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original source:  https://archive.org/details/xijinpingthegovernanceofchinavolume1

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New Model of Major-country Relations 

  1. ° Follow the Trend of the Times and Promote Global Peace and Development 
  2. ° Build a New Model of Major-country Relationship Between China and the United States 
  3. ° Build a Bridge of Friendship and Cooperation Across the Eurasian Continent 

Neighborhood Diplomacy 

  1. ° Work Together to Build the Silk Road Economic Belt 
  2. ° Work Together to Build a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road 
  3. ° Diplomacy with Neighboring Countries Characterized by Friendship. Sincerity. Reciprocity and Inclusiveness Cooperation with Developing Countries 
  4. ° Be Trustworthy Friends and Sincere Partners Forever 
  5. ° Forge a Stronger Partnership Between China and Latin America and the Caribbean 
  6. ° Promote the Silk Road Spirit. Strengthen China-Arab Cooperation Multilateral Relations 
  7. ° Work Hand in Hand for Common Development  
  8. ° A Better Future for Asia and the World 
  9. ° Jointly Maintain and Develop an Open World Economy 
  10. ° Carry Forward the “Shanghai Spirit” and Promote Common Development 
  11. Work Together for a Better Asia Pacific  
  12. New Approach for Asian Security Cooperation 

Close Ties with the People 

  1. ° Strictly Enforce Diligence and Thrift. Oppose Extravagance and Waste 
  2. ° The Mass Line: Fundamental to the CPC 
  3. ° The Guiding Thoughts and Goals for the Program of Mass Line 

Education and Practice 

° Establish and Promote the Conduct of “Three Stricts and Three Earnests” 

Combat Corruption 

° Power Must Be “Caged” by the System 

° Historical Wisdom Helps Us Combat Corruption and Uphold Integrity 

° Improve Party Conduct. Uphold Integrity and Combat Corruption 

The CPC Leadership 

° Follow a Good Blueprint 
o Study for a Brighter Future 

° “Governing a Big Country Is as Delicate as Frying a Small Fish” 

° Train and Select Good Officials  

  Follow the Trend of the Times and Promote Global Peace and Development 

March 23, 2013 

* Speech at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow, Russia. 

Distinguished Mr Anatoly Vasilyevich Torkunov, Rector of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, 
The Honorable Olga Golodets, Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, 

Dear faculty members and students, 

I am very pleased to come to the beautiful Moscow State Institute of  International Relations today and meet so many faculty members and students here. 

The Moscow State Institute of International Relations  is a prestigious 
school of world renown, boasting an outstanding faculty and distinguished 
alumni. I wish to express my warm congratulations on the remarkable successes 
you have achieved in various fields.  [ the American : Please cite for readers ]

Russia is a friendly neighbor to China. My current visit to Russia is the first 
leg of my first overseas trip - since becoming China’s president. It is also my 
second visit to your beautiful and richly endowed country in three years. 
Yesterday, I had fruitful talks with President Putin, and together we attended the 
launch of the Tourism Year of China in Russia.  [ the American: Please provide background info ]

 "... SOURCE: Global Times: ...  Visiting Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin attended the opening ceremony of the "Year of Chinese Tourism" in Russia Friday in Moscow.

China and Russia have previously held reciprocal national and language years, and the Russian tourism year in China. The "Year of Russia" in China was launched on Jan. 1, 2006. The two heads of state attended its opening ceremony on March 21 and the prime ministers of the two countries attended its closing ceremony on Nov. 9.

On Dec. 31, 2006, then Chinese President Hu Jintao and Putin exchanged messages of congratulation to celebrate the new year of 2007 and announced the inauguration of the "Year of China" in Russia. The prime ministers of the two nations attended its closing ceremony on Nov. 6, 2007.

During the two years, China and Russia held more than 500 events covering political, economic, cultural, military, education, technology and health fields.

The "Year of Russian Language" in China was held in 2009. More than 260 events were held in 22 Chinese provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, with participants and audiences reaching more than 100 million.

The "Year of Chinese Language" in Russia was held in 2010. Russia's 23 federal subjects celebrated more than 200 events. Chinese kung fu, cuisine, medicine and philosophy became increasingly popular among the Russian people.

In 2012, the "Year of Russian Tourism" in China was successfully held. The number of Chinese tourists visiting Russia during the year rose 47 percent to 343,000.  ..."

The month of March marks the return of spring, a season of sowing and 
great renewal. As a popular Chinese saying goes, “he who hopes for a good year 
starts planning in spring.” China and Russia, having taken advantage of this 
season to plough and hoe - not only for our bilateral relations but also for peace 
and development in the world, will surely reap a bumper harvest to the benefit of our two peoples and those of other countries. 
[ The American's father - Milo Gerald CassAdy - grew up on a farm in Union County - Ohio. 1902 - 1919. 
  He moved to Franklin County, Ohio - and worked - as a laborer - in building construction - after completing "high school". ]

 Dear faculty members and students, 

The Institute of International Relations, as an institution of higher learning 
specialized in the study of international issues, pays close attention to the 
international landscape and can appreciate (especially keenly) the enormous 
changes the world has gone through over the past decades. Indeed, we live in a 
time of kaleidoscopic changes that make the world constantly different. 

