility by signing his name on the inspection report, making no 
accommodations, leaving no place unchecked, or merely going through 
formalities. We must aim at actual results. 

We should see to it that when an accident occurs in one factory, every other 
factory learns the hard lesson; when a potential risk is identified in one locality, 
the whole country goes on the alert. All regions and industries should learn their 
lesson from workplace accidents, enhance workplace safety accountability and 
oversight, and take preventive measures against any work-related accident. 

Winter has already come. At the turn of the year, there is a greater risk of 

accidents. I hope that you all enhance your awareness of your weighty 
responsibility to the Party and the people, remain vigilant against potential 
accidents, conscientious and meticulous in ensuring workplace safety, resolute in 
preventing major and serious accidents, and steadfast in improving workplace 
safety across the whole country. 

[1] A decision cannot be passed at a meeting if one attendee casts a vote against no matter how many 
votes are in favor. - Tr. 

Build China into a Cyberpower 

February 27, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the first meeting of the Central Leading Group for Cyberspace Affairs. 

Cyber security and information technology application are major strategic 
issues concerning the security and development of the country, and the work and 
life of the people. We should, based on both the international and domestic 
situations, make overall plans, coordinate all related parties, promote innovative 
development, and work hard to build China into a cyberpower. 

In the world today the IT revolution is making rapid advances, exerting a 
profound influence on politics, economy, culture, society and the military in all 
countries. IT application and economic globalization stimulate each other. The 
Internet has already been integrated into all aspects of social life worldwide, 
even going so far as to change the mode of production and way of life. China is 
going along with and being profoundly influenced by this trend. China has made 
remarkable achievements in the development of the Internet and IT application. 
Numerous households in China now have access to the Internet, and China ranks 
first in the number of netizens in the world. However, we should also be aware 
that China lags behind in cyber innovation; the gaps in Internet use between 
regions and between urban and rural areas within China are still wide, and there 
is a profound gap in per capita bandwidth between China and the advanced level 
of the world. All in all, the bottlenecks constricting China’s Internet 
development are still prominent. 

Cyber security and IT application are closely interconnected with many 
other fields in any country. We should be fully aware of where we stand and 
what we should do. We must understand that it is vital for us to act right now. 
We must make plans accordingly and carry them out as the conditions permit. 
Cyber security and IT application are as important to China as wings are to a 
bird. We must, therefore, make coordinated plans for both, and implement them 
in a unified way. To promote cyber security and IT application, we should 
balance security and development, and ensure that the two proceed in tandem 

and stimulate each other to secure long-term development. 

It is a long-term task to ensure that online public opinion is healthy and 
sound. We should innovate and improve online publicity, and use Internet 
communication rules to advocate things wholesome and positive, and 
disseminate and put into practice the core socialist values. We should properly 
handle timing, extent and efficiency so as to make our cyberspace wholesome 
and clean. 

Online information knows no national boundaries. The flow of information 
assists that of technology, capital and talent. Information resources have become 
important factors of production and social wealth. The amount of information a 
country possesses has become a major indicator of its soft power and 
competitiveness. The development level of a country’s IT and information and 
communications technology industry decides the level of its IT application. We 
should enhance the innovation of core technology and improve core technology 
infrastructure, and become better able to collect, process, disseminate and utilize 
information and ensure information security, in order to better benefit the 
people’s well-being. 

Without ensuring cyber security, we cannot safeguard national security; 
without promoting IT application, we cannot realize modernization. To build 
China into a cyberpower, we should have exclusive and powerful information 
technologies, rich and comprehensive information services and a thriving cyber 
culture. We should have a good information infrastructure and a strong 
information economy. We should have high-caliber cyber security and IT 
application professionals. In addition, we should carry out bilateral and 
multilateral Internet exchanges and cooperation with other countries. The 
strategy for building China into a cyberpower should be carried out at the same 
time as we work to accomplish the Two Centenary Goals. We should keep 
making progress in making the Internet infrastructure basically universal, 
improving our innovation capacity, developing the information economy, and 
ensuring cyber security. 

We should formulate comprehensive research and development strategies 
for information and cyber technology, and make great efforts to turn research 
findings into practical applications. We should promulgate policies to support 
the development of enterprises, and encourage them to make technological 

innovations and become the main developers of the IT industry. 

We should lose no time in formulating plans for improving the laws and 
regulations on managing Internet information and protecting the key information 
infrastructure. We should supervise cyberspace in accordance with the law to 
safeguard our citizens’ legitimate rights and interests. 

To build China into a cyberpower we should pool all our resources of talent 
and train them to become a powerful force with political integrity, top-flight 
expertise and fine conduct. “It is easy to muster a 1,000-man army, but hard to 
find a capable general.”^ We should train globally renowned scientists, leading 
Internet sci-tech figures, outstanding engineers and high-level innovation teams. 

The Central Leading Group for Cyberspace Affairs should provide 
centralized leadership, coordinate major issues concerning cyber security and IT 
application in all fields, formulate and implement development strategies, 
overall planning and major policies on cyber security and IT application, and 
enhance security guarantees in this regard. 

Notes 20

[1] Ma Zhiyuan: Autumn in Han Palace (Han Gong Qiu). Ma Zhiyuan (c. 1250- c. 1324) was a 
playwright in the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368). 

A Holistic View of National Security* 

April 15, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the first meeting of the National Security Commission. 

We need to acquire an accurate understanding of new developments and 
trends of the situation of national security, adhere to a holistic view and develop 
national security with Chinese characteristics. 

In running the Party and the country, one of our basic principles is to 
remain keenly alert to potential dangers and on guard against adversity in times 
of peace. To secure its leadership role and unite the country in upholding and 
developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, our Party should make 
national security its top priority. 

The Third Plenary Session of the Party’s 18th National Congress decided to 
establish the National Security Commission (NSC). This is a pressing 
requirement for modernizing the national governance system and enhancing our 
governance capacity, and for achieving long-term political stability. This will 
provide a strong guarantee for building a moderately prosperous society in all 
respects, and for fulfilling the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese 
nation. The aim of the establishment of the Council is to better handle new 
developments and new tasks in the realm of national security, and build a 
national security system which is centralized, integrated, highly efficient, and 
authoritative, so as to improve leadership over the work of national security. 

At present, the national security issues facing China encompass far more 
subjects, extend over a greater range and cover a longer time scale than at any 
time in the country’s history. Internally and externally, the factors at play are 
more complex than ever before. Therefore, we must maintain a holistic view of 
national security, take the people’s security as our ultimate goal, achieve 
political security as our fundamental task, regard economic security as our 
foundation, with military, cultural and public security as means of guarantee, and 
promote international security so as to establish a national security system with 

Chinese characteristics. 

To implement a holistic view of national security, we should attach equal 
importance to internal and external security - promoting development, reform 
and stability and building China into a safe country domestically, while seeking 
peace, cooperation and mutual benefits and building a harmonious world 
internationally. Homeland security and the people’s security are equally 
important. We must follow the principle of people first, insist that everything 
done for national security is for the sake of the people, should rely on the people, 
and gain the support of the people. We must pay close attention to both 
traditional and non-traditional security, and build a national security system that 
integrates such elements as political, homeland, military, economic, cultural, 
social, science and technology, information, ecological, resource and nuclear 
security. We should pay close attention to both development and security. The 
former is the foundation of the latter while the latter is a precondition for the 
former. A wealthy country may build a strong army, and a strong army is able to 
safeguard the country. While paying close attention to our own security, we must 
also pay attention to the common security of the world, and contribute our effort 
to turning the world into a secure place for all nations. We should urge all parties 
to work hard for the goals of mutual benefit and common security. 

The NSC should abide by the principles of centralized leadership, scientific 
planning, exercising power in both centralized and separated ways, coordinated 
actions, and high performance and efficiency. It should focus its efforts, follow 
the key guidelines, and vigorously implement the overall strategy of China’s 
national security. 

Safeguard National Security and Social Stability 

April 25, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the 14th group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

At a time when we are confronted with new situations and challenges, 
successfully safeguarding national security and social stability is particularly 
important for furthering the reform, achieving the Two Centenary Goals and 
realizing the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. All 
regions and government agencies should perform their functions and duties, 
assume their responsibilities, fully cooperate with each other, and work together 
to maintain national security and social stability. 

Since the reform and opening-up policy was adopted in 1978 our Party has 
paid close attention to correctly balancing reform, development and stability, and 
made safeguarding national security and social stability a basic task of the Party 
and the central government. We have maintained overall social stability in 
China, thereby providing a favorable environment for reform, opening up and 
socialist modernization. “One should be mindful of possible danger in times of 
peace, downfall in times of survival, and chaos in times of stability.”^ 

However, we should be aware that in our efforts to safeguard national 
security and social stability in these new circumstances we are confronted with 
increasing threats and challenges. And, more importantly, these threats and 
challenges are interlocked and can be mutually activated. We must remain clear- 
minded, stay true to our principles, effectively avert, manage and respond to 
risks to our national security, and take up, cope with and resolve challenges to 
our social stability. 

All regions and government agencies should implement China’s holistic 
view of national security, and acquire an accurate understanding of the new 
characteristics and trends of our national security. We should attach equal 
importance to external and internal security, homeland security and the people’s 

security, traditional and non-traditional security, development and security, our 
own security and the common security of the world, and carry out to the full all 
our work related to national security. We should promote national security 
education among all the Chinese people and enhance their awareness in this 

Countering terrorism has a direct bearing on national security, the people’s 
immediate interests, and reform, development and stability. The battle against 
terrorism safeguards national unity, social stability and the people’s well-being. 
We must take decisive measures in deterring terrorism and keep up the pressure 
to thwart terrorism. We should work out a sound anti-terrorism work pattern, 
improve our anti-terrorism work system and build up our anti-terrorism strength. 
We should enlist both professional forces and the public in the fight against 
terrorism, get the general public to carry out different forms of activities against 
terrorism, build an impregnable anti-terrorism network, and ensure that terrorists 
are hunted down like rats. We should also let patriotic religious personages play 
a role, enhance positive guidance for religious believers, meet the latter’s normal 
religious needs, and effectively resist the infiltration of religious extremism. 

Terrorism denies basic human rights, tramples on humanitarian justice and 
challenges the shared norms of human civilization. It is not an issue of ethnicity, 
nor an issue of religion. Terrorists are the common enemy of people of all ethnic 
groups. We should firmly trust and rely on the officials and the general public of 
all ethnic groups, and unite with them in safeguarding ethnic unity and social 

We should increase our efforts to combat separatist activities in the new 
circumstances, promote ethnic unity, ensure that all ethnic groups work together 
for common prosperity and development, enhance publicity for and education in 
ethnic unity, consolidate the theoretical foundation of ethnic unity, and 
maximize our efforts to unite with the people of all ethnic groups. We should 
enhance the building of community-level Party organizations and governments, 
and carry out educational work thoroughly and meticulously among the people. 
We should acquire a correct understanding of the Party’s policies regarding 
ethnic and religious affairs, promptly and properly resolve all conflicts and 
disputes undermining ethnic unity, and contain and crack down on separatist, 
infiltration and sabotage activities by domestic or foreign hostile forces on the 
pretext of ethnic issues. 

To safeguard national security we must maintain social harmony and 
stability, prevent and resolve social conflicts, and improve our institutions, 
mechanisms, policies and practical endeavors to make this happen. We should 
make China’s development more comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable, 
work harder to ensure and improve the people’s well-being, and tackle social 
conflicts at the source. We should make promoting social fairness, justice and 
the people’s well-being our ultimate goal, and increase our efforts in balancing 
the interests of all sectors, so that all the people can increasingly share in the 
fruits of development in a fairer way. We should implement and improve the 
institutions and mechanisms for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of 
the people, and the mechanism for assessing potential risks, so as to reduce and 
prevent conflicts of interest. We should comprehensively promote law-based 
governance, and better safeguard the people’s lawful rights and interests. We 
should encourage all the people to resolve all social conflicts through legal 
procedures and by legal means, and ensure that people do things according to 
law, examine the law provisions in case of conflict, and use laws to solve 
problems and conflicts. 

Notes 21

[ 1 ] The Book of Changes (Zhou Yi). 

Ecological Progress 

A Better Environment for a Beautiful China 

April 2, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at a voluntary tree-planting activity in Beijing. 

We need to strengthen publicity and education and carry out new activities 
to get more people to plant trees. We will protect forests in accordance with the 
law, persistently carry out this campaign and make it more effective. This will 
create a better environment for completing the building of a moderately 
prosperous society in all respects and realizing the Chinese Dream of national 

Our tree-planting campaign was launched more than 30 years ago. It has 
boosted the recovery and development of China’s forest resources, and increased 
public awareness of the importance of tree planting and environmental 
protection. However, we must recognize the fact that China is still an 
ecologically vulnerable country with a scarcity of forest resources, and faces a 
long-term and arduous mission of afforestation and ecological improvement. 

Forests are the mainstay and an important resource for the land ecosystem. 
They are also an important ecological safeguard for the survival and 
development of mankind. It is hard to imagine what would happen to the earth 
and human beings without forests. Our Party raised a requirement to build a 
beautiful China at its 18th National Congress. The whole of society should 
enhance its ecological awareness and strengthen environmental protection in 
accordance with this requirement, so as to build China into a country with a 
good environment. 

Usher in a New Era of Ecological Progress 

May 24, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the sixth group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

Our efforts for ecological conservation and environmental protection will 
benefit future generations. We must be aware that it is a pressing and difficult 
task to protect the environment and control pollution, and that it is important and 
necessary to advance ecological progress. We must take a responsible attitude 
towards our people and future generations, be resolute in controlling 
environmental pollution, strive to usher in a new era of ecological progress and 
improve the environment for our people to live and work in. 

Ecological progress is of vital importance to the future of the nation and the 
well-being of its people. The 18th National Congress of the CPC listed 
ecological progress along with economic, political, cultural and social progress 
as the five goals in the overall plan for the cause of Chinese socialism, vowing to 
promote ecological progress to build a beautiful China and achieve lasting and 
sustainable development of the Chinese nation. 

To promote ecological progress, we must comprehensively implement the 
guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National Congress, and take Deng 
Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents and the 
Scientific Outlook on Development as our guide. We must raise awareness of 
the need to respect, protect, and accommodate ourselves to nature, follow the 
basic state policy of resource conservation and environmental protection, and 
give high priority to conserving resources, protecting the environment and 
promoting its natural restoration. We must dedicate ourselves to raising our 
ecological awareness, enhancing relevant systems, safeguarding ecological 
security, and improving the environment. We must preserve our geographical 
space and streamline our industrial structure, our mode of production, and our 
way of life in the interest of resource conservation and environmental protection. 

We must strike a balance between economic growth and environmental 
protection, and bear in mind that protecting the environment equates to 
protecting productivity and that improving the environment also equates to 
developing productivity. We will be more conscientious in promoting green, 
circular, and low-carbon development. We will never again seek economic 
growth at the cost of the environment. 

It is through land use that ecological progress can be advanced. Maintaining 
a balance between population, resources and the environment, and promoting 
economic, social and ecological efficiency, we will determine an overall plan for 
developing our land, and allot space to production, to daily life, and to ecological 
development as appropriate, in order to leave more space for nature’s self¬ 
restoration. We will accelerate the work of functional zoning, follow the 
functional definitions of different areas where development must be optimized, 
prioritized, restricted, or forbidden, and delimit and strictly enforce ecological 
red lines. We will work out appropriate plans for urbanization, agricultural 
development and ecological security to safeguard national and regional 
ecological security, and improve services for ecological conservation. We must 
fully understand the importance of enforcing ecological red lines. Any violations 
regarding environmental protection will be punished. 

Resource conservation is a fundamental way to protect the environment. 
We will conserve resources and use them efficiently, bring about a fundamental 
change in the way resources are utilized, increase conservation efforts in all 
respects, and drastically reduce the consumption of energy, water and land 
resources per unit of GDP. We will vigorously develop a circular economy to 
reduce waste and resource consumption, re-use resources, and recycle waste in 
the process of production, distribution and consumption. 

We will launch major projects to restore the ecosystem, and increase our 
capacity for producing eco-friendly products. A sound ecological environment is 
the basic foundation for the sustainable development of humanity and society. 
The public are greatly concerned about the environment. So we should place 
emphasis on serious environmental problems that pose health hazards to the 
people, and take a holistic approach to intensifying the prevention and control of 
water, air and soil pollution, with the focus on water pollution in key river basins 
and regions, and on air pollution in key industrial sectors and areas. 

We must have the strictest possible institutions and legislation in place in 
order to guarantee ecological progress. To do this, we should first of all improve 
the evaluation norms for economic and social development to include resource 
consumption, environmental damage, ecological benefits and other indicators 
that can be used to assess ecological improvement, and use them to direct and 
shape our ecological work. We will establish an accountability system, and call 
to account officials whose ill-judged decisions have caused serious ecological 

We will increase publicity and education on the need to promote ecological 
progress, raise public awareness of the need to conserve resources and protect 
the environment, and foster a social atmosphere of cherishing our environment. 

Leave to Our Future Generations Blue Skies, Green Fields and 

Clean Water 

July 18, 2013 

* Letter of congratulations to the Eco Forum Annual Global Conference Guiyang 2013. 

On behalf of the Chinese government and people, and in my own name, 1 
would like to extend congratulations on the opening of the Eco Forum Annual 
Global Conference Guiyang 2013, and a warm welcome to heads of state and 
government, United Nations officials, experts, scholars, business leaders and all 
other distinguished guests at this conference. 

“Building Eco Civilization: Green Transfonnation and Transition - Green 
Industry, Green Urbanization and Green Consumption-led Sustainable 
Development” is the theme of this conference. It reflects the shared interest of 
the international community in promoting ecological progress. I am convinced 
that the achievements made by the participants at this conference will make a 
useful contribution to protecting the global environment. 

Ushering in a new era of ecological progress and building a beautiful China 
is an important element of the Chinese Dream. China will respect and protect 
nature, and accommodate itself to nature’s needs. It will remain committed to the 
basic state policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment. It will 
promote green, circular and low-carbon development, and promote ecological 
progress in every aspect of its effort to achieve economic, political, cultural and 
social progress. China will also develop a resource-efficient and environmentally 
friendly geographical layout, industrial structure, mode of production and way of 
life, and leave to our future generations a working and living environment of 
blue skies, green fields and clean water. 

Protecting the environment, addressing climate change and securing energy 
and resources is a common challenge for the whole world. China will continue to 
assume its due international obligations, carry out in-depth exchanges and 
cooperation with all other countries in promoting ecological progress, and work 

with them to promote the sharing of best practices, and make the earth an 
environmentally sound homeland. 

I wish the conference every success. 

Xi Jinping 

President of the People’s Republic of China 

National Defense 

Build up Our National Defense and Armed Forces 

November 16, 2012 

* Main points of the speech at an enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission. 

The leading body of the Central Military Commission and the senior 
officers in the army shoulder major historical responsibilities in building up our 
national defense and armed forces. We must remain clear-headed, cherish the 
achievements of past generations, draw upon the precious experiences we have 
accumulated, and value the progress that is already being made. We must serve 
the Party and the people whole-heartedly and further strengthen our national 
defense and armed forces. 

Studying and applying the guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National 
Congress must be our number one political task, and we must do it well. In line 
with the requirements of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military 
Commission, a campaign should be launched promptly in the armed forces to 
study and apply these principles. We should continue to study the Scientific 
Outlook on Development, and use it to guide our work. We should study the 
Party’s guiding thoughts concerning the building of national defense and armed 
forces, taking the Scientific Outlook on Development as the guiding principle in 
this respect, and fully understand the features and laws of the building of 
national defense and armed forces in the new environment. We should 
summarize the valuable experience gained by Chairman Hu Jintao in building 
our national defense and armed forces, maintain the principles he developed, and 
continue to implement his policies and strategic decisions. 

We must uphold the Party’s leadership of the armed forces. This is central 
to the nature and mission of the armed forces, the future of socialism, the 
enduring stability of the Party, and the lasting peace of our country. It is 
fundamental to the existence and development of the armed forces. In our efforts 
to strengthen our armed forces we must treat theoretical and political education 
as our first priority, so that the Party’s leadership of them will take firm root in 
the minds of our officers and soldiers, and the whole armed forces will follow 

without hesitation the commands of the Party Central Committee and the Central 
Military Commission at all times and under all conditions. We must strengthen 
the leadership of the Party over the armed forces in the aspects of theoretical and 
political education, and political and organizational affairs. We will apply 
political convictions as a measure when reviewing and appointing officers to 
ensure that our weaponry is always in the hands of those who are reliable and 
loyal to the Party. We must strictly enforce discipline on those who commit 
errors in political or organizational affairs, safeguard the authority of the Central 
Committee and the Central Military Commission, and ensure the smooth 
implementation of their military orders. 

We must be able to fulfill a complete range of military tasks. The whole of 
the armed forces must have an in-depth understanding of the important role it 
has in the broad picture of China’s national security and development strategies. 
It must put national sovereignty and security before any other consideration. 
Being “action ready” must be its major task, and it must comprehensively 
enhance its deterrence and combat capacity in the information age. The whole of 
the armed forces must attach strategic importance to military training, and keep 
raising its “real combat” capacity. 

In line with the principle of comprehensive development we must continue 
to modernize and standardize our forces, and strengthen their revolutionary 
spirit. We will take a holistic approach to all work related to political and 
military matters, logistics and equipment, in order to upgrade the overall 
capacity of our forces. In a new environment, we must promote innovation and 
development of our military strategy, use our strategy to guide our tasks in 
strengthening our forces, and base our policies on a military strategy of active 

We will thoroughly apply the Party’s guidelines on the development of 
national defense and the armed forces, promote such development in a scientific 
manner, and strive to make real progress in transforming the mode of increasing 
combat effectiveness. We will press forward with the transformation of our 
military affairs and build a system of modern military forces with Chinese 

We must carry on the glorious traditions of our military. These traditions 
have been developed under the leadership of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang 

Zemin and Hu Jintao, and we will continue to apply them as we strive to 
modernize our national defense and armed forces. We will educate our officers 
and soldiers to intensify their ability to respond to adversity and crisis, so that 
their commitment will remain firm, their work determined, their morale high and 
their discipline unwavering. Our officers and soldiers will maintain an 
indomitable revolutionary spirit and be dauntless in combat. We will make every 
effort to combat corruption and promote integrity in the armed forces. Senior 
officers must take a clear-cut stand against corruption, and set an example in 
abiding by the code of honest conduct. 

With the firm leadership of the Party Central Committee and Central 
Military Commission, with the strong support of the people, and with the 
concerted efforts of all our armed forces, we will succeed in our determined 
campaign to forge an ever-stronger national defense and armed forces. 

Build Strong National Defense and Powerful Military Forces 

December 8 and 10, 2012 

* Main points of the speech during his inspection visit to the Guangzhou Military Command. 

China’s military forces must unite in upholding socialism with Chinese 
characteristics, and take Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the 
Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development as their guiding 
principles. The Party’s 18th National Congress produced a series of guidelines 
and defined a set of strategic measures on national defense and the development 
of China’s military forces. These must be thoroughly and rigorously 
implemented. China’s military must never lose sight of the fact that following 
the Party’s command is its core duty, to fight and win is its fundamental role, 
and to run the army strictly and in accordance with the law is key to achieving 
these aims. We must build a modern and standardized military dedicated to our 
revolutionary goals. 

In our efforts to strengthen our armed forces we must treat theoretical and 
political education as our first priority, and ensure that our work is always done 
in accordance with the right political principles. We will educate our officers and 
soldiers in the theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics and foster their 
core values as contemporary revolutionary service personnel^. We will ensure 
that they follow the Party’s commands, fulfill their missions without fail, and 
maintain the great traditions of our armed forces. To reinforce their theoretical 
and political education, our forces’ first responsibility is and will remain the task 
of studying, disseminating, and applying the guiding principles of the 18th 
National Congress. We must integrate study with practice, and implement these 
guiding principles in our actions. 

We will enhance our combat readiness through full-scale combat simulation 
exercises, and reinforce the belief that as soldiers our mission is to fight, and as 
officers our mission is to lead our men to victory. We must train our troops 
strictly and provide rigid criteria for real combat, modernize our armed forces, 

and enhance their capacity to fulfill diverse military tasks. The armed forces 
must be capable of winning regional engagements in the information age. We 
must follow to the letter such military practices as strictly observing discipline, 
executing every order, and acting in unison. The rank and file must be the focus 
of our work. 

Achieving the great renewal of the Chinese nation has become the dream of 
the Chinese people in modern times. This great dream we have is to make our 
country strong. To the military, the dream is to make our forces strong. To 
achieve these aims we must strive both to enrich the country and build a strong 
national defense and powerful military. The armed forces must never falter in 
upholding the Party’s absolute leadership, and all service persons must be well- 
disciplined, so as to ensure that the armed forces are secure and stable. 

The heroic armed forces of the people will carry on its great traditions, 
build on past merits, so as to forge ahead to fulfill the historical responsibilities 
they shoulder. 

Notes 22

[1] The core values of the armed forces are: loyalty to the Party, love for the people, devotion to the 
country, dedication to the mission, and respect for honor. 

Build People’s Armed Forces That Follow the Party’s Commands, 
Are Able to Win Battles and Have Fine Conduct 

March 11, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the plenary meeting of the People’s Liberation Army delegation 
during the First Session of the 12th National People’s Congress. 

Our armed forces must thoroughly implement the guiding principles of the 
18th CPC National Congress, uphold socialism with Chinese characteristics, 
follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the 
Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. We must firmly 
follow the Party’s goal of military development under the new circumstances 
and, build revolutionary, modernized and standardized people’s armed forces 
that faithfully follow the Party’s commands, are able to win battles and have fine 

Building such forces is the Party’s goal for developing the military under 
the new circumstances. It is essential for the military to follow the Party’s 
commands, which determines the political orientation of military development. 
It is vital for the military to be capable of fighting to win, which is the basic 
function of the military as well as the fundamental objective of its development. 
To have fine conduct ensures that the military demonstrates its nature, aspiration 
and character. Our armed forces must understand this goal, bear it in mind in 
their efforts to promote military development, reform and preparedness, and 
bring national defense and military development to a new level. 

We must ensure the absolute leadership of the Party over the military that 
follows the commands of the Party and serves the people. It must be loyal, pure 
and reliable, and all its actions must be under the command of the Party Central 
Committee and the Central Military Commission. We must focus on the key task 
of building strong military forces which are able to fight to win, make sure that 
soldiers are capable of fighting, officers of commanding, and troops well trained. 
We must uphold combat capacity as the sole and fundamental standard for 
military development. We should promote our military development and 

preparedness to meet the needs of war, being ready to fight at all times and in all 
conditions. Having a fine work style is the unique feature and political advantage 
of our military. We must step up efforts to improve our work style, ensure good 
conduct in every aspect of military development and management, stay realistic, 
pragmatic and results-oriented, and reinforce the basic principle of running the 
military strictly and in accordance with the law. In doing this, we will maintain 
our long-established image as the armed forces of the people. 

We should coordinate the development of our economy and defense 
capabilities, and combine efforts to make the country prosperous and the military 
strong. We should further the great integration of military and civilian 
development, and work to achieve in-depth integration of the use of 
infrastructure and other key facilities based on demands and led by the 
government. At the same time, we should manage the military budget well and 
use it properly by working hard, practicing economy, and opposing extravagance 
and waste, so as to put the funds to their best use. We should carry on the fine 
tradition of the military supporting the government and cherishing the people 
while the government and the people respect the troops and provide preferential 
treatment to their families. We should ensure that the military and local people 
work together to promote material advance, and cultural and ethical progress, as 
well as social harmony. To show concern for and support the development of 
national defense and the military, Party committees and governments at all levels 
should enhance education in national defense knowledge and popular awareness 
so that the whole of society will have common understandings and joint 
initiatives in caring for, loving, developing and safeguarding national defense. 

One Country, Two Systems 

Hong Kong, Macao and the Chinese Mainland Are Closely 

Linked by Destiny 

December 20, 2012, March 18, 2013 and December 18, 2013 

* Main points of talks with Leung Chun-ying, chief executive of the Hong Kong Special 
Administrative Region, and Fernando Chui Sai On, chief executive of the Macao Special Administrative 

Since the new government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative 
Region (HKSAR) took office, Mr Leung Chun-ying and his team, both 
enterprising and pragmatic, have made many achievements. The central 
government affirms their efforts and will continue to support the HKSAR 
government in its administration in accordance with the law. 

People are concerned whether the policies and principles of the central 
government towards Hong Kong and Macao will change after the election of the 
new central leadership. 1 would like to take this opportunity to reiterate that the 
central government will continue to implement the policy of “one country, two 
systems”^ and handle things in strict conformity with the Basic Law; there will 
be no change in our resolve to support the chief executive and the HKSAR 
government in their administration in accordance with the law and the 
performance of their duties; nor will there be any change in our policy of 
supporting the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions in 
developing their economies, improving their people’s well-being, and promoting 
democracy and harmony. The fundamental policies and principles on handling 
Hong Kong and Macao affairs expounded at the 18th CPC National Congress 
are in line with the policies and principles the central government has long 
adopted for the two regions. The key lies in a comprehensive and accurate 
understanding and implementation of the “one country, two systems” principle, 
and respect for and maintenance of the authority of the Basic Law. 

China’s development is good, and splendid prospects have been unfolding 

before us, featuring the completion of the building of a moderately prosperous 
society in all respects and the achievement of the rejuvenation of the Chinese 
nation. As 1 have said, achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has been 
the greatest dream of the Chinese people since the advent of modern times. 1 
believe that people in Hong Kong also hold this dream dearly. 1 also believe that 
Hong Kong people, who have a deep sense of national respect and pride, will 
surely make their contribution along with the people of the rest of the country to 
achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 

(Main points of the talk with Leung Chun-ying, chief executive of the 

HKSAR, December 20, 2012) 


Today is the 13th anniversary of Macao’s return to the motherland. First of 
all I wish to convey through Mr Fernando Chui Sai On my cordial greetings to 
and best wishes for Macao’s people. The general situation in Macao is good. 
Fernando Chui Sai On, the government of the Macao Special Administrative 
Region (MSAR) and people of all walks of life in Macao have been working 
together to maintain the prosperity, stability and development of Macao, and the 
central government affirms the efforts made by Fernando Chui Sai On and the 
MSAR government. 

The central government will, as always, implement the “one country, two 
systems” principle, the policy of “Macao people governing Macao” with a high 
degree of autonomy and the Basic Law of the MSAR, support the chief 
executive and the MSAR government in their administration in accordance with 
the law and the performance of their duties, and support the MSAR in 
developing its economy, improving its people’s well-being, and promoting 
democracy and harmony. We are fully confident of the future of our country and 
the Chinese nation, and we firmly believe that progress will be made in all social 
undertakings in Macao. 

(Main points of the talk with Fernando Chui Sai On, chief executive of the 

MSAR, December 20, 2012) 


Hong Kong, Macao and the Chinese mainland are closely linked by destiny. 
To realize the Chinese Dream - the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation - Hong 
Kong, Macao and the Chinese mainland must pool and share our strength, and 
seek common development. Moreover, the people of Hong Kong, Macao and the 
Chinese mainland must help each other to make progress. 

Leung Chun-ying has put forward the administrative idea of “seeking 
change while preserving stability,” which has been accepted by the citizens of 
Hong Kong. Now the key question lies in its implementation. It is not only a 
responsibility of the chief executive and the HKSAR government, but a mission 
relying on the joint efforts of people of all walks of life in Hong Kong. When 
everybody adds wood to the fire, the flames rise high. We hope that people of all 
walks of life in Hong Kong will unite closely to support the chief executive and 
the HKSAR government in administration in accordance with the law and jointly 
create a brighter future for Hong Kong. 

Macao is experiencing a relatively good time in its history, but its future 
development faces challenges too. We hope that the MSAR government and 
people of all walks of life will be keenly aware of potential problems, take 
advantage of favorable timing and conditions, and study and solve major 
problems that may hinder Macao’s progress, so as to lay a solid foundation for 
the future development of Macao. 

(Main points of the talk with Leung Chun-ying, chief executive of the 
HKSAR, and Fernando Chui Sai On, chief executive of the MSAR, March 18, 



Implementing the administrative principles of “seeking change while 
preserving stability” and “people’s well-being first,” you and the HKSAR 
government have focused on the resolution of major problems in economic and 
social development, and achieved initial results. The central government fully 
affirms your efforts. 

The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee made an 
overall plan on driving reform to a deeper level, which is a major strategic plan 
concerning China’s development. According to the plan, the mainland will let 

the market play a decisive role in resource allocation and give better play to the 
government’s functions, which will be conducive to the expansion of the 
mainland’s openness to and cooperation with Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, 
further exchanges and cooperation between the mainland and Hong Kong, and 
more opportunities and scope for Hong Kong’s development. 

The central government has been consistent and clear-cut in its stance 
towards universal suffrage when it comes to electing the Hong Kong chief 
executive in 2017. We hope that people of all walks of life in Hong Kong will 
build a consensus through down-to-earth consultations in accordance with the 
Basic Law and decisions of the Standing Committee of the NPC, and lay a good 
foundation for the universal suffrage for the election of the chief executive. 

(Main points of the talk with Leung Chun-ying, chief executive of'HKSAR, 

December 18, 2013) 

Macao is maintaining a good development trend, its economy is on a steady 
rise, its society is harmonious and stable, and its people live and work in peace 
and contentment. The central government fully affirms the efforts you and the 
MSAR government have made. At present, Macao should think of potential 
problems in times of peace and make a long-term plan. This requires the MSAR 
government and people of all walks of life in Macao to make continuous efforts 
to find out how to remain both pragmatic and innovative on the basis of Macao’s 
rapid economic development over the past few years, how to solve problems 
emerging in the process of development, how to explore ways for the 
appropriately diversified development of Macao and how to realize sustainable 
progress for it. 

The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee made an 
overall plan on driving reform to a deeper level, which is a major strategic plan 
concerning China’s development. Robust positive energy has been gathered in 
all sectors across China to comprehensively advance reform further, and the 
people of all ethnic groups in the country are working diligently in unity for the 
realization of the Two Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream of the 
rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The destiny of Macao is closely linked with 
that of the mainland, and Macao will advance in tandem and make progress 

together with the mainland in their development. 

(Main points of the talk with Fernando Chui Sai On, chief executive of the 

MSAR, December 18, 2013) 

Notes 23

[1] “One country, two systems” is a scientific concept put forward by the CPC and the Chinese 
government for realizing China’s reunification and solving the Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao issues. The 
framework of the concept is: Under the premise of national reunification, the mainland keeps practicing 
socialism, while Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao retain their original capitalist system and ways of life for a 
long time while enjoying a high degree of autonomy. China resumed sovereignty over Hong Kong and 
Macao in 1997 and 1999, respectively, in accordance with this concept. 

Create a Better Future for the Chinese Nation Hand in Hand 

April 8 and October 6, 2013 

* Main points of talks with Vincent Siew, honorary chairman of the Cross-Straits Common Market 
Foundation of Taiwan, and his delegation. 

The Chinese mainland is strong in its resolution and clear in its policies and 
principles for peaceful development on both sides of the Taiwan Straits. We will 
maintain the continuity of our fundamental strategy towards Taiwan, continue to 
implement effective policies, and keep moving our relations forward so as to 
bring benefits to the people on both sides. The Chinese people on both sides of 
the Taiwan Straits should strengthen solidarity and cooperation, and jointly work 
towards realizing the Chinese Dream, a great renewal of the Chinese nation. 

Comprehensive, direct and two-way links, namely the “three direct links’’^ 
have been realized between the mainland and Taiwan. The signing and 
implementation of the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA), 
in particular, initiated a new stage for developing cross-Straits economic 
relations. “Those who are clear about the trend of the times will stand in the van, 
and those who can take advantage of the trend of the times are bound to 
succeed.” For the Chinese people on both sides of the Straits, it is important to 
be aware of and seize the opportunities history has afforded us, follow the trend 
of the times, work hand in hand to promote peaceful cross-Straits relations, and 
bring about a better future for the Chinese nation. 

First, we hope that cross-Straits economic cooperation can be boosted by 
the people on both sides of the Straits through the concept of “one family.” All 
of us, whether from the mainland or Taiwan, are members of the Chinese nation, 
and both economies are that of the Chinese nation. Giving more consideration to 
the needs and interests of our Taiwan compatriots, we will offer the same 
treatment to Taiwan enterprises as to mainland enterprises in the fields of 
investment and economic cooperation sooner rather than later, and provide 

greater scope for enhancing cross-Straits economic cooperation. 

Second, we hope that both sides will further pursue high-level economic 
dialogues and coordination, and raise our economic cooperation to a new level. 
It is essential to give better play to the role of the Economic Cooperation 
Committee (ECC) within the ECFA, enhance communication on our situations, 
policies and development plans, and strengthen foresight and coordination in 
economic cooperation. We must speed up the expansion of industrial 
cooperation, increase two-way investment, deepen cooperation in financial 
services and explore new ways of cooperation. 

Third, we hope that both sides can accelerate the negotiation of subsequent 
agreements following the signing of the ECFA, and improve our rules in respect 
of economic cooperation. The mainland and Taiwan should sign a service trade 
agreement as soon as possible, and strive to complete consultations on such 
topics as cargo trade and dispute settlements by the end of the year. The two 
sides can discuss appropriate and workable measures to realize common 
economic growth and link the processes of regional economic cooperation of 
both sides, which will invigorate cross-Straits economic cooperation. 

Fourth, we hope that people on both sides of the Taiwan Straits will jointly 
work towards achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Every 
achievement made by the mainland or Taiwan can make all Chinese people 
proud. Our joint efforts for promoting peaceful cross-Straits relations are 
contributions towards achieving the great renewal of the Chinese nation. We will 
surely overcome all difficulties and remove all barriers on the way as we move 
ahead, and make new progress in the peaceful development of cross-Straits 
relations as long as we always keep the interests of the entire Chinese nation in 

(April 8, 2013) 


Both sides of the Straits should keep to the correct path of peaceful 
development of cross-Straits relations, advocate the idea that we are one family, 
strengthen exchanges and cooperation, and together promote the rejuvenation of 
the Chinese nation. 

We must cherish historic opportunities and maintain the positive 
momentum of peaceful development of cross-Straits relations. The people on 
both sides of the Straits long for greater progress in their relations, so both sides 
should comply with the aspirations of the people, seize the opportunities and 
make new achievements in such relations. 

We must increase political trust between the mainland and Taiwan, and 
reinforce the common political foundation of the two sides, which are critical for 
maintaining the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations. Sooner or later 
we will have to resolve the political disputes that have long existed in cross- 
Straits relations rather than leave them to later generations. We have stated 
several times that we would like to hold consultations on an equal footing with 
Taiwan on cross-Straits political issues within the framework of “one China,” 
and make fair and reasonable arrangements. The heads of responsible 
departments from both sides can meet and exchange views on matters 
concerning cross-Straits relations. 

Both economies are parts of the overall economy of the Chinese nation. In 
the new era of the Asia Pacific economic development, the two sides can better 
meet challenges through enhanced cooperation. We must improve the systems of 
cross-Straits economic cooperation while attaching more importance to 
promoting industrial cooperation. 

(October 6, 2013) 

Notes 24

[1] The “three direct links” are direct links in postal matters, transportation and trade between the 
Chinese mainland and Taiwan. 

Handle Cross-Straits Relations in the Overall Interests of the 

Chinese Nation 

June 13, 2013 

* Main points of the talk with Wu Po-hsiung, honorary chairman of the Kuomintang of China, and 
his delegation. 

Over the past five years, thanks to the concerted efforts of the two parties, 
two sides and people from both sides of the Taiwan Straits, we have opened a 
right path and made important progress in the peaceful development of cross- 
Straits relations. Under the new circumstances, the CPC Central Committee will 
continue to follow its established policies and commit itself to consolidating and 
pushing forward the trend of peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and 
bringing benefits to the people and the Chinese nation as a whole. 1 hope both 
parties and both sides will continue to enhance mutual trust, maintain 
constructive interaction and steadily promote the comprehensive development of 
cross-Straits relations, strengthen the foundations for peaceful development, 
unite with all the people on the two sides of the Straits and work collaboratively 
towards the great renewal of the Chinese nation. 

At present, cross-Straits relations are at a new starting point, and we are all 
facing important opportunities. We should carefully sum up our experience, have 
a clear understanding of the changing situation and make responses accordingly, 
resolutely follow the path of peaceful development of cross-Straits relations, 
consolidate and further develop our political, economic, cultural and social 
foundations, and bring about fresh achievements in cross-Straits relations. 

First, we must firmly handle cross-Straits relations in the overall interests of 
the Chinese nation. We are committed to safeguarding the fundamental interests 
of the Chinese nation and the common interests of all sons and daughters of 
China, including our Taiwan compatriots. In addressing the general picture of 
cross-Straits relations in the overall interests of the Chinese nation, the most 
important and most fundamental thing to do is to maintain China’s sovereignty 
and territorial integrity. Although the mainland and Taiwan are yet to be 

reunited, they belong to one and same China, which is an indivisible whole. The 
Kuomintang and the CPC have every reason to uphold the one-China stance and 
work together to maintain the one-China framework. 1 hope both parties will, 
displaying a responsible attitude for history and the people, put the overall 
interests of the Chinese nation above all else, keep in mind the overall picture of 
the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and move those relations 
steadily forward in the right direction. 

Second, we must handle cross-Straits relations on the basis of a clear 
understanding of the trend of history. The great renewal of the Chinese nation 
has never been closer thanks to the tireless efforts of all the sons and daughters 
of China. We should view from the high ground the great trend of history with 
changing times and the rise of the Chinese nation, and realize that the peaceful 
development of cross-Straits relations has become part and parcel of China’s 
great renewal. We should break away from outdated perceptions, and identify 
this renewal as the common goal. This has become a prevailing trend of 
development in cross-Straits relations. We should determine our own road map 
for continued progress in accordance with this. Both parties should take national 
renewal and the people’s well-being as their bounden duty, promote unity and 
cooperation among compatriots as belonging to the same family, pool the 
wisdom and strength of the Chinese people on both sides of the Straits, and work 
to heal the historical trauma through working together towards national renewal, 
thus writing a shining page in China’s journey towards prosperity. 

Third, we must strengthen mutual trust and constructive interactions, seek 
common ground while reserving differences, and devote ourselves to pragmatic 
progress. The key to increasing mutual trust lies in reaching a clearer common 
understanding of an identical stance on the principal issue of upholding and 
consolidating the one-China framework. Constructive interactions mean 
enhanced communication, consultations on an equal basis, meeting each other 
halfway, mutual release of goodwill, efforts to cherish the hard-won peaceful 
development of cross-Straits relations, and the solving of outstanding problems 
in a fair and reasonable way. Seeking common ground while reserving 
differences demands that both sides give full play to their political wisdom, 
reach and expand a consensus for enhancing cross-Straits relations, and properly 
handle and control their differences in the spirit of sharing and mutual 
assistance, as passengers in the same boat. Pragmatic progress requires that the 

two sides adopt a down-to-earth approach, proceed from reality and go for 
steady and incremental progress, never shrinking from difficulties, never being 
thrown off balance by interruptions, and being on guard against retrogression. 
As cross-Straits relations have entered a new phase of consolidation and 
deepening, it is all the more necessary for the two sides to keep a positive and 
enterprising spirit, and to face and overcome difficulties on the road to progress 
with greater courage and determination. 1 hope the two sides will work together 
to make even greater achievements in cross-Straits relations, while expanding 
steadily the scope of peaceful development of such relations. 

Fourth, we must firmly promote the comprehensive development of cross- 
Straits relations. Above all, we must work hard to keep cross-Straits relations 
stable. Forces and activities for “Taiwan independence” remain a real threat to 
the peace of the Taiwan Straits. It is therefore incumbent upon us to oppose and 
contain any rhetoric or move for “Taiwan independence” without any 
compromise. On the basis of overall stability in the Straits, there can be a broad 
scope for cross-Straits exchanges and cooperation in various fields. The two 
sides should take more positive steps to stimulate their economic, scientific, 
technological, cultural and educational cooperation, provide greater policy 
support, and offer still more convenient facilities, so as to expand the scope and 
texture of cooperation, and thereby generate even greater benefits. We must 
endeavor to enhance the well-being of the people on both sides of the Straits. All 
of them are entitled to the fruits of the peaceful development of cross-Straits 
relations. We should help them, while working to expand their common interests 
and promoting Chinese culture, cultivate a deeper sense of cross-Straits 
community of common destiny, strengthen their national pride and reaffirm their 
common commitment to China’s rejuvenation. 

Together Fulfill the Chinese Dream of National Rejuvenation 

February 18, 2014 

* Speech delivered when receiving Lien Chan, honorary chairman of the Kuomintang of China, and 
his delegation. 

Distinguished Honorary Chairman Lien Chan and Madame Lien, 

Dear friends from all walks of life in Taiwan, 

Good afternoon! 1 am delighted to meet Chainnan Lien and other friends, 
old and new, right after the Spring Festival. You are the first Taiwanese guests 1 
have met since the beginning of this year, the Year of the Horse. First of all, 1 
would like to extend my warm welcome to you. 1 wish you all a happy New 
Year and every success! 

Chairman Lien and 1 have met several times, and we are old friends now. 
He has deep feelings for our motherland, and has long been an advocate of 
cross-Straits relations and has done a great deal for the rejuvenation of the 
Chinese nation. 1 greatly appreciate his dedication. 

A whole year’s work depends on a good start in the spring. Last year, 
Chairman Lien and other friends also paid us a visit at the beginning of spring, 
setting a favorable course for the development of cross-Straits relations in the 
year. Progress in our relationship has been of great benefit to the people of both 
sides, as well as offering further potential for development. This year, we hope 
that both sides can work together on the basis that we are one family, seize every 
opportunity that presents itself, and make a concerted effort to make further 
progress in the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and bring more 
benefits to the people on both sides of the Taiwan Straits. 

Thank you, Chairman Lien, for the good points you have just raised on the 
subject of cross-Straits relations, which are very enlightening to me. You are 
representatives of all circles in Taiwan; and I would like to have a heart-to-heart 

talk with you. 

Due to history and present circumstances, there are many thorny problems 
for the moment between our two sides, but this will pass, for we are both doing 
our best to solve them, and to ensure that they do not adversely affect our 
relationship, our cooperation, or our exchanges. Meanwhile, the people on both 
sides of the Straits are one family with shared blood, culture, bonds, and 
aspirations, all of which serve as an important force for promoting our mutual 
understanding and common progress. 

First, we are one family, and no one can ever cut the veins that connect us. 1 
am impressed by our compatriots in Taiwan for their worship of the ancestors, 
their love for the homeland, and their honesty, frankness, diligence and hard 
work. The closeness between us is rooted in our blood, our history and culture. 
We all believe that Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Straits are members of 
one Chinese nation, and we all inherit and pass on Chinese culture. During the 
50 years when Taiwan was occupied by the Japanese aggressors,^ our fellow 
Taiwanese maintained a strong sense of national consciousness and deep 
feelings for Chinese culture, regarding themselves first and foremost as members 
of the Chinese nation. Such consciousness and feelings are inherent and natural, 
and can never be erased. 

Looking back on the history of Taiwan and that of cross-Straits relations, 1 
have come to a clear understanding that no matter what trials and hardships 
Taiwan has experienced, and no matter what vicissitudes cross-Straits relations 
have been through, the hearts of the people on both sides of the Straits remain in 
accord with each other, and the people on both sides always show concern for 
and help each other. It is a simple truth that blood is thicker than water. All 
Taiwanese are our kinsmen, including the descendants of those who crossed the 
dangerous “Black Ditch”^ hundreds of years ago to seek a new life in Taiwan, 
and those who migrated to Taiwan a few decades ago. We share origins and 
ancestors, and we are one close family. To strengthen these ties has been our 
common aspiration, and no force on earth can sever the bond between us. 

Second, people on both sides of the Straits share the same destiny, and there 
is no knot that cannot be unraveled. Despite the Straits that separate us 
geographically, we share the same destiny. A great Chinese nation will be a 
blessing for all Chinese, while a weak and divided one will be disastrous. After 

experiencing so many twists and turns in modern times, we all have a deep 
understanding of this. 

A hundred and twenty years ago China was a weak country, and the 
Japanese aggressors took advantage of this to occupy Taiwan. This was a 
traumatic experience for all Chinese people on both sides of the Straits. In the 
bitter years when Taiwan was under Japanese occupation, countless Taiwanese 
compatriots shed their blood, and many laid down their lives, proving they were 
inseparable members of the extended family of the Chinese nation. For more 
than six decades now, although the two sides have yet to be reunited, we belong 
to one country and the same nation - a fact that has never changed, nor will ever 
change in the future. The blood of the Chinese nation flows in every one of us, 
and ours is forever the soul of the Chinese nation. 

Due to their historical suffering and the distinct social environment in 
which they have lived, the people of Taiwan have their own mindset. They bear 
particular historical scars, they are eager to be masters of their own destiny, they 
cherish their established social systems and way of life, and they wish to live a 
stable and happy life. Putting ourselves in their place, we can fully understand 
their feelings. 

We identify with our compatriots in Taiwan in terms of their historical 
trauma, for it is a shared trauma of all sons and daughters of the Chinese nation. 
With the advent of the new era, it has become a common goal cherished by each 
one of us on both sides of the Straits to become a dignified Chinese and a 
helmsman of his own destiny. 

Family affection heals trauma, and sincerity leads to realistic solutions to 
problems. We have no lack of patience, and have confidence aplenty. Family 
affection cannot only heal wounds, relieve pain, and unlock hearts, but help 
achieve mutual affinity. We respect the social system and the way of life chosen 
by the people of Taiwan, and would also like them to be first in sharing the 
opportunities brought by the mainland’s development. None of us can choose 
our history, but we can all seize the moment and create a better future. 

Third, the people on both sides of the Straits should join our efforts in 
promoting peaceful cross-Straits relations. Over the past five years or more, we 
have together chosen the path of peaceful development in cross-Straits relations. 

As a result we have broken new ground, to the benefit of all concerned. Facts 
have proved that this is the right path, leading to peace, common development, 
national rejuvenation and mutual benefit. The two sides should eliminate all 
obstacles, and advance along this path firmly, step by step, and with full 

The current peaceful development of cross-Straits relations is beneficial to 
both sides, and no one wants to reverse such a favorable trend. For this reason, 
the two sides must consolidate and hold fast to our common foundation of the 
“1992 Consensus”^ and our opposition to “Taiwan independence,” and be fully 
aware of the importance of maintaining the one-China framework. Such a 
foundation is the anchor for cross-Straits relations. Only when our vessel is at 
anchor will we be able to “sit tight on the fishing boat despite the rising wind 
and surging waves.” As long as a solid foundation is maintained, the prospects 
for cross-Straits relations will continue to grow brighter. If the foundation is 
jeopardized, the relations will go back to turbulence and instability. Only 
recently, a consensus was reached at a meeting of the heads of departments in 
charge of cross-Straits affairs from both sides which is conducive to the all¬ 
round development of cross-Straits relations. 

As far as any significant political differences between the mainland and 
Taiwan are concerned, we are willing to conduct consultations with the people 
of Taiwan, based on equality within the one-China framework, and come to 
reasonable arrangements. We are ready to communicate with the people of 
Taiwan on any and every subject. Not every problem has an ideal solution, but 
where there is communication, there is hope, and, as a saying goes, “Faith can 
move mountains.” I believe that the people of China on both sides of the Straits 
have the wisdom to find the right approach to the problems between us. 

“When everybody adds wood to the fire, the flames rise high.” We invite 
more of our compatriots in Taiwan to work together with us. Let us make a 
concerted effort, work out effective methods, and pool all of our wisdom and 
strength so as to consolidate and expand the peaceful development of cross- 
Straits relations, transform this goal into an irresistible historic trend, and bring 
the benefits to the general public in Taiwan, and in particular to those at the 
grassroots. We will welcome people from Taiwan and treat them equally and 
without discrimination, regardless of whatever stance they might previously 

have taken, to boost the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations. 

Fourth, the people of the two sides should work hand in hand towards the 
Chinese Dream, the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. These were the long- 
cherished wishes of Dr Sun Yat-sen^: to achieve the rejuvenation of the 
Chinese nation, to realize the greatness and prosperity of China, and to ensure 
the happiness of the Chinese people. These have also been the long-cherished 
wishes of all CPC members and all the Chinese people since the advent of 
modern times. The Chinese Dream is a vivid expression of this wish. 

Just as Chairman Lien has said, the Chinese Dream is closely related to 
Taiwan’s future. It is a dream shared by both sides of the Straits that can only be 
realized through joint effort. As a saying goes, “If brothers are of the same mind, 
their edge can cut through metal.The people of both sides of the Straits, 
regardless of their parties, social strata, religions, or localities, should support 
each other in achieving national rejuvenation and the Chinese Dream as quickly 
as possible. 

We treat the people of Taiwan in all sincerity, and we are open to advice 
from all sides. We will do our best to deal properly with any matter concerning 
the well-being of our compatriots in Taiwan, the peaceful development of cross- 
Straits relations, and the overall interests of the Chinese nation. We will do our 
best to ensure that the people of Taiwan benefit from the peaceful development 
of cross-Straits relations, and to ensure that all Chinese people live a better life. 

Enjoy your stay here! Thank you! 

Notes 25

[1] In 1895, China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, and was forced to sign the Treaty of 
Shimonoseki, ceding to Japan Taiwan and the Penghu Islands, which were returned to China after Japan’s 
unconditional surrender in 1945 at the end of World War II. 

[2] This refers to the Taiwan Straits. Early immigrants to Taiwan from the mainland of China mostly 
chose to cross the Straits via the Penghu water area, where sea currents were swift and shipwrecks frequent. 
Since the sea water looked dark, and the journey was perilous, the immigrants called this area the “Black 

[3] The “1992 Consensus” refers to an oral agreement reached at a November 1992 meeting between 
the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS) based on the mainland and the Straits 

Exchange Foundation (SEF) based in Taiwan. The meeting discussed how to express the one-China 
principle in negotiations on general affairs, and agreed that both sides would follow the one-China 
principle, each with its respective interpretation. 

[4] Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), also known as Sun Wen and Sun Zhongshan, was revered as a great 
national hero, a patriot, and a forerunner of the Chinese democratic revolution, and put forward the political 
philosophy known as the “Three Principles of the People” - nationalism, democracy and the people’s 
livelihood. He was the first to call for the revival of the Chinese nation, and under his leadership, the rule of 
absolute monarchy that had lasted for thousands of years in China was finally ended by the Revolution of 
1911. Later, with the help of the CPC, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Vladimir Lenin, Sun 
Yat-sen reorganized the Kuomintang, adopted the “New Three Principles of the People” - which consisted 
of “alliance with the Soviets, alliance with the Communist Party of China and helping the farmers and 
workers” - established cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communists, and advanced the anti¬ 
imperialist and anti-feudal democratic revolution in China. 

[5] The Book of Changes (Zhou Yi), also known as I Ching. 

Take on the Task of Expanding Cross-Straits Relations and 
Achieving National Rejuvenation 

May 7, 2014 

* Main points of the talk with James Soong Chu-yu, chairman of Taiwan’s People First Party, and his 

The peaceful development of cross-Straits relations is a choice made by the 
people on both sides of the Taiwan Straits in accordance with the historical 
trend. As long as we stick to the idea that we are one family, put ourselves in 
each other’s shoes and treat one another with all sincerity, there are no hard 
feelings which cannot be removed and no difficulties which cannot be overcome 
between us. 

The overall situation of the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations 
is stable and can stand the test of any storm. In general, our relations have been 
improving over the decades, which is a reflection of the trend of history, despite 
the occasional ups and downs. Peaceful development is the common aspiration 
of the people on both sides of the Straits, and it brings benefits to both sides. We 
will not change our policies or measures for promoting peaceful cross-Straits 
relations, abandon the pragmatic measures of promoting cross-Straits exchanges, 
cooperation and mutually beneficial results, dampen our enthusiasm for uniting 
with our Taiwan compatriots in making progress, or waver in our opposition to 
any scheme of “Taiwan independence.” We sincerely hope that our Taiwan 
compatriots can enjoy a peaceful and happy life in a stable society with 
sustainable economic growth and improved well-being. 

Developing peaceful cross-Straits relations is a long-term and arduous task 
that calls for deeper mutual trust between the two sides. Mutual trust leads to 
solutions to many difficult problems. We must create the conditions for 
expanding contacts in various fields among people from all walks of life on both 
sides of the Straits, increase face-to-face and heart-to-heart communication, 
enhance mutual understanding and close the psychological gap between the two 

The prospects for peaceful development of cross-Straits relations are broad 
and promising, and continuous efforts need to be made to expand them. Bringing 
the comprehensive reform to a higher level and opening wider to the outside 
world by the mainland will give a strong momentum and favorable conditions 
for cross-Straits economic cooperation. Economic integration is conducive to 
mutual benefits, so it should not be disturbed at any time or in any 
circumstances. We will try to gain an in-depth knowledge of the real needs of 
ordinary, especially grassroots, Taiwan people, and take positive and effective 
measures to take care of disadvantaged groups, so that more Taiwan compatriots 
can benefit from cross-Straits economic exchanges and cooperation. 

The younger generation is entrusted with the future of cross-Straits 
relations. We must work out more measures and create more opportunities for 
them so that they can have more contacts and communication, perceive the trend 
of peaceful development of cross-Straits relations and that of the great renewal 
of the Chinese nation, so as to enable them to assume the responsibilities of 
expanding cross-Straits relations and achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese 
nation in the future. 

We hope that the People First Party will adhere to the “one China” stand, 
continue its opposition to any scheme of “Taiwan independence,” firmly 
maintain the overall situation of peaceful development of cross-Straits relations, 
and promote the overall interests of the Chinese nation together with people 
from all walks of life in Taiwan. 

Peaceful Development 

Strengthen the Foundation for Pursuing Peaceful Development 

January 28, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the third group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

To pursue peaceful development in keeping with the development trend of 
the times and China’s fundamental interests is a strategic choice made by our 
Party. We should, under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important 
thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development, 
enhance our strategic thinking and confidence, and better balance China’s 
overall domestic and international interests. We should pursue mutually 
beneficial development featuring openness and cooperation, develop China by 
securing a peaceful international environment and, at the same time, uphold and 
promote world peace through our own development. We should continuously 
improve China’s overall national strength, make sure that the people share the 
benefits of peaceful development, and consolidate the material and social 
foundations for pursuing peaceful development. 

The Chinese nation loves peace. To abolish war and achieve peace has been 
the most pressing and profound aspiration of the Chinese people since the advent 
of modern times. Pursuing peaceful development is what the fine traditional 
Chinese culture calls for, and it is a natural choice made by the Chinese people 
who have suffered so much in modern times. With the agonizing sufferings 
inflicted by war etched in our memory, we Chinese cherish peace and stability. 
What we abhor is turbulence, what we want is stability and what we hope to see 
is world peace. 

Our pursuit of peaceful development was not an easy-going process. 
Rather, this pursuit was made possible thanks to the CPC’s arduous quest and 
endeavors since the founding of the PRC in 1949 and, in particular, to the 
introduction of the reform and opening-up initiative in 1978. Our Party has 
always upheld peace and never wavered in this commitment. Over the years, we 
have put forward and adhered to the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, 

and adopted and followed an independent foreign policy of peace. And we have 
made a solemn pledge to the whole world that we will never seek hegemony or 
commit any act of expansion, and that China is and will remain a staunch force 
for upholding world peace. We remain true to these commitments and we remain 
firm in honoring them. 

The CPC put forward at its 18th National Congress the Two Centenary 
Goals. We have also put forward the goal of achieving the Chinese Dream - the 
rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. To realize these goals, we need a peaceful 
international environment. Neither China nor the rest of the world can develop 
without peace, nor can they enjoy lasting peace without development. We must 
seize the opportunity and run our own affairs well so as to make our country 
stronger and more prosperous, and our people lead a better life. This will enable 
us to pursue peaceful development by relying on our growing strength. 

“The tide of history is mighty. Those who follow it will prosper, while 
those who resist it will perish.” Looking back on history, we can see that those 
who launched aggression or sought expansion by force all ended in failure. This 
is a law of history. A prosperous and stable world provides China with 
opportunities, and China’s development also offers an opportunity for the world 
as a whole. Whether we will succeed in our pursuit of peaceful development to a 
large extent hinges on whether we can turn opportunities in the rest of the world 
into China’s opportunities and China’s opportunities into those for the rest of the 
world so that China and other countries can engage in sound interactions and 
make mutually beneficial progress. We must act in keeping with China’s 
national conditions and stick to our own path. At the same time, we should 
acquire a global vision. In this way, we can both promote China’s domestic 
development and open the country wider to the outside world and advance both 
China’s development and the development of the world as a whole, as well as 
the interests of both the Chinese people and other peoples. In this way, we can 
continuously expand mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries, be 
actively involved in international affairs, address global challenges together with 
other countries, and contribute our share to global development. 

While pursuing peaceful development, we will never sacrifice our 
legitimate rights and interests or China’s core interests. No foreign country 
should expect China to trade off its core interests or swallow bitter fruit that 
undermines China’s sovereignty, security or development interests. China is 

pursuing peaceful development, and so are other countries. This is the sure way 
for all the countries in the world to seek common development and peaceful 
coexistence. We should let the world learn more about China’s strategy of 
pursuing peaceful development and let the international community view 
China’s development for what it is and treat it accordingly. China will never 
seek development at the expense of any other country’s interests, nor will it shift 
its problems onto others. We will actively pursue peaceful and common 
development, uphold the multilateral trading system and participate in global 
economic governance. 

Work Together for Mutually Beneficial Cooperation 

*centQt*June 19, 2013 and May 19, 2014 

* Main points of talks with Ban Ki-moon, secretary-general of the UN. 

As well as its many important missions, the United Nations (UN) carries 
the expectations of the peoples of all countries. The world is undergoing 
dramatic and complex changes, and it requires the joint efforts of all UN 
member states to address global issues and challenges. The UN should grasp the 
theme of peace and development, uphold fairness and justice, and speak and act 
justly. The time of the zero-sum mentality is past, so we should work together 
for mutually beneficial cooperation instead. The UN should contribute to this. 

China has set forth the Two Centenary Goals as a grand blueprint for its 
future development. China needs the UN and the UN needs China. China values 
the UN and will support it. 

China’s permanent membership of the UN Security Council entails not only 
power but also responsibility that it is ready to shoulder. China will continue to 
work for the peaceful resolution of international disputes and support the UN in 
achieving its Millennium Development Goals. China is willing to work with all 
parties in addressing climate change and other problems, and to do whatever it 
can for world peace and human progress. 

(June 19, 2013) 


The year 2015 will mark the 70th anniversary of victory in the World Anti- 
Fascist War (1941-1945) and the victory of the Chinese People’s War of 
Resistance Against Japanese Aggression^ (1937-1945). It will also mark the 
70th anniversary of the founding of the UN. The world community should avail 

itself of this important opportunity to reiterate its commitment to multilateralism, 
safeguard the principles set forth in the UN Charter and commit itself to 
strengthening the role of the UN. 

The world community should make concerted efforts to promote world 
peace and development. 

First, seeking political solutions is the right path to address the seemingly 
endless sequence of international flashpoints. “Just when you press the gourd 
into the water, there floats the gourd ladle.These issues must be tackled 
properly and reasonably. Exerting pressure won’t work, and external military 
intervention will make things worse. Both the UN and the rest of the 
international community should adhere to political solutions to all conflicts. 

Second, the world community should adhere to the goal of common 
development. The UN should play its political and coordinating role, and exploit 
its moral advantage. It should formulate its post-2015 Development Agenda with 
poverty alleviation at its core to achieve sustainable growth. China wishes every 
success for the UN Climate Summit in September. 

Third, the UN should play a leading role in international affairs. Regarding 
the fight against terrorism, the UN should play a bigger role by promoting clear- 
cut criteria of right and wrong so as to advance the fight against terrorism of all 
forms. It should also serve as the main channel in protecting cyber security, 
advocate rules, sovereignty and transparency in this regard, respect the concerns 
of different countries over information safety, and achieve common 
management. China will continue to firmly support the UN. 

(May 19, 2014) 

Notes 26

[1] A traditional Chinese saying that means “tackling one problem only to find another emerging.” - 

\2 1 The War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression refers to a war of national liberation against 
Japanese invasion from July 1937 to September 1945. It was an important part of World War II. After 
arduous and prolonged battles, the Chinese people finally defeated the Japanese aggressors with great 
sacrifice. The war was the first complete victory achieved by the Chinese people against foreign aggression 

since the advent of modern times. It was also a great contribution to the victory of the World Anti-Fascist 

Follow a Sensible, Coordinated and Balanced Approach to 

Nuclear Security 

March 24, 2014 

* Speech at the Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, the Netherlands. 

Your Excellency Prime Minister Mark Rutte, 

Dear colleagues, 

Today, we are meeting here at The Hague for an important discussion on 
ways to enhance nuclear security. First of all, I wish to express heartfelt thanks 
to Prime Minister Rutte and the Dutch government for the active efforts and 
considerate arrangements they have made for this summit. 

During the 20th century, the discovery of the atom and the subsequent 
development and utilization of nuclear energy gave new impetus to the progress 
of humanity and greatly enhanced our ability to understand and shape the world. 
Yet the development of nuclear energy has its associated risks and challenges. 
To make better use of nuclear energy and achieve greater progress, mankind 
must be able to respond to various nuclear security challenges and ensure the 
safety of nuclear materials and facilities. 

Dear colleagues, 

Enhancing nuclear security is a never-ending process. As long as we 
continue to tap nuclear energy, we must maintain our efforts in enhancing 
nuclear security. From Washington DC in 2010 to Seoul in 2012 and to The 
Hague today, the Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) has the great responsibility of 
building international consensus in this regard and deepening nuclear security 
efforts. We must take a sensible, coordinated and balanced approach to nuclear 
security and keep it on the track of sound and sustainable development. 

First, we should place equal emphasis on development and security, and 

develop nuclear energy on the premise of security. The peaceful use of nuclear 
energy is important for ensuring energy security and tackling climate change. 
Like Prometheus who gave fire to humanity, the peaceful use of nuclear energy 
has sparked a flame of hope and opened up a bright future for mankind. But 
without effective safeguards for nuclear safety and without an adequate response 
to the potential security risks of nuclear materials and facilities, such a bright 
future will be overshadowed by dark clouds or even by nuclear disaster. 
Therefore, we must strictly abide by the principle of making safety the top 
priority if we are to keep the flame of hope for nuclear energy development 

We must follow the approach of enhancing security for the sake of 
development and promoting development by upholding security, and bring the 
goals of development and security in alignment with each other. We must 
convince the governments and nuclear power companies of all countries that 
developing nuclear energy at the expense of security can neither be sustainable 
nor bring real development. Only by adopting credible steps and safeguards can 
we keep risks under effective control and develop nuclear energy in a sustainable 

Second, we should place equal emphasis on rights and obligations, and 
push forward the international nuclear security process on the basis of respecting 
the rights and interests of all countries. Nothing can be accomplished without 
norms and standards. All countries should earnestly fulfill their obligations 
under international legal instruments relating to nuclear security, fully 
implement the relevant UN Security Council resolutions, consolidate and 
strengthen the existing legal framework governing nuclear security, and provide 
institutional support and universally accepted guidelines for international efforts 
to enhance nuclear security. China hopes that more countries will consider 
ratifying the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its 
amendment, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of 
Nuclear Terrorism. 

Countries differ in national conditions and in the status of their nuclear 
power development, and the nuclear security challenges they face also vary from 
one to another. As the saying goes, you need different keys to open different 
locks. While stressing the importance of countries honoring their international 
obligations, we should respect their right to adopt nuclear security policies and 

measures best suited to their specific conditions as well as their right to protect 
sensitive nuclear security information. We should adopt a fair and pragmatic 
attitude, and advance the international nuclear security process in an active yet 
prudent manner. 

Third, we should place equal emphasis on independent and collaborative 
efforts, and seek universal nuclear security through mutually beneficial 
cooperation. Nuclear security is first and foremost a national goal, and the 
primary responsibility must be borne by national governments. They must 
understand and fulfill their responsibilities, develop a stronger awareness of 
nuclear security, foster a nuclear security culture, strengthen institutions, and 
enhance technological capacity. This is the responsible thing to do not only for 
their own sake but also for the good of the world as a whole. 

Nuclear security is also a global endeavor. The amount of water a barrel can 
hold is determined by its shortest stave. The loss of nuclear material in one 
country can be a threat to the whole world. A concerted, global effort is therefore 
required to achieve universal nuclear security. We must bring more countries 
into the international nuclear security process and try to turn it into a global 
undertaking, so that all will contribute to and benefit from it. We should 
strengthen exchanges to learn from each other and share experiences, and 
improve coordination between the relevant multilateral mechanisms and 
initiatives. Although the starting line may be different for different countries, we 
should make sure that no one falls behind in this common endeavor. 

Fourth, we should place equal emphasis on treating symptoms and 
addressing causes, and advance the nuclear security endeavor in all respects with 
the goal of removing the associated risks at the root. The issue of nuclear 
security has many dimensions, from exercising sound and effective management 
to developing advanced and secure nuclear energy technologies and to dealing 
with nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation. To eliminate the potential risks 
of nuclear security and nuclear proliferation in a direct and effective way, we 
must improve relevant policies and measures, develop modern, low-risk nuclear 
energy technologies, maintain balanced supply and demand of nuclear materials, 
strengthen non-proliferation efforts and export control, and step up international 
cooperation against nuclear terrorism. 

But more importantly, we must tackle the root causes. We need to foster a 

peaceful and stable international environment, encourage harmonious and 
friendly relations between countries, and conduct exchanges among different 
civilizations in an amicable and open-minded manner. This is the only way to 
tackle the root causes of nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation, and to 
achieve lasting security and development of nuclear energy. 

Dear colleagues, 

China gives top priority to nuclear security in the peaceful use of nuclear 
energy, and manages nuclear materials and facilities according to the highest 
standards. China has maintained a good record of nuclear security in the past 50 
years and more. 

According to Dutch philosopher Erasmus, prevention is better than cure. 
The horrific nuclear accidents of the past few years have rung the alarm bell for 
all of us, and we must do whatever we can to prevent a recurrence of past 

As a precautionary step, China has tightened nuclear security measures 
across the board. We have made great efforts to improve our technology and 
emergency response, and conducted comprehensive security checks on nuclear 
facilities across the country to make sure that all nuclear materials and facilities 
are placed under effective safeguards. We have adopted and implemented a 
medium- and long-term program on nuclear security and improved the relevant 
legal framework, and we are in the process of drafting national regulations with 
a view to putting our nuclear security endeavors on an institutional and legal 

China is actively promoting international cooperation on nuclear security, 
beginning with the Center of Excellence on Nuclear Security, a joint project 
between China and the United States. Construction of the Center is well under 
way. It will contribute to technical exchanges and cooperation on nuclear 
security in the region and beyond. China has also launched a number of 
cooperation projects with Russia and Kazakhstan to combat illicit trafficking of 
nuclear materials. China supports the efforts to reduce to a minimum the use of 
highly-enriched uranium (HEU) when economically and technologically 
feasible, and is helping Ghana convert an HEU-fueled research reactor to one 
using low-enrichment uranium within the IAEA framework. China has also 

made contributions to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund, and helped enhance the 
nuclear security capability of Asia Pacific countries through hosting training 
sessions and a variety of other ways. 

Dear colleagues, 

Where light inches forward, darkness retreats. The more we do to enhance 
nuclear security, the fewer opportunities we will offer to terrorists. To achieve 
lasting nuclear security, China will continue its efforts in the following areas: 

First, China will stay firmly committed to strengthening its own nuclear 
security capability. We will continue to enhance the government’s regulatory 
capacity, increase investments in relevant technological development and human 
resources, and foster and develop a nuclear security culture. 

Second, China will stay firmly committed to building an international 
nuclear security system. We will work with other countries to build an 
international nuclear security system featuring fairness and mutually beneficial 
cooperation, and encourage countries to share the fruits of the peaceful use of 
nuclear energy. 

Third, China will stay firmly committed to supporting international 
cooperation on nuclear security. We stand ready to share technology, experience, 
resources and platforms to promote regional and international nuclear security 
cooperation. China supports the IAEA’s leading role and encourages it to help 
developing countries build their nuclear security capacity. China will continue to 
take an active part in nuclear security activities, and invite the IAEA to conduct 
an International Physical Protection Advisory Service. 

Fourth, China will stay firmly committed to upholding regional and global 
peace and stability. We will continue to pursue peaceful development and 
mutually beneficial cooperation, handle differences and disputes through 
equality-based dialogue and friendly consultations, and work with all other 
countries to remove the root causes of nuclear terrorism and nuclear 

Dear colleagues, 

To strengthen nuclear security is our shared commitment and common 
responsibility. Let us work together so that the people of the whole world will 
have more confidence in lasting nuclear security and the benefits nuclear energy 
brings them. 

Thank you! 

Exchanges and Mutual Learning Make Civilizations Richer and More Colorful

March 27, 2014 

* Part of the speech at the UNESCO Headquarters. 

Civilizations become richer and more colorful through exchanges and 
mutual learning, which form an important driver for human progress and global 
peace and development. 

To promote exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations we must 
adopt a correct approach with some important principles. They, in my view, 
contain the following: 

First, civilizations come in different colors, and such diversity has made 
exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations relevant and valuable. Just as 
the sunlight has seven colors, our world is a place of dazzling colors. A 
civilization is the collective memory of a country or a nation. Throughout 
history, mankind has created and developed many colorful civilizations, from the 
earliest days of primitive hunting to the period of agriculture, and from booming 
industrial revolution to the information society. Together, they present a 
magnificent genetic map of the exciting march of human civilizations. 

“A single flower does not make spring, while one hundred flowers in full 
blossom bring spring to the garden.” If there were only one kind of flower in the 
world, people would find it boring no matter how beautiful it was. Be it Chinese 
civilization or other civilizations in the world, they are all fruits of human 

I have visited the Louvre Museum in France and the Palace Museum in 
China, both of which house millions of art treasures. They are attractive because 
they present the richness of diverse civilizations. Exchanges and mutual learning 
among civilizations must not be built on the exclusive praise or belittling of one 
particular civilization. As early as over 2,000 years ago, the Chinese people 

came to recognize that “it is natural for things to be different.”^ Greater 
exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations can further enrich the colors 
of various civilizations and the cultural life of people and open up still greater 
alternatives in the future. 

Second, civilizations are equal, and such equality has made exchanges and 
mutual learning among civilizations possible. All human civilizations are equal 
in value, and they all have their respective strengths and weaknesses. No 
civilization is perfect on the planet. Nor is it devoid of merit. No single 
civilization can be judged superior to another. 

1 have visited many places in the world. What interested me most during the 
trips was to learn about differing civilizations across the five continents, what 
makes them different and unique, how their people think about the world and life 
and what they hold dear. 1 have visited Chichen Itza, a window on the ancient 
Maya civilization, and the Central Asian city of Samarkand, an icon of the 
ancient Islamic civilization. It is my keenly felt conviction that an attitude of 
equality and modesty is required if one wants to truly understand various 
civilizations. Taking a condescending attitude towards a civilization cannot help 
anyone to appreciate its essence, and may risk antagonizing it. Both history and 
reality show that pride and prejudice are the biggest obstacles to exchanges and 
mutual learning among civilizations. 

Third, civilizations are inclusive, and such inclusiveness has given 
exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations the impetus to move 
forward. The ocean is vast because it refuses no rivers. All civilizations are 
crystallizations of mankind’s diligence and wisdom. Every civilization is unique. 
Copying other civilizations blindly or mechanically is like cutting one’s toes to 
fit one’s shoes - impossible and highly detrimental. All achievements of 
civilizations deserve our respect and must be cherished. 

History proves that only by interacting with and learning from others can a 
civilization enjoy full vitality. If all civilizations are inclusive, the so-called 
“clash of civilizations” can be avoided and the harmony of civilizations will 
become reality; as a Chinese saying goes, “Radish or cabbage, each to his own 

Having gone through over 5,000 years of vicissitudes, the Chinese 

civilization has always kept to its original root. As an icon, it contains the most 
profound pursuits of the Chinese nation and provides it with abundant 
nourishment for existence and development. Deriving from Chinese soil, it has 
come to its present form through constant exchanges with and learning from 
other civilizations. 

In the 2nd century BC, China started the Silk Road^ leading to the 
Western Regions. In 138 BC and 119 BC, Envoy Zhang Qian^ of the Han 
Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) made two trips to those regions, disseminating 
Chinese culture and bringing into China grapes, alfalfa, pomegranates, flax, 
sesame and other products. 

During the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), China’s merchant fleets 
sailed as far as India and Sri Lanka where they traded China’s silk for colored 
glaze, pearls and other products. 

The Tang Dynasty (618-907) saw dynamic interactions between China and 
other countries. Historical records reveal that China exchanged envoys with 
more than 70 countries, and Chang’an, the capital of Tang, bustled with envoys, 
merchants and students from other countries. Exchanges of such a magnitude 
helped spread Chinese culture to the rest of the world and introduce other 
cultures and products to China. 

During the early 15th century, Zheng He^, a famous navigator of the Ming 
Dynasty (1368-1644), made seven expeditions to the Western Seas, reaching 
many Southeast Asian countries and even Kenya on the eastern coast of Africa, 
leaving behind many stories of friendly exchanges between China and countries 
along the route. 

During the late Ming and early Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, the Chinese 
people began to access modern science and technology through the introduction 
of European knowledge in the realms of astronomy, medicine, mathematics, 
geometry and geography, which helped broaden the horizon of Chinese people. 
Thereafter, exchanges and mutual learning between Chinese civilization and 
other civilizations became more frequent. Naturally, there were conflicts, 
frictions, bewilderment and denial, but the more dominant features of the period 
were learning, digestion, integration and innovation. 

Buddhism originated in ancient India. After it was brought to China, the 
religion went through an extended period of integrated development with the 
indigenous Confucianism and Taoism, and finally became Buddhism with 
Chinese features, thus greatly impacting the religious beliefs, philosophy, 
literature, art, etiquette and customs of China. Xuan Zangf^, an eminent monk of 
the Tang Dynasty, who endured untold sufferings as he went on a pilgrimage to 
ancient India for Buddhist scriptures, gave full expression to the determination 
and fortitude of the Chinese people to learn from other cultures. I am sure you 
have heard of the Chinese mythological classical novel Journey to the West ^ 
based on his stories. 

The Chinese people enriched Buddhism and developed some special 
Buddhist thoughts in the light of Chinese culture, and helped it spread from 
China to Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and beyond. 

Over the last 2,000 years religions such as Buddhism, Islam and 
Christianity have been introduced into China, nurturing the country’s music, 
painting and literature. China’s freehand oil painting, for instance, is an 
innovative combination of its own traditional painting and Western oil painting, 
and the works by Xu BeihongJ^ and other master painters have been widely 
acclaimed. China’s Four Great Inventions - papermaking, gunpowder, printing 
and the compass, brought drastic changes to the whole world, including the 
European Renaissance. Its philosophy, literature, medicine, silk, porcelain and 
tea have been shared by the West and become part of its people’s life. The book 
Travels of Marco Polo provoked widespread interest in China. 

I think some of you might be familiar with the terracotta warriors and 
horses^ of the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC), one of the eight wonders in the 
world. After his visit to the site, President Chirac of France remarked that a visit 
to Egypt would not be complete without seeing the pyramids, and that a visit to 
China would not be complete without seeing the terracotta warriors and horses. 

In 1987 this national treasure was listed as one of UNESCO’s World 
Cultural Heritage Sites. Many Chinese legacies are ranked as World Cultural 
Heritage Sites, and World Intangible Cultural Heritage Sites and are listed on the 
Memory of the World Register. Here, I’d like to express my heartfelt thanks to 
UNESCO for its contribution to the preservation and dissemination of Chinese 


Today, we live in a world with different cultures, ethnic groups, skin colors, 
religions and social systems, and all people on the planet have become members 
of an intimate community with a shared destiny. 

The Chinese people have long come to appreciate the concept of “harmony 
without uniformity.”^ Zuoqiu MingU^, a Chinese historian who lived 2,500 
years ago, recorded a few lines by Yan Zi^J, prime minister of the State of Qi 
during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) in Zuo’s Chronicles (Zuo 
Zhuan)^: “Harmony is like cooking thick soup. You need water, fire, vinegar, 
meat sauce, salt and plum to go with the fish or meat. It is the same with music. 
Only by combining the texture, length, rhythm, mood, tone, pitch and style 
adequately and executing them properly can you produce an excellent melody. 
Who can tolerate soup with nothing but water in it? Who can tolerate the same 
tone played again and again with one instrument?” 

On the planet, there are more than 200 countries and regions inhabited by 
over 2,500 ethnic groups with a multitude of religions. Can we imagine a world 
with only one lifestyle, one language, one kind of music and one style of 

Victor Hugo once said that there was a prospect greater than the sea - the 
sky; there was a prospect greater than the sky - the human soul. Indeed, we need 
a mind that is broader than the sky as we approach different civilizations, which 
serve as water, moistening everything silently. We should encourage different 
civilizations to respect each other and live in harmony, so as to turn exchanges 
and mutual learning between civilizations into a bridge promoting friendship 
between peoples around the world, an engine driving human society, and a bond 
cementing world peace. We should draw wisdom and nourishment and seek 
spiritual support and psychological consolation from various civilizations, and 
work together to face down the challenges around the globe. 

In 1987, 20 exquisite pieces of colored glaze were brought to light from an 
underground tomb of Famen Temple in Shaanxi, China. They proved to be 
Byzantine and Islamic relics brought to China during the Tang Dynasty. 
Marveling at these exotic relics, I was struck by the thought that we should 
appreciate their cultural significance rather than simply admiring their 

exquisiteness, and bring their inherent spirit to life instead of merely 
appreciating the artistic presentation of life in the past. 

Notes 27

[1] The Mencius (Meng Zi). 

[2] The Silk Road was a trade thoroughfare on land connecting ancient China with South Asia, 
Western Asia, Europe and North Africa through Central Asia. The name derives from the bustling trade in 
silk and silk products from China to the western regions. 

[3] Zhang Qian (?-114 BC) was a minister of the Western Han Dynasty. He was dispatched by 
Emperor Wudi as an envoy to the western regions (a historical name specified in the Han Dynasty that 
referred to the regions west of Yumen and Yangguan passes) in 138 BC and 119 BC, respectively, to seek 
alliances among local ethnic groups to fight against the Xiongnu, an aggressive tribe. His travels, as far as 
Central Asia today, tightened the ties between the central plains and the western regions and contributed 
remarkably to the opening of the ancient Silk Road. 

[4] Zheng He (1371-1433) was a navigator of the Ming Dynasty. He began his service at the imperial 
court in the early Ming Dynasty and was later promoted to be the Grand Director ( Taijian ) of the 
Directorate of Palace Servants. He eventually served as chief envoy during his seven grand sea voyages 
between 1405 and 1433 when he traveled to more than 30 countries and regions in Asia and Africa, 
including Southeast Asian countries, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, as well as the East Coast of Africa 
and Mecca - the sacred place for Islamic pilgrimages (Zheng He was a Muslim.). His expeditions were 
dubbed Treasure Voyages, which greatly boosted the economic and cultural exchanges between China and 
other Asian and African countries. 

[5] Xuan Zang (600 or 602-664), also known as Tang Seng, was an eminent monk of the Tang 
Dynasty, translator of Buddhist scriptures, and co-founder of the Vijnaptimatrata (Consciousness-only) 
School. He requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of 13, after which time he learned from many 
masters who confused him with different ideas, causing him a dream of journey to India - the western 
regions. His dream came true in 629 (or 627) when he headed to India for the study of Buddhist sutras. 
After his return to Chang’an, capital of the Tang Dynasty, Xuan Zang committed himself to translating 75 
Buddhist scriptures in 1,335 volumes and writing a book, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions (Da 
Tang Xi Yu Ji). 

[6] Journey to the West (Xi You Ji) is a mythical novel attributed to Wu Cheng’en (c. 1500-c. 1582), 
a novelist of the Ming Dynasty. It recounts the legendary pilgrimage of the Tang Dynasty monk Tang Seng 
(Xuan Zang), who traveled to the western regions (India) to obtain sacred texts (sutras) with his three 
disciples, Sun Wukong (Monkey King), Zhu Bajie (Pig of the Eight Prohibitions), and Sha Wujing (Friar 
Sand), and returned after many trials and much suffering subduing demons and monsters. It is dubbed one 
of the four great classical novels of Chinese literature, the other three being Three Kingdoms, Outlaws of the 
Marsh and A Dream of Red Mansions. 

[7] Xu Beihong (1895-1953) was a master painter and fine arts educator. 

[8] Terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC) were archaeological discoveries 
from the mausoleum of Emperor Yingzheng (259-210 BC), or the First Emperor of Qin - the first to unify 
feudal China. They were listed as one of UNESCO’s World Cultural Heritage Sites in 1987. 

[9] See note 11, p. 197. 

[10] Zuoqiu Ming (556-451 BC) was a historian in the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn 

[11] Yan Zi (7-500 BC), also known as Yan Ying, was a prime minister of the State of Qi during the 
Spring and Autumn Period. 

[12] Zuo’s Chronicles (Zuo Zhuan), also known as Zuo’s Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn 
Annals, is believed to have been written by Zuoqiu Ming. Acclaimed as one of the Chinese Confucian 
classics, it is one of the three “commentaries” on the Spring and Autumn Annals, along with Gongyang’s 
Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals (Gong Yang Zhuan) and Guliang’s Commentary on the 
Spring and Autumn Annals (Gu Liang Zhuan). 

China’s Commitment to Peaceful Development 

March 28, 2014 

* Part of the speech at the Korber Foundation, Berlin, Germany. 

Mutual understanding is the foundation of state-to-state relations. Deeper 
mutual understanding will cement and broaden the foundation of our exchanges 
and cooperation. 

Thanks to over 30 years of rapid growth through reform and opening up, 
China’s GDP now ranks second in the world. As China continues to grow, some 
people start to worry. Some take a dark view of China and assume that it will 
inevitably become a threat as it develops further. They even portray China as 
being the terrifying Mephisto who will someday suck the soul of the world. Such 
absurdity couldn’t be more ridiculous, yet some people, regrettably, never tire of 
preaching it. This shows that prejudice is indeed hard to overcome. 

A review of human history shows that what keeps people apart are not 
mountains, rivers or oceans, but lack of mutual understanding. As Gottfried 
Wilhelm Leibniz once observed, only the sharing of our talents will light the 
lamp of wisdom. 

Let me take this opportunity to share with you China’s reform and 
development, focusing on its commitment to peaceful development. 1 hope this 
will help your understanding of our country. 

Long ago, China made the solemn declaration to the world that it is 
committed to pursuing peaceful development. It has developed itself by 
upholding world peace and maintained world peace through development. 
Pursuing peaceful development is China’s response to international concern 
about the direction it is taking. Moreover, it demonstrates the Chinese people’s 
confidence in and commitment to achieving its development goals. Such 
confidence and commitment is rooted in the rich heritage of Chinese civilization, 
in our understanding of conditions for achieving its goals, and in our keen 

appreciation of the general trend of global development. 

The Chinese nation is a peace-loving nation. And the most profound pursuit 
of a nation has its origin in the national character formed through generations. 
The Chinese nation, with 5,000 years of civilization, has always cherished peace. 
The pursuit of peace, amity and harmony is an integral part of the Chinese 
character which runs deep in the blood of the Chinese people. This can be 
evidenced by axioms from ancient China such as: “A warlike state, however big 
it may be, will eventually perish”^; “peace is of paramount importance”; “seek 
harmony without uniformity”^; “replace weapons of war with gifts of jade and 
silk”; “bring prosperity to the nation and security to the people”; “foster 
friendship with neighbors”; and “achieve universal peace.” These axioms have 
been passed down from generation to generation. China was long one of the 
most powerful countries in the world. Yet it never engaged in colonialism or 
aggression. The pursuit of peaceful development represents the peace-loving 
cultural tradition of the Chinese nation over the past centuries, a tradition that we 
have inherited and carried forward. 

China has set the following goals for its future development: By 2020, it 
will double its 2010 GDP and per capita income of urban and rural residents and 
realize a moderately prosperous society in all respects; and by the mid-21st 
century, it will have turned itself into a modern socialist country, prosperous, 
strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious. We refer to this goal as 
the Chinese Dream of the great renewal of the Chinese nation. We will 
accelerate China’s overall prosperity and raise the happiness index for our 1.3 
billion Chinese people as long as we are on the right path. Yet, it will not be easy 
to make this happen for every individual. Consider the difference between eight 
people sharing one meal and 80 or even 800 people sharing the same meal. No 
matter how big the meal is, the individual share differs dramatically for diners 
different in number. We are keenly aware that China will remain the world’s 
largest developing country for a long time and that to improve life for its 1.3 
billion people calls for strenuous efforts. Two things will enable China to focus 
on development: a harmonious and stable domestic environment and a peaceful 
and stable international environment. 

History is the best teacher. It faithfully records the journey that every 
country has gone through and offers guidance for its future development. In the 

100 years from the Opium War in 1840 to the founding of the People’s Republic 
in 1949, China was ravaged by wars, turmoil and foreign aggression. To the 
average Chinese, it was a period of ordeal too bitter to recall. The war of 
aggression against China waged by Japanese militarism alone inflicted over 35 
million Chinese military and civilian casualties. These atrocities remain fresh in 
our memory. We Chinese have long held the belief expressed in the maxim 
“Don’t do unto others what you don’t want others to do unto you.”^ China 
needs peace as much as human beings need air and plants need sunshine. Only 
by pursuing peaceful development and working together with all other countries 
to uphold world peace can China realize its goal and make greater contributions 
to the world as a whole. 

Dr Sun Yat-sen, the pioneer of China’s democratic revolution, had this to 
say: “The trend of the world is surging forward. Those who follow the trend will 
prosper, whilst those who go against it will perish.” History shows that a 
country, for its prosperity, must recognize and follow the underlying trend of the 
changing world. Otherwise, it will be abandoned by history. What is the trend of 
today’s world? The answer is unequivocal. It is the trend of peace, development, 
cooperation and mutually beneficial progress. China does not subscribe to the 
outdated logic that a country will invariably seek hegemony when it grows 
strong. Are colonialism and hegemonism viable today? Absolutely not. They can 
inevitably lead to a dead end, and those who stick to this beaten track will only 
hit a stone wall. Peaceful development is the only alternative. That is why China 
is committed to peaceful development. 

Facts speak louder than words. Over the past few decades China has 
consistently followed an independent foreign policy of peace and made it crystal 
clear that China’s foreign policy is aimed at maintaining world peace and 
promoting common development. China has stated on numerous occasions that 
it opposes hegemonism and power politics in all forms, does not interfere in the 
internal affairs of other countries, and will never seek hegemony or expansion. 
This is our guiding principle for China’s political system, and for each step we 
take. Moreover, China will firmly uphold its sovereignty, security and 
development interests. No country should expect China to swallow any bitter 
fruit that undermines its sovereignty, security or development interests. 

In short, China’s pursuit of peaceful development is not an act of 

expediency, still less diplomatic rhetoric. Rather, it is the conclusion drawn from 
an objective assessment of China’s history, its present and future. It showcases 
confidence in thinking and readiness for practice. As peaceful development 
benefits both China and the world as a whole, we cannot think of any reason 
why we should not pursue this approach that has proven so effective. 

Notes 28

[1] The Methods of Sima (Si Ma Fa), also known as The Marshal’s Art of War, is an ancient Chinese 
book on the art of war and was used as a basic textbook for marshal art training during the Song Dynasty 

[2] See note 11, p. 197. 

[3] See note 23, p. 198. 

New Model of Major-country Relations 

Follow the Trend of the Times and Promote Global Peace and 


March 23, 2013 

* Speech at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow, Russia. 

Distinguished Mr Anatoly Vasilyevich Torkunov, Rector of the Moscow State 
Institute of International Relations, 

The Honorable Olga Golodets, Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian 

Dear faculty members and students, 

I am very pleased to come to the beautiful Moscow State Institute of 
International Relations today and meet so many faculty members and students 

The Moscow State Institute of International Relations is a prestigious 
school of world renown, boasting an outstanding faculty and distinguished 
alumni. I wish to express my warm congratulations on the remarkable successes 
you have achieved in various fields. 

Russia is a friendly neighbor to China. My current visit to Russia is the first 
leg of my first overseas trip since becoming China’s president. It is also my 
second visit to your beautiful and richly endowed country in three years. 
Yesterday, I had fruitful talks with President Putin, and together we attended the 
launch of the Tourism Year of China in Russia. 

The month of March marks the return of spring, a season of sowing and 
great renewal. As a popular Chinese saying goes, “he who hopes for a good year 
starts planning in spring.” China and Russia, having taken advantage of this 
season to plough and hoe not only for our bilateral relations but also for peace 
and development in the world, will surely reap a bumper harvest to the benefit of 

our two peoples and those of other countries. 

Dear faculty members and students, 

The Institute of International Relations, as an institution of higher learning 
specialized in the study of international issues, pays close attention to the 
international landscape and can appreciate especially keenly the enormous 
changes the world has gone through over the past decades. Indeed, we live in a 
time of kaleidoscopic changes that make the world constantly different. 

It is a world where peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit 
have become the trend of the times. The old colonial system has long since 
disintegrated, and confrontations between blocs as during the Cold War have 
long gone. No country or group of countries can dominate world affairs single- 

It is a world where emerging markets and developing countries in large 
numbers have embarked on the track of fast development. Billions of people are 
moving towards modernization at an accelerating pace. Multiple growth engines 
have emerged in regions across the world. And the international balance of 
power continues to evolve in a direction favorable for peace and development. 

It is a world where countries are linked with and dependent on one another 
at a level never seen before. Mankind, by living in the same global village in the 
same era where history and reality meet, has increasingly emerged as a 
community of common destiny in which everyone has in himself a little bit of 

And it is a world where mankind is beset with numerous difficulties and 
challenges. They range from the continued underlying impact of the 
international financial crisis, an apparent upsurge of all kinds of protectionism, 
incessant regional flashpoints, rising hegemonism, power politics and neo¬ 
interventionism, to a web of conventional and non-conventional security threats, 
such as the arms race, terrorism and cyber security. Upholding world peace and 
promoting common development remain a long and uphill battle. 

We hope that the world will become a better place. We have every reason 
to believe that it will. At the same time, we are soberly aware that while the 

future is bright, the path leading to it can be tortuous. Chernyshevsky once 
wrote, “The path of history is not paved like Nevsky Prospekt; it runs across 
fields, either dusty or muddy, and cuts across swamps or forest thickets.” Yet as 
shown by humanity’s progress, history always moves forward according to its 
own laws despite twists and turns, and no force can hold back its rolling wheels. 

The tide of the world is surging forward. Those who submit to it will 
prosper and those who resist it will perish. Keeping up with the times, one 
cannot live in the 21 st century while thinking in the old fashion, lingering in the 
age of colonial expansion or with the zero-sum mentality of the Cold War. 

In the face of the profoundly changed international landscape and the 
objective need for the world to rally together like passengers in the same boat, 
all countries should join hands in building a new model of international relations 
featuring cooperation and mutual benefit, and all peoples should work together 
to safeguard world peace and promote common development. 

We stand for the sharing of dignity by all countries and peoples in the 
world. All countries, irrespective of size, strength and wealth, are equal. The 
right of the people to independently choose their development paths should be 
respected, interference in the internal affairs of other countries opposed, and 
international fairness and justice maintained. Only the wearer of the shoes knows 
if they fit or not. Only the people can best tell if the development path they have 
chosen for their country suits or not. 

We stand for the sharing of the fruits of development by all countries and 
peoples. Every country, while pursuing its own development, should actively 
facilitate the common development of all countries. There cannot be sustainable 
development in the world when some countries are getting richer and richer 
while others languish in prolonged poverty and backwardness. Only when all 
countries achieve common development can there be better worldwide 
development. Such practices as beggar-my-neighbor, shifting crises onto others 
and feathering one’s nest at the expense of others are both immoral and 

We stand for the sharing of security by all countries and peoples. Countries 
should make concerted efforts to properly address the issues and challenges they 
face. As challenges often take on global dimensions, there is all the more need 

for countries to take them on cooperatively, turning pressure into motivation and 
crises into opportunities. Confronted with complex threats to international 
security, fighting alone or fighting with a blind faith in the use of force will not 
get one anywhere. The only solution lies in cooperative, collective and common 

As the trends of world multipolarity and economic globalization grow and 
those of upholding cultural diversity and applying infonnation technology in 
social life continue to make progress, mankind has never been better blessed 
with opportunities for taking strides towards peace and development. And 
mutually beneficial cooperation provides the only practical way to achieve such 
a goal. 

The destiny of the world must be left in the hands of the peoples of all 
countries. Matters that fall within the sovereign rights of a country should be 
managed only by the government and people of that country. And affairs of the 
world should be addressed by the governments and peoples of all countries 
through consultation. Herein lies the democratic principle for the handling of 
international affairs which should be universally observed. 

Dear faculty members and students, 

Last November, the CPC held its 18th National Congress. According to the 
blueprint it mapped out for the country’s development in the near future, China 
will double its 2010 GDP and per capita income for both urban and rural 
residents by 2020, complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in 
all respects when the Party celebrates its centenary in 2021, and turn itself into a 
modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally 
advanced and harmonious when the PRC marks its centenary in 2049. At the 
same time, we are soberly aware that, as a large developing country with over 
1.3 billion people, China will encounter still greater and more testing challenges 
on the road to progress, which calls for continuous and strenuous efforts on our 
part if the goals as identified are to be reached. 

The great renewal of the Chinese nation has become the grandest dream of 
the Chinese people in modern times. We call it the Chinese Dream, with 
prosperity for the country, renewal for the nation and happiness for the people as 
its fundamental elements. China has always been a peace-loving nation. But it 

was subjected to a century of untold sufferings as a result of repeated foreign 
aggression and domestic turmoil. We know too well the value of peace, and the 
need to build the country and improve the people’s well-being in a peaceful 
environment. China is committed to the path of peaceful development, 
dedicating itself to open, cooperative and mutually beneficial development, 
while calling on all countries to follow this path. China always pursues a defense 
policy that is defensive in nature, not engaging in any arms race nor posing a 
military threat to any country. By growing stronger through development, China 
will bring more opportunities, rather than threats, to the rest of the world. The 
Chinese Dream which we cherish will not only serve the Chinese people but 
benefit people throughout the world. 

It is heartening to see that, each as the other’s largest neighbor, China and 
Russia enjoy a high complementarity in development strategy. Russia has set the 
goal of reaching or approaching the level of the developed countries by 2020 in 
terms of per capita GDP and is accelerating its advance in material development. 
We sincerely wish you success in achieving your goals as soon as possible. A 
strong and prosperous Russia is in the interests of China, and conducive to peace 
and stability in the Asia Pacific and the world at large. 

The relationship between China and Russia is one of the most important 
bilateral relationships in the world. It is also the best relationship between major 
countries. A strong and high-performance relationship like this not only serves 
the interests of our two countries but also provides an important safeguard for 
maintaining the international strategic balance as well as peace and stability in 
the world. With our consistent efforts over the past 20 years and more, we have 
established a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination, and a 
relationship that fully accommodates each other’s interests and concerns, and 
delivers tangible benefits to the two peoples. We have resolved historical 
boundary issues once and for all and signed the Treaty of Good-neighborliness 
and Friendly Cooperation Between the People’s Republic of China and the 
Russian Federation, thus laying a solid foundation for the long-term growth of 
China-Russia relations. 

At present, both China and Russia are at a crucial stage of national renewal, 
as their relations have entered a new period characterized by provision of vital 
mutual development opportunities and serving as primary mutual cooperation 
partners. To ensure continued growth of China-Russia relations, we need to 

work still harder in the following areas: 

First, stay firmly committed to building a forward-looking relationship. 
That China and Russia should live in everlasting amity and never be enemies is 
the shared aspiration of the two peoples. We need to stand tall and look far, 
working on our bilateral relations with a holistic approach. President Putin once 
said, “Russia needs a prosperous and stable China, and China needs a strong and 
successful Russia.” I could not agree more. By achieving common development, 
we will give ever broader space to our comprehensive strategic partnership of 
coordination and provide positive energy to the international order and global 
systems in their movement towards greater fairness and rationality. China and 
Russia will forever be good neighbors, good friends and good partners, taking 
concrete actions to firmly support each other on respective core interests, on 
respective development and renewal, on following the development paths suited 
to our national conditions and on success in our affairs and endeavors. 

Second, stay firmly committed to cultivating a cooperative and mutually 
beneficial relationship. China and Russia differ in realities and national 
conditions. By engaging in close cooperation and drawing on each other’s 
strengths to make up for respective shortcomings, we can show to the world that 
one plus one can be greater than two. Last year, our two-way trade reached USS 
88.2 billion-worth and there were 3.3 million visits exchanged between our 
peoples. These figures give full expression to the enormous potential and broad 
prospects of China-Russia relations. Bilateral cooperation in energy has 
advanced steadily. The China-Russia oil and gas pipelines have long since 
replaced the “Ten Thousand Li Tea Route”^ of the 17th century as the new 
“arteries of the century” connecting the two countries. Right now, we are 
looking actively to bridge the development strategies of our respective countries 
and regions in an effort to create still more converging interests and growth areas 
in bilateral cooperation. We will expand the scope of bilateral cooperation from 
the energy and resources sector to investment, infrastructure, hi-tech, finance 
and other areas, and from trade in goods to joint R&D and joint production so as 
to elevate the result-oriented cooperation between the two countries. 

Third, stay firmly committed to cementing the friendship between the two 
peoples. Amity between peoples holds the key to relations between countries. It 
is the people’s deep friendship that drives state-to-state relations forward. Here, I 

want to share a couple of stories about the mutual support and mutual help 
between our peoples. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese 
Aggression, Captain Gregory Kurishenko of the air force of the Soviet Union 
came to China and fought side by side with the Chinese people. He once said, “1 
feel the Chinese people’s sufferings as if 1 were feeling the sufferings of my own 
motherland.” He died heroically on Chinese soil. The Chinese people never 
forget this hero. An ordinary Chinese mother and her son have kept vigil at his 
tomb for more than half a century. In 2004, China invited some of the children 
traumatized in the Beslan school hostage incident^ to China for rehabilitation 
treatment. The children received meticulous care. The head doctor from the 
Russian side said to the Chinese side, “Your doctors have given our children 
such great help, and they will always remember you.” When Wenchuan was hit 
by a devastating earthquake in 2008^ Russia raced against time to extend a 
helping hand, and invited the children from disaster areas to Russia’s Far East 
for rehabilitation. Three years ago, I saw with my own eyes at the Ocean 
Children’s Center in Vladivostok the loving care Russian teachers showered on 
our children. As we Chinese often say, love knows no borders. These Chinese 
children have learned for themselves the love, friendship and kindness of the 
Russian people. There are many more touching stories like these, and together 
they keep the tree of our friendship nourished, strong and evergreen. 

Russia and China each has a time-honored history and splendid culture, and 
cultural exchanges between us play an irreplaceable role in advancing the 
friendship between the two peoples. Ancient Chinese philosophers such as 
Confucius and Lao Zi are well known in Russia while Russian culture left a deep 
mark on the older generations of Chinese revolutionaries. Even people of my age 
have read many Russian classic masterpieces. In my youth, I read the works of 
such Russian literary giants as Pushkin, Lermontov, Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, 
Tolstoy and Chekhov, and savored the powerful charm of Russian literature. It is 
no wonder that cultural exchanges between China and Russia enjoy fertile 

The youth are the future of a country and the future of the world. They also 
hold in their hands the future of China-Russia friendship. During this visit of 
mine, President Putin and I jointly announced that China and Russia would host 
the Year of Youth Friendship and Exchanges in 2014 and 2015, respectively. On 
the Chinese side, we will invite a delegation of Russian university students, 

including students of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, to 
China. I see in you some of the best and brightest of the young generation in 
Russia. I hope that more and more young people from both countries will take 
over the baton of China-Russia friendship by actively involving themselves in 
the cause of friendship. 

Dear faculty members and students, 

As a Russian proverb goes, “Big ships sail far.” We also have lines of an 
ancient poem which read, “Forging ahead like a gigantic ship breaking through 
strong winds and heavy waves, I’ll set my towering sail to cross the sea which 
raves.I am convinced that with the joint efforts of the governments and 
peoples of our two countries, China-Russia relations will continue to press 
ahead, overcoming difficulties, bringing greater benefits to the two peoples, and 
making ever-greater contributions to global peace and development. 

Thank you. 

Notes 29

[1] The “Ten Thousand Li Tea Route” was a tea trade route stretching 13,000 km through more than 
200 cities. Opened by Shanxi businessmen from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) to the early Qing 
Dynasty (1644-1911), it started from Meicun Village at the foot of the Wuyi Mountain in Fujian Province 
in Southeast China, reached Kyakhta in Russia and from there to St. Petersburg. It was an important route 
for international trade, enjoying equal fame with the Silk Road. 

[2] It refers to a terrorist attack at School Number One in the town of Beslan, North Ossetia (an 
autonomous republic in the North Caucasus region) of the Russian Federation on September 1, 2004, 
resulting in more than 300 deaths. 

[3j The earthquake, registering 8.0 on the Richter scale, occurred at 14:28:04 China Standard Time 
on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province. The epicenter (06:08:01 UTC) was located 38° 
southwest of and 11 km away from Yingxiu Town. As of September 25, 2008, official figures stated that 
69,227 were confirmed dead, 374,643 injured and 17,923 missing. The direct economic loss in the hardest- 
hit areas reached RMB 845.1 billion. 

[4j See note 3, p. 39. 

Build a New Model of Major-country Relationship Between 
China and the United States 

June 7, 2013 

* Main points of the speech when meeting the press with US President Barack Obama. 

President Obama and 1 have just had our first meeting. We had a candid and 
in-depth exchange of views on our respective domestic and foreign policies, on 
building a new model of major-country relationship between China and the 
United States, and on major international and regional issues of mutual concern. 
We have reached a consensus on many important issues. 

I told President Obama explicitly that China will unswervingly follow the 
path of peaceful development, further its refonn and opening up, strive to realize 
the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and promote the 
noble cause of peace and development of mankind. 

The Chinese Dream is about making our country prosperous and strong, 
revitalizing the nation and bringing a happy life to its people. It is a dream of 
peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit. It has many things in 
common with all the beautiful dreams, including the American Dream, of people 
all over the world. 

President Obama and I both maintain that China and the US should and can 
build a new model of relationship different from the historical clashes and 
confrontations between major powers, given the rapid economic globalization 
and the need for all countries in the world to work together. We both agreed to 
make joint efforts to build a new model of major-country relationship, respect 
each other, cooperate and seek mutual interests, and bring benefits to our people 
and the people of the world at large. The world community also expects a 
continuously improved and expanded China-US relationship. Good China-US 
cooperation will serve as an anchor for global stability and a booster for world 

The two sides agreed to enhance dialogues and communication at all levels, 
and constantly increase mutual trust and understanding. President Obama and 1 
will keep in close touch with each other through exchanges of visits, meetings, 
telephone conversations and letters. 1 have extended an invitation to President 
Obama to visit China at a suitable time for a new round of meetings and realize 
an exchange of visits as soon as possible. The two sides will act in close 
coordination to make sure that the new round of China-US strategic and 
economic dialogues, and high-level consultations on cultural and people-to- 
people exchanges will achieve positive results. The Chinese defense minister 
and foreign minister will visit the US on invitation. 

The two sides also agreed to enhance cooperation in a wide range of areas 
such as economy, trade, energy, environment, and culture and humanities, as 
well as cooperation among different regions, so as to expand the converging 
interests between the two countries in an all-round way. We will improve and 
develop bilateral military relations, and build a new model of China-US military 
relationship. We will strengthen coordination concerning macro-economic 
policies, expand cooperation in the process of our economic development, and 
promote robust, sustainable and balanced economic growth in the Asia Pacific 
region and the world at large. 

Where there is a will there is a way. I am confident about the new model of 
major-country relationship between China and the US. First, both sides have the 
political will to build such a relationship. Second, bilateral cooperation between 
the two countries over the past more than 40 years has laid a solid foundation for 
our future cooperation. Third, the two sides have established more than 90 
mechanisms for high-level dialogues on strategy, economy, culture and 
humanities, which serve as guarantee mechanisms for the building of the new 
model of major-country relationship. Fourth, sister provinces and states, and 
sister cities totaling more than 220 pairs have been established between the two 
sides; nearly 190,000 Chinese students are studying in the US and more than 
20,000 US students are studying in China - a good public opinion foundation for 
the building of the new model of relationship. Fifth, there is broad scope for 
future bilateral cooperation. 

The building of a new model of major-country relationship between China 
and the US is unprecedented, but it will be faithfully carried out by the two 
sides. China and the US should work together to push forward the new model of 

major-country relationship by increasing dialogues, promoting mutual trust, 
expanding cooperation and controlling disputes. 

Both the Chinese and American nations are great nations, and both peoples 
are great peoples. 1 believe that, with determination, confidence, patience and 
wisdom, the two sides will accomplish our goals as long as we keep the overall 
situation in mind while starting with the daily routine and making constant 

China has been a victim of computer hacker attacks. As a defender of cyber 
security, China has the same concerns as the US in this field. The two sides have 
decided through consultations to establish a cyber security working team within 
the framework of China-US strategic and security dialogues, and to start to work 
on the issue as soon as possible. The two sides should eschew mistrust and 
engage in cooperation so as to make cyber security a new bright spot in China- 
US cooperation. 

Build a Bridge of Friendship and Cooperation Across the 

Eurasian Continent 

April 1, 2014 

* Part of the speech at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium. 

China and Europe may seem far apart geographically, but we are living in 
the same era and on the same earth. 1 feel that we are as close to each other as 
neighbors. Both China and Europe are in a crucial stage of development, and are 
facing unprecedented opportunities and challenges. 1 hope to work with our 
European friends to build a bridge of friendship and cooperation across the 
Eurasian continent. For that we actually need to build four bridges - for the 
peace, growth, reform and progress of civilization - so that the China-EU 
comprehensive strategic partnership will take on even greater global 

- We need to build a bridge of peace and stability, linking the two strong 
forces of China and the EU. Together, China and the EU make up one tenth of 
the total area of the earth, and represent one fourth of the world’s population. 
Together we hold three permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. 
We all need peace, multilateralism and dialogue, instead of war, unilateralism 
and confrontation. We need to enhance communication and coordination on 
global issues, and play a key role in safeguarding world peace and stability. 
Culture can spread, and so can peaceful development. China stands ready to 
work with the EU to let the sunlight of peace drive away the shadow of war, and 
the bonfire of prosperity warm up the global economy in the cold early spring, 
and enable all mankind to embark on the path of peaceful development and 
mutually beneficial cooperation. 

- We need to build a bridge of growth and prosperity linking the two big 
markets of China and Europe. China and the EU are the two most important 
economies in the world, accounting for one third of the global economy. We 
must uphold open markets, speed up negotiations on investment agreements, 

proactively explore the possibility of a free trade area, and strive to achieve the 
ambitious goal of bringing bilateral trade to US$1 trillion-worth by 2020. We 
should also look to combine China-EU cooperation with the initiative of 
developing the Silk Road Economic Belt, so as to integrate the market of Asia 
and Europe, energize the people, businesses, capital and technologies of Asia 
and Europe, and make China and the EU the twin engines for global economic 

- We need to build a bridge of reform and progress, linking the reform 
process in China and the EU. Both China and the EU are pursuing reforms that 
are unprecedented in human history, and both are sailing uncharted waters. We 
should enhance dialogue and cooperation on macro economy, public policy, 
regional development, rural development, social welfare and other fields. We 
need to respect each other’s paths of reform, draw upon each other’s reform 
experience, and promote world development and progress through our reform 

- We need to build a bridge of common cultural prosperity linking the two 
major civilizations of China and Europe. China represents in an important way 
Eastern civilization, while Europe is the birthplace of Western civilization. The 
Chinese people are fond of tea, and Belgians love beer. To me, the moderate tea 
drinker and passionate beer lover represent two ways of understanding life and 
knowing the world, and 1 find them equally rewarding. When good friends get 
together, they may want to drink to their hearts’ content to show their friendship. 
They may also choose to sit down quietly and drink tea while chatting about 
their lives. In China we value our ideal of “harmony without uniformity.”^ And 
here in the EU people stress the need to be “united in diversity.” Let us work 
together for all flowers of human civilization to blossom together. 

In the face of all changes in the international landscape, China has always 
supported European integration and a bigger role in international affairs for a 
united, stable and prosperous EU. China will soon release its second EU policy 
paper to reiterate the great importance it places on the EU and on its relations 
with the EU. Last year, China and the EU jointly formulated the Strategic 
Agenda 2020 for China-EU Cooperation, setting out a host of ambitious goals in 
nearly a hundred fields. The two sides should work in concert to turn the 
blueprint into reality at an early date, and strive for greater progress in China-EU 

relations in the coming decade. 

Notes  30

[1] See note 11, p. 197. 

Neighborhood Diplomacy 

Work Together to Build the Silk Road Economic Belt* 

September 7, 2013 

* Part of the speech at Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan. 

More than 2,100 years ago during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), a 
Chinese envoy named Zhang Qian was twice sent to Central Asia on missions of 
peace and friendship. His journeys opened the door to friendly contacts between 
China and Central Asian countries, and started the Silk Road linking the East 
and West, Asia and Europe. 

Shaanxi, my home province, is right at the starting point of the ancient Silk 
Road. Today, as 1 stand here and look back at history, 1 seem to hear the camel 
bells echoing in the mountains and see the wisps of smoke rising from the desert, 
and this gives me a specially good feeling. 

Kazakhstan, located on the ancient Silk Road, has made an important 
contribution to the exchanges between the Eastern and Western civilizations and 
the interactions and cooperation between various nations and cultures. This land 
has borne witness to a steady stream of envoys, caravans, travelers, scholars and 
artisans traveling between the East and the West. The exchanges and mutual 
learning thus made possible promoted the progress of human civilization. 

The ancient city of Almaty is also on the ancient Silk Road. In Almaty, 
there is a Xian XinghaifU Boulevard, which got its name from a true story. After 
the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War in 1941, Xian, a renowned Chinese 
composer, found his way to Almaty. By then, he was worn down by poverty and 
illness and had no one to turn to. Fortunately, the Kazakh composer Bakhitzhan 
Baykadamov took care of Xian and provided him with the comfort of a home. 

It was in Almaty that Xian composed his famous works: Liberation of the 
Nation, Sacred War and Red All over the River. He also wrote the symphony 
Amangeldy based on the exploits of the Kazakh national hero. These works 
served as a rallying call to fight Fascism and proved immensely popular with the 

local people. 

Throughout the millennia, the peoples of various countries along the 
ancient Silk Road have written a chapter of friendship that has been passed on to 
this very day. More than 2,000 years of exchanges demonstrate that on the basis 
of unity, mutual trust, equality, inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutually 
beneficial cooperation, countries of different races, beliefs and cultural 
backgrounds are fully able to share peace and development. This is the valuable 
inspiration we have drawn from the ancient Silk Road. 

Over the past 20 years, the relations between China and Eurasian countries 
have grown rapidly, and the ancient Silk Road has gained new vitality. In a new 
way, it is lifting the mutually beneficial cooperation between China and Eurasian 
countries to a fresh height. 

A neighbor is better than a distant relative. China and Central Asian 
countries are close and friendly neighbors. China values its friendship and 
cooperation with these countries, and takes improving these relations as a 
foreign policy priority. 

China’s relations with the Central Asian countries now face a golden 
opportunity of growth. We hope to work with these countries to strengthen trust, 
friendship and cooperation, and promote common development and prosperity to 
the benefit to all our peoples. 

- We should pass on our friendship from generation to generation and 
remain good neighbors living in harmony. China is committed to peaceful 
development and an independent foreign policy of peace. We respect the 
development paths and domestic and foreign policies pursued independently by 
the people of every country. We will never interfere in the internal affairs of 
Central Asian countries. We do not seek to dominate regional affairs or establish 
any sphere of influence. We stand ready to enhance consultation and 
coordination with Russia and all Central Asian countries to sustain harmony in 
our region. 

- We should firmly support and trust each other and be sincere and good 
friends. Rendering each other firm support on major issues concerning core 
interests such as sovereignty, territorial integrity, security and stability underlies 

China’s strategic partnership with the Central Asian countries. We will reinforce 
trust and cooperation with the Central Asian countries bilaterally and within the 
framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)^ to combat the 
“three forces” of terrorism, separatism and extremism as well as drug trafficking 
and organized transnational crimes, and this will create a favorable environment 
for promoting economic development and improving the well-being of the 
people in this region. 

- We should vigorously enhance practical cooperation and be good partners 
of mutually beneficial cooperation. Both China and the Central Asian countries 
are at a crucial stage of development, and we face unprecedented opportunities 
and challenges. We have all set medium- to long-term development goals based 
on our national conditions. Our strategic goals are the same - to ensure 
sustainable and stable economic development, build a prosperous and strong 
nation and achieve national revitalization. Therefore, we need to enhance 
practical cooperation across the board, use our good political relations, 
geographical proximity and economic complementarities to boost sustainable 
growth, and build a community of shared interests and mutual benefit. 

- We should expand regional cooperation with a more open mind and 
broader vision, and achieve joint progress. Global economic integration is 
accelerating, and regional cooperation is booming. The Eurasian region has a 
number of regional cooperation organizations. The members and observers of 
the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) and the SCO are from Eurasia, 
South Asia and West Asia. By intensifying cooperation between the SCO and 
the EAEC, we will create further space for development. 

To forge closer economic ties, deepen cooperation and expand development 
space in the Eurasian region, we should take an innovative approach and jointly 
build an economic belt along the Silk Road. This will be a great undertaking 
benefitting the people of all countries along the route. To turn this vision into 
reality, we may start in specific areas and connect them over time to cover the 
whole region. 

First, we need to step up policy consultation. Countries should have full 
discussions on development strategies and policies, adopt plans and measures for 
advancing regional cooperation through consultation in the spirit of seeking 
common ground while setting aside differences, and give the policy and legal 

“green light” to regional economic integration. 

Second, we need to improve road connections. The SCO is working on an 
agreement on transport facilitation. Its early signing and implementation will 
open up a major transport route connecting the Pacific and the Baltic. On this 
basis, we can actively discuss the best way to improve cross-border transport 
infrastructure and work towards a transport network connecting East Asia, West 
Asia and South Asia to facilitate economic development and travel in the region. 

Third, we need to promote unimpeded trade. The envisaged economic belt 
along the Silk Road is inhabited by nearly three billion people and it represents 
the biggest market in the world, with enormous, unparalleled potential for trade 
and investment cooperation between the countries involved. We should discuss a 
proper arrangement for trade and investment facilitation, remove trade barriers, 
reduce trade and investment costs, increase the speed and raise the quality of 
regional economic flows and achieve mutually beneficial progress in the region. 

Fourth, we need to enhance monetary circulation. China and Russia already 
have sound cooperation on settling trade in local currencies, and have made 
good progress and yielded rich experience in this respect. This good practice can 
be shared with others in the region. If our region can realize local currency 
convertibility and settlement under the current and capital accounts, it will 
significantly lower circulation cost, increase our ability to fend off financial 
risks, and make our region more competitive internationally. 

Fifth, we need to increase understanding between our peoples. Friendship 
between peoples is the key to good relations between states. To pursue 
productive cooperation in the above-mentioned areas, we need the support of our 
peoples. We should encourage more friendly exchanges between our peoples to 
enhance mutual understanding and traditional friendship, and build strong public 
support and a solid social foundation for regional cooperation. 

Notes 31

[1] Xian Xinghai (1905-1945) was a Chinese musician. 

[2] The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international 
organization established on June 15, 2001, in Shanghai (China) by six countries - China, Russia, 
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Its prototype was the Shanghai Five Mechanism. The 

main goals of the SCO are strengthening mutual confidence and good neighborly relations among the 
member countries; promoting effective cooperation in politics, trade and economy, science and technology, 
and culture as well as education, energy, transportation, tourism, environmental protection and other fields; 
making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region; and moving towards 
the establishment of a new, democratic, just and rational political and economic international order. The 
heads of state meet once every year, and the heads of government meet at fixed time, alternatively in each 
of the member states. 

Work Together to Build a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road* 

October 3, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the People’s Representative Council of Indonesia. 

China and the ASEAN countries are close neighbors sharing kinship. This 
year marks the tenth anniversary of the China-ASEAN strategic partnership, and 
our relationship is at a new historical starting point. 

China places great importance on Indonesia’s standing and influence in 
ASEAN. We wish to work with Indonesia and the other ASEAN countries to 
ensure that China and ASEAN are good neighbors, good friends and good 
partners who share prosperity and security and stick together through thick and 
thin. Through our joint efforts, we can build a close China-ASEAN community 
of common destiny so as to bring more benefits to both China and ASEAN and 
to the people in the region. 

To achieve this goal, we should take the following steps: 

First, build trust and good-neighborly ties. Trust is the very foundation of 
both interpersonal and state-to-state relations. China is committed to forging a 
relationship with the ASEAN countries featuring sincerity, friendship, and 
enhanced mutual political and strategic trust. 

There is no one-size-fits-all development model in the world or an 
unchanging development path. Both the Chinese people and the people of the 
ASEAN countries have embraced change and innovation with an open mind, and 
searched and found, in a pioneering and enterprising spirit, development paths in 
keeping with their specific national conditions that conform to the trend of the 
times. These efforts have opened up a broad prospect for their economic and 
social development. 

We should each respect the other’s right to independently choose social 
system and development path as well as the right to explore and pursue new 

ways of economic and social development, and improve its people’s lives. We 
should have full confidence in each other’s strategic choice, support each other 
on issues of major concern, and never deviate from the general goal of China- 
ASEAN strategic cooperation. 

China is ready to discuss with the ASEAN countries the conclusion of a 
treaty of good-neighborliness, friendship and cooperation in a joint effort to 
build good-neighborly relations. China will continue to support ASEAN in 
enhancing its strength, building the ASEAN community, and playing a central 
role in regional cooperation. 

Second, work for mutually beneficial cooperation. As a Chinese saying 
goes, “The interests to be considered should be the interests of all.”^ China is 
ready to open its door wider to the ASEAN countries on the basis of equality and 
mutual benefit and enable the latter to gain more from China’s development. 
China is prepared to upgrade the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area and increase 
two-way trade to one trillion dollar-worth by 2020. 

China is committed to enhancing its connections with the ASEAN 
countries. China proposes the establishment of an Asian infrastructure 
investment bank to support the ASEAN countries and other developing countries 
in our region to strengthen links in infrastructural development. 

Southeast Asia has since ancient times been an important hub along the 
ancient Maritime Silk Road. China will strengthen maritime cooperation with 
the ASEAN countries, and the China-ASEAN Maritime Cooperation Fund set 
up by the Chinese government should be used to develop maritime partnership in 
a joint effort to build the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st century. China is ready 
to expand its practical cooperation with the ASEAN countries across the board 
to meet each other’s needs and complement each other’s strengths. This will 
enable us to jointly seize opportunities and meet challenges in the interest of 
common development and prosperity. 

Third, stand together and assist each other. China and the ASEAN countries 
are intimate partners, and we share the responsibility for regional peace and 
stability. In the past, the people of China and the ASEAN countries stood 
together in the fight to take our destiny back into our own hands. In recent years, 
our peoples have stood side by side and forged strong synergy in responding to 

the Asian financial crisis and the international financial crisis, and in responding 
to the Indian Ocean tsunami and China’s Wenchuan earthquake. 

We should cast away the Cold War mentality, champion the new thinking 
of comprehensive security, common security and cooperative security, and 
jointly uphold peace and stability in our region. We should have deeper 
cooperation in disaster prevention and relief, cyber security, combating cross- 
border crimes and joint law enforcement to create a more peaceful, tranquil and 
amicable home for the people of the region. 

China is ready to work with the ASEAN countries to improve the China- 
ASEAN defense ministers’ meeting mechanism and hold regular dialogues on 
regional security issues. 

With regard to differences and disputes between China and some Southeast 
Asian countries on territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, 
peaceful solutions should be sought, and differences and disputes should be 
properly handled through equality-based dialogue and friendly consultation in 
the overall interests of bilateral ties and regional stability. 

Fourth, enhance mutual understanding and friendship. As a Chinese saying 
goes, “A tall tree grows from a small seedling; and the building of a nine-story 
tower starts with the first shovel of earth.”^ To ensure that the tree of China- 
ASEAN friendship remains evergreen, the soil of social support for our relations 
should be fertile. Last year saw 15 million people traveling between China and 
the ASEAN countries, and there are over 1,000 flights between the two sides 
each week now. Increased interactions have nurtured a deeper bond between us 
and made our people feel ever-closer to each other. 

We should encourage more friendly exchanges between the young people, 
think tanks, parliaments, NGOs and civil organizations of the two sides, which 
will generate further intellectual support for the growth of China-ASEAN 
relations and help increase the mutual understanding and friendship between our 
peoples. China is ready to send more volunteers to the ASEAN countries to 
support their development in the cultural, educational, health and medical fields. 
China proposes to designate 2014 as the year of China-ASEAN cultural 
exchanges. China will provide the ASEAN countries with 15,000 government 
scholarships in the coming three to five years. 

Fifth, be open and inclusive. The sea is vast because it is fed by all rivers. 
In the long course of human history, the people of China and the ASEAN 
countries have created splendid and great civilizations renowned throughout the 
world. Ours is a diversified region where various civilizations have assimilated 
and interacted with one another, and this has provided an important cultural 
foundation for the people of China and the ASEAN countries to gain from each 
other’s experience. 

We should draw on the experience gained by other regions in development, 
and welcome countries outside the region to play a constructive role in 
promoting development and stability in the region. The outside countries, on 
their part, should respect the diversity of our region and do their part to facilitate 
its development and stability. The China-ASEAN community of shared destiny 
is closely linked with the ASEAN community and the East Asian community. 
The two sides need to give full rein to our respective strength to enhance 
diversity, harmony, inclusiveness and common progress in our region for the 
benefit of both our people and the people outside the region. 

An increasingly cohesive China-ASEAN community of common destiny 
conforms to the trend of the times of seeking peace, development, cooperation 
and mutual benefit and meets the common interests of the people of Asia and the 
rest of the world. This gives it a broad space and huge potential for growth. 

Notes 32

[1] A scroll hand-written by Yu Yu-jen (1879-1964), an educator, scholar, calligrapher and politician 
as well as one of the founders of the Kuomintang of China. It was a gift to Chiang Ching-kuo (1910-1988), 
former chairman of the Kuomintang of China. 

[2] Lao Zi or Dao De Jing. 

Diplomacy with Neighboring Countries Characterized by 
Friendship, Sincerity, Reciprocity and Inclusiveness 

October 24, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at a seminar on the work of neighborhood diplomacy. 

Good diplomacy with neighboring countries is a requirement for realizing 
the Two Centenary Goals, and the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the 
Chinese nation. We need to work harder to promote our diplomacy with 
neighboring countries, strive for a sound regional environment for our 
development, apply our own development for the benefit of neighboring 
countries, and achieve common development with them. 

Following the founding of the PRC in 1949, the Party’s first generation of 
collective central leadership under Comrade Mao Zedong, the second generation 
under Comrade Deng Xiaoping, the third generation under Comrade Jiang 
Zemin, and the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao as general 
secretary, all attached high importance to diplomacy with neighboring countries. 
They developed important strategic ideas and guiding policies, created a sound 
environment, and laid a solid foundation for future diplomatic work. After the 
18th National Congress, committed to ensuring continuity and stability in 
China’s foreign policy, the CPC Central Committee defined, planned, and 
carried out a series of major diplomatic initiatives, paying particular attention to 
neighboring countries which are important to our development and diplomatic 

Regions around our borders are strategically significant to our country in 
terms of geography, the environment, and relationships. When dealing with 
neighboring countries and related issues, we need a multi-dimensional 
perspective that extends beyond the immediate confines of time and space. 
Reviewing the situation, we can see that great changes have taken place in the 
general environment and in relationships with our neighbors. Our economic and 
trade ties with neighboring countries are closer, with unprecedented levels of 

exchange between them and us. Current circumstances demand that we keep 
pace with the times and be ever more active in blueprinting diplomatic strategies 
and undertaking diplomatic work with our neighbors. 

China and its neighbors are full of vigor and vitality, and show obvious 
strengths in development and high potential. The region is stable on the whole, 
and most of our neighbors maintain an amicable relationship geared towards 
mutual benefit and cooperation with China. We must appreciate the situation to 
the full, devise appropriate strategies, and plan carefully, to perform better in our 
diplomatic exchanges with our neighbors. 

China’s diplomacy in this area is driven by and must serve the Two 
Centenary Goals and our national rejuvenation. To achieve these strategic aims, 
we must create and cement friendly relations and further mutually beneficial 
cooperation with neighboring countries, maintain and make the best use of the 
strategic opportunities we now enjoy, and safeguard China’s state sovereignty, 
national security, and development interests. Together we must strive to build 
more amicable political relationships and closer economic ties, to further 
security cooperation and to encourage more cultural and people-to-people 
exchanges with neighboring countries. 

China’s basic policy of diplomacy with neighboring countries is to treat 
them as friends and partners, to make them feel secure and to support their 
development. This policy is characterized by friendship, sincerity, reciprocity 
and inclusiveness. Friendship is a consistent principle of China’s diplomacy with 
its neighbors. In adherence to this principle, we need to help neighbors in times 
of crisis, treat them as equals, visit them frequently, and take actions that will 
win us support and friendship. 

In response, we hope that neighboring countries will be well inclined 
towards us, and we hope that China will have a stronger affinity with them, and 
that our appeal and our influence will grow. We must treat neighbors with 
sincerity and cultivate them as friends and partners. We should cooperate with 
our neighbors on the basis of reciprocity, create a closer network of common 
interests, and better integrate China’s interests with theirs, so that they can 
benefit from China’s development and China can benefit and gain support from 
theirs. We should advocate inclusiveness, stressing that there is enough room in 
the Asia Pacific region for all countries to develop, and promoting regional 

cooperation with an open mind and enthusiasm. We must embrace and practice 
these ideas, so that they will become the shared beliefs and norms of conduct for 
the whole region. 

As circumstances evolve, diplomacy with neighboring countries requires us 
to analyze and deal with issues strategically, improve our capabilities in planning 
and implementation, and promote every aspect of this diplomacy. We must also 
do everything possible to safeguard peace and stability in the region. The path of 
peaceful development is the Party’s strategic choice, in line with the times and 
aligned with the fundamental interests of the country. A major aim of this 
diplomacy is peace and stability in the region. 

We must make every effort to achieve mutually beneficial reciprocity. We 
have to make overall plans for the use of our resources in the areas of economy, 
trade, science and technology, and finance. We must take advantage of our 
comparative strengths, accurately identify strategic points of convergence for 
mutually beneficial cooperation with neighbors, and take an active part in 
regional economic cooperation. We should work with our neighbors to speed up 
connection of infrastructure between China and our neighboring countries, and 
establish a Silk Road Economic Belt and a Maritime Silk Road geared towards 
the demands of the 21st century. We should accelerate the pace of 
implementation of the strategy of free trade zones with our neighboring 
countries as the base, expand cooperation in trade and investment, and create a 
new pattern of regional economic integration. 

We need to further advance regional financial cooperation, prepare for and 
establish an Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and improve the regional 
financial security network. We should open the border areas more quickly and 
reinforce reciprocal cooperation between the border areas of China and 
neighboring countries. 

We must make efforts to promote regional security cooperation, which is 
needed by both China and our neighboring countries. A new outlook on security 
is required that features mutual trust and reciprocity, based on equality and 
cooperation. We must develop a comprehensive security strategy with 
neighboring countries, actively participate in regional and sub-regional security 
initiatives, push forward cooperation and enhance mutual trust. 

We must strengthen publicity work, public diplomacy, people-to-people 
and cultural exchanges with neighboring countries, and consolidate and expand 
the social and public basis for the long-term development of our relationships 
with them. Diplomatic relations rely on the bonds between peoples. We should 
promote exchanges in all respects, including tourism, science, education and 
regional cooperation, to make friends in a broad range of sectors. We should 
clearly present our domestic and foreign policies to the outside world, explain 
China in an acceptable way, speak out and make ourselves heard, interpret the 
Chinese Dream from the perspective of our neighbors and their aspirations for a 
better life and regional prosperity, and let a sense of common destiny take root. 

Policies and strategies are the lifelines of the Party, and of our diplomatic 
work as well. To do good diplomatic work, we must keep our eye on the 
situation both at home and abroad. Our domestic focus is to realize the Two 
Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream; our international objectives are to 
strive for favorable external conditions for China’s reform, development and 
stability, to safeguard state sovereignty, security and development interests, and 
to maintain world peace and stability, and promote common development. We 
should seek common ground and find converging interests, stick to the sound 
values of justice and benefit, hold to principles that we can act upon, cherish 
friendship and righteousness, and offer any assistance to developing countries 
that is within our means. For best results we need to promote reform and 
innovation in diplomatic work and strengthen the planning of our diplomatic 
activities. To achieve greater progress we should build a general framework to 
coordinate diplomatic work, weigh every relevant factor, and give full play to 
every department involved. 

Diplomatic work with neighboring countries is arduous and demanding. 
Those charged with this responsibility must have a sense of mission and 
urgency. They must bear in mind the purpose of this work, improve their 
competence and working practices, devote themselves to the task, be bold in 
assuming responsibilities and making innovations, and engage in this work with 
drive and enthusiasm. 

Cooperation with Developing Countries 

Be Trustworthy Friends and Sincere Partners Forever 

March 25, 2013 

* Speech at the Julius Nyerere International Convention Center in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 

Your Excellency President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

Habari^! Habari! It both gives me great pleasure and fills me with warmth 
to meet so many friends here at the Julius Nyerere International Convention 

This is my first visit to Africa as the Chinese president but my sixth visit to 
the African continent. The moment I set foot on this beautiful land, I was 
overwhelmed by the friendship of the Tanzanian people towards the Chinese 
people. The government and people of Tanzania held a special and grand 
welcoming ceremony for me. It shows not only the importance you accord to me 
and my delegation, but also the profound traditional friendship between the two 
countries and two peoples. 

Let me begin by extending, on behalf of the Chinese government and 
people and in my own name, warm greetings and best wishes to all the friends 
present today and to the brotherly people of Tanzania and across Africa. I also 
wish to thank you, President Kikwete, and the Tanzanian government for your 
warm hospitality. 

Tanzania is a cradle of mankind. The Tanzanian people have a glorious 
tradition, and you have made a substantial contribution to the victory of the 
African people’s struggles for independence and their fights against apartheid. 

Under the leadership of President Kikwete, Tanzania has maintained 

political stability, made big strides in development, and played an important role 
in African and international affairs. The Chinese people rejoice at what you have 
achieved and sincerely wish the brotherly people of Tanzania new and still 
greater success. 

When 1 visit Africa, I am always struck by two things. One is its continuous 
progress. Each time 1 come to Africa, I am deeply impressed by new progress in 
development, which is most encouraging. The other is the warmth of the African 
people. The goodwill of the African people towards the Chinese people is as 
warm and unforgettable as the sunshine in Africa. 

As an African saying goes, “A river runs deep because of its source.” The 
friendly exchanges between China and Africa date back a long time. In the 
1950s and 60s, the first-generation leaders of the PRC - Mao Zedong, Zhou 
Enlai^ and others - and African statesmen of the older generation ushered 
China-Africa relations into a new era. Since then, the Chinese and African 
peoples have supported and cooperated with each other in our respective 
endeavors to fight against colonialism and imperialism and win independence 
and liberation, and in the pursuit of development and national renewal. A 
fraternal bond of shared destiny has been forged between us. 

Today, thanks to the concerted efforts of both sides, China-Africa relations 
are on a fast track of all-round development. We have set up the Forum on 
China-Africa Cooperation^ and established a new type of strategic partnership. 
Our cooperation in various fields has delivered many gains. In 2012, China- 
Africa trade approached US$200 billion-worth. Over 1.5 million mutual visits 
were made between the two sides. China’s cumulative direct investment in 
Africa topped US$15 billion. This year marks the 50th anniversary of the 
dispatch of Chinese medical teams to Africa. In the past five decades, 18,000 
Chinese medical personnel have worked in Africa, providing medical care and 
treatment to 250 million local patients. 

The African people, on their part, have given full support and selfless help 
to the Chinese people. When the 2008 Beijing Olympic torch relay came to Dar 
es Salaam, the Tanzanian people welcomed the Olympic flame with song and 
dance, as if celebrating their own festival. This jubilant occasion is etched in the 
memory of the Chinese people. 

In the wake of the devastating earthquake in Wenchuan, African countries 
rushed to China’s assistance. An African country, with a population of fewer 
than two million and not well-off itself, made a generous donation of two million 
Euros to the quake area - about one Euro per person! This outpouring of 
compassion warmed our hearts. 

In regional and international affairs, China and Africa have stepped up 
coordination and collaboration, and successfully upheld the common interests of 
developing countries. Friendship and cooperation between the Chinese and 
African peoples have become a symbol of China-Africa relations and are well 
regarded by the international community. 

Our joint endeavors and the fruitful results therefrom over the past five 
decades have laid a solid groundwork and provided valuable experience for 
furthering China-Africa relations. 

- A review of this period of history shows that China-Africa relations have 
not grown to this stage overnight, nor are they a gift from some third party. 
Rather, they have been nurtured and built, step by step, by our two sides over the 
years as we met challenges and faced difficulties together. As a Chinese saying 
goes, “When we drink water from the well, we should not forget those who dug 
it.” We will always honor the memory of all those pioneers who devoted 
themselves to building China-Africa relations. As we move ahead, we can 
always draw strength from history. 

- A review of this period of history shows that China and Africa have 
always shared a common destiny. Similar historical experience, common 
development tasks and shared strategic interests have bound us together. We 
both view the other’s development as our own opportunity, and we both seek to 
promote mutual development and prosperity through closer cooperation. 

- A review of this period of history shows that the defining features of 
China-Africa relations are sincerity, friendship, mutual respect, equality, mutual 
benefit and common development. We get along well and treat each other as 
equals. Neither side seeks to impose its will on the other. China has done its best 
to help Africa’s development. Yet China is always grateful to African countries 
and peoples for their firm support and selfless help over the years. On issues 
involving the core interests of either side, we have taken a clear position and 

given unequivocal support to each other. 

- And a review of this period of history shows that if we are to maintain the 
strong vitality of China-Africa relations, we must keep pace with the times and 
forge ahead in an innovative and enterprising spirit. Over the past 50 years, at 
every crucial juncture of China-Africa relations, both sides were able to 
approach these relations with vision, identify new converging interests and 
growth areas for cooperation, and bring bilateral relations to new heights. Such 
an enterprising spirit of “cutting a way through when confronted by mountains 
and building a bridge when blocked by a river” is crucial for steadily upgrading 
China-Africa cooperation. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

China-Africa relations, enjoying a favorable international and domestic 
environment as well as popular support, stand at a new historical starting point. 
Africa, a continent of hope and promise, has become one of the fastest-growing 
regions in the world and is forging ahead like a galloping African lion. China, on 
its part, continues to enjoy a sound development momentum. The foundation of 
China-Africa cooperation is more solid, and our cooperation mechanisms have 
been further improved. Advancing China-Africa cooperation represents the trend 
of the times and the will of our peoples. 

This is what 1 want to tell you, my dear friends: In this new era, China- 
Africa relations have become more important with increasing common interests, 
instead of less important with fewer common interests. China will intensify, not 
weaken, its efforts to develop relations with Africa. 

First, we will continue to treat our African friends with sincerity. Nothing is 
more valuable than true friends. The China-Africa traditional friendship is what 
we cherish dearly. Unity and cooperation with African countries have always 
been an important foundation of China’s foreign policy. This will never change, 
even should China grow stronger and enjoy a higher international standing. 
China believes in equality among all countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich 
or poor. China upholds justice and opposes the practice of the big bullying the 
small, the strong lording over the weak, and the rich oppressing the poor, just as 
it opposes interference in others’ internal affairs. China and Africa will continue 
to support each other on issues involving their core interests and major concerns. 

China will continue to firmly support Africa’s just position on regional and 
international affairs, and uphold the common interests of developing countries. 
China will continue to firmly support Africa in its endeavors to independently 
resolve African issues, and make a greater contribution to peace and security in 

There is no one-size-fits-all development model in the world. The diversity 
of civilizations and development models should be respected by all. China will 
continue to firmly support African countries in their quest for development paths 
that suit their national conditions and increase exchanges of experience in 
governance with African countries. This will enable us to draw on each other’s 
time-honored civilizations and development practices, and better promote the 
common development and prosperity of China and Africa. 

To all Chinese, “harmony in the family leads to success in everything.” 
Africa is a big family of shared destiny. This year marks the 50th anniversary of 
the founding of the Organization of African Unity - a milestone in the African 
people’s pursuit of greater strength through unity. We sincerely hope that Africa 
will make bigger strides in seeking strength from unity and achieve new success 
in peace and development, and we will firmly support Africa in this endeavor. 

China is dedicated to developing strong ties with Africa. We also hope to 
see better relations between other countries and Africa. Africa belongs to the 
African people. In promoting relations with Africa, all countries should respect 
Africa’s dignity and independence. 

Second, we seek to deliver real outcomes in conducting cooperation with 
Africa. China both champions and applies mutually beneficial cooperation with 
Africa. China views its own development as closely connected with that of 
Africa and the interests of the Chinese people as closely connected with those of 
the African people. China shares development opportunities with Africa. China 
sincerely hopes to see faster development in Africa and a better life for the 
African people. While pursuing its own development, China has provided 
support and assistance to African friends to the best of our ability. In recent 
years, in particular, China has increased assistance to and cooperation with 
Africa. We will honor every commitment we have made to Africa in both letter 
and spirit. 

China will continue to expand investment and financing cooperation with 
Africa, follow through on the commitment of providing a US$20 billion credit 
line to Africa from 2013 to 2015, implement the partnership on transnational and 
trans-regional infrastructural development, enhance mutually beneficial 
cooperation in agriculture and manufacturing, and help Africa exploit its wealth 
of resources, and achieve independent and sustainable development. 

As the saying goes, “It is more helpful to teach people how to fish than to 
just give them fish.” China will actively implement the “African Talent 
Program,” train 30,000 African professionals in various areas, provide 18,000 
government scholarships to Africa between 2013 and 2015, and increase 
technology transfer and experience sharing with Africa. 

As its own economy and strength increase, China will continue to provide 
due assistance to Africa with no political strings attached. 

Third, we will continue to build a close bond of friendship with Africa. The 
Chinese and African peoples share a natural feeling of affinity towards each 
other. We Chinese believe that “the pleasure of life lies in having bosom 
friends.” Then how can China and Africa become bosom friends? I believe that 
in-depth dialogue and concrete action are the way to strike a chord in our hearts. 

Our two peoples form the foundation and lifeline of China-Africa relations. 
Therefore, the growth of our relations should be more people-oriented. In recent 
years, growing China-Africa relations have brought our peoples closer to each 
other than ever before. Some African performers have become popular stars in 
China. Great Life of a Wife, a Chinese TV series about how life unfolds in 
ordinary Chinese families, has become quite a hit in Tanzania. 

Let me tell you a story about a young Chinese couple. When they were 
children, they got to know about Africa from Chinese TV programs and have 
since been captivated by this continent. Later, they got married and decided to 
make Tanzania their honeymoon destination. So, on their first Valentine’s Day 
after the wedding, they came here on a visit. They were overwhelmed by the 
hospitality and friendship of the local people and the magnificent savanna of 
Serengeti. After the couple returned to China, they posted what they had 
experienced in Tanzania on their blog, which was visited tens of thousands of 
times and received several hundred comments. This is what they wrote on their 

blog, “We have fallen head over heels in love with Africa, and our hearts will 
forever be with this fascinating land.” This story highlights the natural affinity 
between the Chinese and African peoples. As long as we keep expanding 
people-to-people exchanges, friendship between our peoples will strike deep 
roots and flourish. 

We will further boost people-to-people and cultural exchanges between 
China and Africa so as to enhance mutual understanding and perception, and 
increase public support for China-Africa friendship. To promote China-Africa 
relations is a cause for the future, an undertaking that calls for unremitting 
efforts of young people in China and Africa from generation to generation. Both 
sides should vigorously promote youth exchanges so that China-Africa 
friendship will be full of vigor and vitality. 

Fourth, we will resolve problems that may occur in our cooperation with 
good faith. China and Africa are both experiencing rapid development and each 
needs to learn more about the other. China will deal with new developments and 
new problems confronting our relations with sincerity. We should handle such 
problems in a spirit of mutual respect and mutually beneficial cooperation. 

1 am convinced that there will always be more opportunities than challenges 
and more solutions than difficulties. Together with the African countries, China 
has taken and will continue to take concrete measures to resolve problems in our 
economic cooperation and trade, and we will make sure that Africa gains more 
from its cooperation with China. At the same time, we sincerely hope that 
African countries will help Chinese enterprises and businessmen in pursuing 
cooperation in Africa. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Since the birth of the PRC more than 60 years ago, and particularly since 
the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy more than 30 years ago, the 
CPC has led the Chinese people in opening a path of socialism with Chinese 
characteristics. China has made historic progress in its development, becoming 
the second largest economy in the world. China’s comprehensive national 
strength has grown significantly, and our people’s living standards have 
improved markedly. It only took China, a country of over 1.3 billion people, a 
few decades to travel a journey that took developed countries several centuries to 

cover. One can easily imagine how many challenges and difficulties China 
encountered in these years. 

At present, China remains a populous country with a weak economic 
foundation and uneven development. Our aggregate GDP is quite large. 
However, when divided by 1.3 billion, China’s per capita GDP is only around 
the 90th place in the world. Some 128 million Chinese are still living below the 
poverty line set by the United Nations. To provide a decent life for the over 1.3 
billion people, we still have a long way to go, and persistent and strenuous 
efforts are called for. As China continues to develop, its people will surely 
achieve a better life. However, no matter how strong it may grow, China will 
always see in Africa a tried and tested friend. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world or Africa. On 
their part, both the rest of the world and Africa also need China to seek 
prosperity and stability. Though there is a broad ocean between us, China and 
Africa share a strong empathy. We are bound not only by profound traditional 
friendship and closely-linked interests, but also by the dreams we each have. 

More than 1.3 billion Chinese are working hard to realize the Chinese 
Dream of great national renewal, and more than one billion Africans are striving 
to realize the African dream of gaining strength through unity and achieving 
development and rejuvenation. We Chinese and Africans should enhance unity, 
cooperation, mutual support and assistance so as to fulfill our dreams. We should 
also work with the international community to realize the global dream of 
enduring peace and common prosperity, and make a new and even greater 
contribution to the noble cause of peace and development of mankind. 


Notes 33

[1] Habari, Swahili, meaning “Hello.” 

[2] Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) was a Marxist, Chinese proletarian revolutionary, statesman, military 
strategist and diplomat, as well as one of the major leaders of the Communist Party of China and the 
People’s Republic of China, and co-founder of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. 

[3] The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation is a new platform for collective dialogues and 
cooperation between China and African countries - an effective mechanism to promote South-South 
cooperation. The First Ministerial Conference was held in October 2000 in Beijing. The Beijing Summit 
and the Third Ministerial Conference was held in November 2006, also in Beijing, attended by Chinese 
leaders and 48 heads of state and government and representatives from Africa. The Beijing Summit passed 
the Declaration of the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation and Forum on China- 
Africa Cooperation - Beijing Action Plan (2007-2009), confirming a new type of strategic partnership 
between China and Africa. 

[4] Asantenisana, Swahili, meaning “Thank you.” 

Forge a Stronger Partnership Between China and Latin America and the Caribbean 

June 5, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the Senate of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Once again, visiting Latin America, a vibrant and promising continent, I am 
all the more convinced that with its rich natural endowment, this continent is 
embracing another golden period of development. We believe that a more 
prosperous Latin America and the Caribbean will benefit both the rest of the 
world and China. 

Our relations with this area have now entered a period of opportunity for 
rapid growth. We should be visionary in approach, keep abreast of the times, 
build on traditional friendship, enhance exchanges in all areas, and upgrade 
cooperation. In so doing, we can forge a stronger partnership of comprehensive 
cooperation featuring equality, mutual benefit and common development. 

Politically, we should treat each other as sincere friends, and continue to 
show understanding and support for each other on issues involving the core 
interests and major concerns of both sides. 

Economically, we should seize opportunities created by the shift of growth 
model on both sides, fully tap cooperation potential, create new cooperation 
modalities, expand converging interests and foster an enduring, stable and 
mutually beneficial business partnership. 

Culturally, we should enhance inter-civilizational dialogue and cultural 
exchanges. As a Chinese saying goes, “One should value not only one’s own 
culture, but also the cultures of others, and this will contribute to the flourishing 
of all cultures.”^ I hope we will develop a mutually reinforcing and exemplary 
relationship of harmony between different civilizations. 

I hope that we will work together to launch the Forum of China-Latin 

America and the Caribbean Cooperation at an early date. We should give full 
rein to our respective strengths, build a strong partnership of comprehensive 
cooperation, and thus contribute more to stability and prosperity in the Asia 
Pacific region. 

As a Chinese proverb goes, “Just as distance tests a horse’s strength, time 
will show a person’s sincerity.” The growth of China-Latin America and the 
Caribbean relations has proved and will continue to prove that ours is an open, 
inclusive, mutually beneficial and cooperative relationship. We are convinced 
that a stronger partnership of comprehensive cooperation will boost the 
development of both sides as well as the peace, stability and prosperity of our 
respective regions and the world as a whole. 

Notes 34

[1] Fei Xiaotong: Appreciating Others’ Cultures and Human Civilizations, Chinese ed., Inner 
Mongolia People’s Publishing House, Hohhot, 2009, p. 262. Fei Xiaotong (1910-2005) was a Chinese 
sociologist, anthropologist and social activist. He served as vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the 
National People’s Congress and vice chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. 

Promote the Silk Road Spirit, Strengthen China-Arab Cooperation 

June 5, 2014 

* Speech at the opening ceremony of the Sixth Ministerial Conference of the China-Arab States 
Cooperation Forum. 

Your Excellency Prime Minister Jaber, 

Secretary-General El Araby of the League of Arab States, 

Heads of delegations, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

Al Salam aleikum^l Good morning! 1 am very happy today to get together 
with our Arab friends and discuss the development of the China-Arab States 
Cooperation Forum (CASCF)^ and China-Arab relations. Let me begin by 
extending, on behalf of the Chinese government and our people and in my own 
name, a warm welcome to all the guests, and let me offer my hearty 
congratulations on the convening of the sixth ministerial conference of the 

Arab friends always feel like old friends to me. This is attributable both to 
the warm and sincere attitude with which we treat each other, and to the long 
history of exchanges between the Chinese and Arab peoples. 

Looking back on the history of exchanges between the Chinese and Arab 
peoples, we immediately think of the land Silk Road and the maritime spice 
route. Our ancestors “crossed the desert for months on end on post-horses,”^ 
and “sailed the oceans day and night,putting themselves at the forefront of 
friendly exchanges between different nations in the ancient world. 

Gan YingJ^, Zheng He, and Ibn Battuta^ were goodwill envoys for China- 
Arab exchanges whom we still remember today. It was by way of the Silk Road 
that China’s four great inventions - paper-making, gunpowder, printing, and the 
compass - were transmitted via the Arab region to Europe, and it was also by 
way of the Silk Road that the Arabs’ astronomy, calendrical system, and 
medicines were introduced to China, marking an important chapter in the history 
of exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations. 

For hundreds of years the spirit embodied by the Silk Road, namely peace 
and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning, and mutual 
benefit, has passed down through the generations. The Chinese and Arab peoples 
have supported each other in maintaining national dignity and safeguarding state 
sovereignty, helped each other in exploring development and achieving national 
rejuvenation, and learned from each other in encouraging people-to-people and 
cultural exchanges and revitalizing national culture. 

We will not forget the promise to support the cause of the Palestinian 
people that China made to the Arab states - with which we had not yet 
established diplomatic relations - at the Bandung Conference^ 60 years ago. 
Nor will we forget the votes cast over 40 years ago by 13 Arab states, together 
with our African friends, for the PRC to regain its UN seat. We will not forget 
the 10,000 Chinese doctors who worked to save lives in the Arab states. Nor will 
we forget the most generous aid China received from our Arab brothers after the 
massive Wenchuan earthquake. 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The next decade will be a crucial period for the development of both China 
and the Arab states. China has entered a decisive phase in its drive to complete 
the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and the 
fulfillment of this goal represents a crucial step towards the Chinese Dream of 
national rejuvenation. To do so, we have made overall plans for driving our 
reform to a deeper level. A key focus of this drive is to develop all-round 
international cooperation within an open economic system of quality and 
vitality, and to expand our common interests with various countries and regions 
in pursuit of mutual benefit. The Middle East is in a phase of unprecedented 
change, and the Arab states are making efforts to seek reform in their own way. 
The challenge of achieving national renewal calls on us to carry forward the Silk 

Road spirit, bolster development and cooperation, and constantly reinforce a 
strategic China-Arab relationship of comprehensive cooperation and common 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to boost mutual learning between 
civilizations. There is no such thing as a good or a bad civilization. Rather, 
different civilizations are enriched through exchange. As a Chinese philosopher 
said, “The matching of different colors leads to greater beauty, and the 
combination of different musical instruments creates harmony and peace. 
China and the Arab states have always viewed each other with an open and 
inclusive attitude, and engaged in dialogues and exchanges rather than conflict 
and confrontation. We have set a good example of harmonious coexistence 
between countries with different social systems, beliefs, and cultural traditions. 
China will never falter in its support for the Arab states in safeguarding their 
national cultural traditions, and will oppose all discrimination and prejudice 
against any ethnic groups and religions. We should work together to advocate 
tolerance towards different civilizations, and prevent extremist forces and ideas 
from creating division between us. 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to respect each other’s choice of 
development path. “People don’t need to wear the same shoes; they should find 
what suit their feet. Governments don’t have to adopt the same model of 
governance; they should find what benefits their people.”^ Whether the path of 
a country is the right one is a matter to be decided by its people. Just as we do 
not expect all flowers to be violets, we cannot demand that countries with 
diverse cultural traditions, historical experiences, and contemporary national 
conditions should adopt the same development mode. That would make for a 
dull world. The Arab states are making their own efforts to explore their own 
development paths. We are willing to share our experience of governance with 
our Arab friends, so that each can draw on the wisdom of the other’s time- 
honored civilization and development mode. 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to focus on mutually beneficial 
cooperation. What China pursues is common development, which means we are 
aiming for a better life for the Chinese people and for the peoples of other 
countries. In the next five years, China’s imports will surpass US$10 trillion- 
worth, and our outward FDI will surpass US$500 billion. In 2013, China’s 

imports from the Arab states were worth US$140 billion, accounting for only 
7% of the annual US$2 trillion in imported goods that China plans for the years 
ahead; and China’s outward FD1 to the Arab states was US$2.2 billion, 
accounting for only 2.2% of the US$100 billion in annual outward FDI that 
China plans for the years ahead. These facts represent an indicator of great 
potential and opportunity. China is happy to connect its own development with 
the development of the Arab states, and to support them in promoting 
employment, industrialization and economic growth. 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to advocate dialogue and peace. 
China firmly supports the Middle East peace process and the establishment of an 
independent State of Palestine, with full sovereignty, based on the 1967 borders, 
and with East Jerusalem as its capital. We hope the parties involved will take 
concrete measures to remove obstacles to peace talks and break the stalemate as 
soon as possible. China respects the reasonable demands of the Syrian people, 
and supports the early adoption of the Geneva communique and the opening of 
an inclusive political transition, to bring about a political resolution to the Syrian 
issue. China is deeply concerned about the humanitarian situation in Syria, and 
will provide a new batch of humanitarian aid to Syrian refugees in Jordan and 
Lebanon to alleviate their plight. China supports the establishment of a Middle 
East nuclear-weapon-free zone, and opposes any attempt to change the political 
landscape of the Middle East. China will play a constructive role in regional 
affairs, speak up for justice, and work with the Arab states to encourage dialogue 
as a way to find the greatest common denominator on issues of concern to all 
parties. We will direct a greater level of diplomatic effort to the proper 
settlement of regional flashpoints. 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The “One Belt and One Road,” namely the Silk Road Economic Belt and 
the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st Century, represent paths towards mutual 
benefit which will bring about closer economic integration among the countries 
involved, promote development of their infrastructure and institutional 
innovation, create new economic and employment growth areas, and enhance 
their capacity to achieve endogenous growth and to protect themselves against 

As friends brought together by the Silk Road, China and the Arab states are 

natural partners in a joint effort to develop the “One Belt and One Road.” 

To develop the “One Belt and One Road,” the two sides need to follow the 
principles of discussion, joint development, and sharing of benefits. 
“Discussion” requires that we pool collective wisdom and carry out relevant 
initiatives through negotiations, so that the interests and concerns of both sides 
are balanced, and the wisdom and ideas of both sides are reflected. “Joint 
development” requires that we give full play to the strengths and potential of 
both sides, so that a combination of efforts will lead to sustained progress. As the 
saying goes, “A tower can be built one stone at a time; a pool can be formed 
from single drops of water.” So we must persist in doing so. “Sharing of 
benefits” requires that both peoples benefit equally from the fruits of 
development, with a view to joining China and the Arab states even more closely 
through our shared interests and destiny. 

To develop the “One Belt and One Road,” the two sides need to be both far¬ 
sighted and down-to-earth. To be far-sighted, we need to produce the optimum 
top-level design, identify our orientation and goals, and establish a “1+2+3” 
cooperation pattern. 

“1” refers to cooperation in energy as the core. We will strengthen 
cooperation in the whole industrial chain of oil and natural gas, safeguard the 
security of energy transport corridors, and establish mutually beneficial, safe and 
reliable strategic cooperation in energy based on long-term friendship. 

“2” refers to “two wings” - one being infrastructure and the other being 
trade and investment. We will strengthen cooperation on major development 
programs and landmark projects for public well-being, and devise relevant 
institutional mechanisms to facilitate bilateral trade and investment. China will 
encourage its enterprises to import more non-oil products from the Arab states 
and optimize its trade structure, in a bid to increase the bilateral trade volume 
from last year’s US$240 billion-worth to US$600 billion-worth in the decade 
ahead. China will also encourage its enterprises to invest in energy, 
petrochemicals, agriculture, manufacturing, and services in the Arab states, 
aiming to increase China’s investment in the non-financial sector in the Arab 
states from last year’s US$10 billion to over US$60 billion in the following 

“3” refers to using three advanced technologies - nuclear energy, space 
satellites and new energy - as breakthrough levers in an effort to raise the level 
of pragmatic China-Arab cooperation. The two sides may discuss the 
establishment of technology transfer centers, jointly develop training centers in 
the Arab states for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and launch programs to 
introduce China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System to the Arab states. 

To be down-to-earth, we need to aim for quick successes. As an Arab 
proverb goes, “Words proved by action are the most powerful.” We need to step 
up negotiations on programs on which consensus has already been reached and 
for which the foundations have been laid - programs such as the Free Trade 
Area between China and the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the 
Gulf, the China-United Arab Emirates Joint Investment Fund, and the Arab 
states’ participation in the preparations for the Asian Infrastructure Investment 
Bank. These programs must be launched as soon as the conditions are ripe. The 
sooner we have substantial results to show from the development of the “One 
Belt and One Road,” the easier it will be to keep the various parties motivated 
and set examples for other programs. 

The two sides need to rely on and enhance the traditional friendship 
between China and the Arab states. The fostering of friendship between the 
peoples of the two sides represents a key foundation and an important element of 
the “One Belt and One Road.” I hereby declare that China and the Arab states 
have decided to designate 2014 and 2015 as Years of China-Arab Friendship and 
to hold a series of friendly exchange events. We are also willing to enhance 
cultural exchanges by hosting arts festivals, to encourage more students to 
engage in social exchanges with the other side such as study, and to strengthen 
cooperation in tourism, aviation, journalism, and publishing. In the next three 
years China will train another 6,000 Arab people in various skills to be applied 
in the Arab states. We will share our experiences of development and poverty 
alleviation with the Arab states, and introduce those of our advanced 
technologies that are suited to their needs. In the next decade, China will 
organize mutual visits and exchanges by 10,000 Chinese and Arab artists, 
promote and support dedicated cooperation between 200 Chinese and Arab 
cultural institutions, and invite and support 500 Arab cultural and artistic 
personages to study in China. 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The establishment of the CASCF was a strategic step taken for the long¬ 
term development of China-Arab relations. After 10 years, the Forum has 
become an effective means by which we are able to enrich the strategic content 
of China-Arab relations and promote pragmatic cooperation between the two 
sides. Our joint efforts to develop the “One Belt and One Road” represent a new 
opportunity and a new starting point for upgrading the Forum. Only by seizing 
this opportunity will we be able to maintain our current progress while ensuring 
sustainable development in the future; and only by starting from this new point 
will we be able to broaden our prospects and give further impetus to 
development. In one sentence, the Forum needs to serve as the basis of and 
support for further development between the two sides. 

We should take the Forum as a lever to enhance communication on policy. 
Instead of sidestepping the differences and problems between us, we need to 
treat each other in a frank and honest way, communicate with each other with 
regard to our respective foreign policies and development strategies, enhance 
political trust, and facilitate coordination strategies, with a view to providing 
policy support for our cooperation. 

We should take the Forum as a lever to extend cooperation in a pragmatic 
fashion. The development initiatives of both sides are mutually complementary. 
We need to promote the sharing of resources on both sides, and talk and 
cooperate with each other with the greatest possible frankness and sincerity. 
Instead of trying to achieve headline-grabbing successes, collective cooperation 
should aim for measures that lay the foundations for long-term development. 

We should take the Forum as a lever to forge ahead with innovation. 
Innovation constitutes the lifeblood of the Forum. The two sides need to adopt 
new ideas, new measures, and new mechanisms in a bid to resolve the 
difficulties that we encounter in pragmatic cooperation, and clear practical 
bottlenecks and unlock potential for cooperation through a spirit of reform and 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The rapid development of China-Arab relations has created a close link in 
the destiny of the peoples of both sides. In Zhejiang Province where I used to 

work, there is a Jordanian businessman named Muhamad who runs a genuine 
Arabian restaurant in Yiwu City, where a lot of Arab business people gather. 
Through bringing genuine Arabian cuisine to Yiwu, he has achieved business 
success in this prosperous Chinese city, and has gone on to marry a Chinese girl 
and settle down in China. Integrating his own goals with the Chinese dream of 
happiness, this young Arab man has built a marvelous life for himself through 
his perseverance - he embodies a perfect combination of the Chinese Dream and 
the Arab Dream. 

Both the Chinese and the Arab nations have created splendid civilizations, 
and both have experienced setbacks amidst the changing times of modern 
history. Therefore, national rejuvenation has become the goal of both sides. Let 
us work shoulder to shoulder to promote the Silk Road spirit, strengthen China- 
Arab cooperation, realize the Chinese Dream and Arab revitalization, and strive 
for the lofty cause of peace and development for humankind! 

Shukran^-l Thank you! 

Notes 35

[1] Al Salam aleikum, Arabic, meaning “Hello.” 

[2] Consisting of China and the 22 member states of the League of Arab States, the China-Arab 
States Cooperation Forum was established on January 30, 2004, aiming at strengthening the dialogue and 
cooperation between China and the Arab states to promote peace and development. 

[3] Fan Ye: The Book of Eastern Han (Hou Han Shu). Fan Ye (398-445) was a historian of the 
Northern and Southern Dynasties. 

[4] Records of the Manifestation of the Goddess ’ Power (Tian Fei Ling Ying Zhi Ji), commonly 
known as the “Inscription by Zheng He,” records the seven voyages by Zheng He to the western ocean 
(Indian Ocean). See note 4, p. 288. 

[5] Gan Ying (dates unknown) was an envoy of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Being sent to the Roman 
Empire in 97, Gan Ying traveled to as far as the Persian Gulf before returning. Although he did not reach 
Rome, his mission served to enhance China’s knowledge of Central Asian countries. 

[6] Ibn Battuta (1304-1377) was a Moroccan explorer. 

[7] The Bandung Conference was a meeting of India, Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), Ceylon (Sri 
Lanka), Pakistan, China, and 23 other Asian and African countries, which took place during April 18-24, 
1955, in Bandung, Indonesia. 

[8] Feng Youlan: “Inscription on the Monument of National Southwestern Associated University,” 

Complete Works of Sansongtang (San Song Tang Quan Ji), Vol. 14, Chinese ed., Henan People’s 
Publishing House, Zhengzhou, 2000, p. 154. Feng Youlan (1895-1990) was a Chinese philosopher and 
historian of philosophy. 

[9] Wei Yuan: Collected Works of Wei Yuan (Wei Yuan Ji). Wei Yuan (1794-1857) was a thinker, 
Confucian classicist, historian, and poet of the Qing Dynasty. 

[10] Shukran, Arabic, meaning “Thank you.” 

Holding talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin in the Kremlin, Moscow, Russia, 
March 22, 2013. 

Speaking at the Julius Nyerere International Convention Center in Dar es Salaam, 
Tanzania, March 25, 2013. 

Attending the Fifth BRICS Summit in Durban, South Africa, March 27, 2013. 

With state leaders and heads of international organizations, at the Boao Forum for Asia 
Annual Conference 2013, held in Hainan Province, April 7, 2013. 

Visiting a farming family with his wife, Peng Liyuan, during a state visit to Costa Rica, 
June 3, 2013. 

Attending the Eighth G20 Summit in St. Petersburg, Russia, September 6, 2013. 

Taking part in the 13th SCO Summit in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, September 13, 2013. 

Attending the 21st APEC Economic Leaders ’ Meeting, Bali, Indonesia, October 8, 2013. 

At a state banquet with his wife, Peng Liyuan, in their honor given by King Willem- 
Alexander of the Netherlands at the Royal Palace in Amsterdam, March 22, 2014. 

At the inauguration ceremony, with his wife, Peng Liyuan, of the Center for the Promotion 
of China-Lyons Relations and the Museum of History of Universite Franco-Chinoise, 
during his visit to the original site of the university, Lyons, France, March 26, 2014. 

Hosting a welcoming banquet on behalf of the Chinese government and people at the 
Shanghai International Conference Center for guests attending the Fourth Summit of the 
Conference on Interaction and Confidence-building Measures in Asia, May 20, 2014. 

Multilateral Relations 

Combat Corruption 

Train and Select…