It is a world where peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit 
have become the trend of the times. The old colonial system has long since 
disintegrated, and confrontations between blocs -as during the Cold War - have 
long gone. No country or group of countries can dominate world affairs single-handedly. 

It is a world where "emerging markets" and "developing countries" in large 
numbers have embarked on the track of fast development. Billions of people are 
moving towards modernization at an accelerating pace. Multiple "growth engines" 
have emerged in regions across the world. And, the international balance of  power continues to evolve in a direction favorable for peace and development. 

It is a world where countries are "linked with" and "dependent on one another" 
at a level never seen before. Mankind, by living in the same "global village" in the 
same era where history and reality meet, has increasingly emerged as a community of common destiny in which everyone has in himself a little bit of others. 

And, it is a world where mankind is beset with numerous difficulties and challenges. 
They range from the continued underlying impact of the 
 "international financial crisis", an apparent upsurge of all kinds of protectionism, 
incessant regional flashpoints, rising hegemonism, power politics and neo¬ interventionism, 
 to a web of conventional and non-conventional security threats, 
such as: the arms race, terrorism and cyber security. 
Upholding world peace and promoting common development remain a long and uphill battle. 
[ the American: It is interesting to read President JinPing's analysis of the crisis - caused fundamentally - by American Real Estate "player" dishonesty; 
Especially - in the light of the current September 2021 China "EverGrande" issues. ]

We hope that the world will become a better place. We have every reason 
to believe that it will. At the same time, we are soberly aware that while the 
 future is bright, the path leading to it can be tortuous. Chernyshevsky once 
wrote, “The path of history is not paved like Nevsky Prospekt; it runs across 
fields, either dusty or muddy, and cuts across swamps or forest thickets.” 
Yet - as shown by humanity’s progress, history always moves forward according to its 
own laws despite twists and turns, and no force can hold back its rolling wheels. 

The tide of the world is surging forward. Those who submit to it will 
prosper and those who resist it will perish. 
Keeping up with the times, one cannot live in the 21 st century - while thinking in the old fashion, lingering in the 
age of colonial expansion - or, with the zero-sum mentality of the Cold War. 

In the face of the profoundly changed international landscape and the 
objective need for the world to rally together - like passengers in the same boat, 
all countries should join hands in building a new model of international relations 
featuring cooperation and mutual benefit, and all peoples should work together 
to safeguard world peace and promote common development. 

We [ Xi JinPing is the leader of China] stand for the sharing of dignity by all countries and peoples in the world. 

 All countries, irrespective of size, strength and wealth, are equal. The 
right of the people to independently choose their development paths should be 
respected, interference in the internal affairs of other countries opposed, and 
international fairness and justice maintained. Only the wearer of the shoes knows 
if they fit or not. Only the people can best tell if the development path they have 
chosen for their country suits or not. 

 We [ Xi JinPing is the leader of China] stand for the sharing of the fruits of development by all countries and  peoples. 
Every country, while pursuing its own development, should actively 
facilitate the common development of all countries. 
 There cannot be sustainable development in the world when some countries are getting richer and richer 
while others languish in prolonged poverty and backwardness. 
Only - when all countries achieve common development can there be better worldwide development. 
 Such practices as beggar-my-neighbor [American: card game], shifting crises onto others 
and feathering one’s nest at the expense of others are both immoral and unsustainable. 

We [ Xi JinPing (the speaker) is the leader of China] stand for the sharing of security by all countries and peoples. 
Countries should make concerted efforts to properly address the issues and challenges they face. 
 As challenges often take on global dimensions, there is all the more need 
 for countries to take them on "cooperatively", turning pressure into motivation and crises into opportunities. 
Confronted with complex threats to international security, 
 fighting alone or fighting with a blind faith in the use of force will not 
get one anywhere. The only solution lies in cooperative, collective and common security. 

As the trends of world multipolarity and economic globalization grow and 
those of upholding cultural diversity and applying information technology in 
social life continue to make progress; Mankind has never been better blessed 
with opportunities for taking strides towards peace and development. 
 And "mutually beneficial" cooperation provides the only practical way to achieve such a goal. 
 [ the American: Google > "China" "Afghanistan" mineral mines :: 
  - https://www.forbes.com/sites/simonconstable/2021/08/28/why-china-wants-to-get-in-on--afghanistans-reconstruction/?sh=54c43b6462c3
  - https://energypost.eu/is-china-really-eyeing-afghanistans-mineral-resources/ ]

The destiny of the world must be left in the hands of the peoples of all countries. 

  Matters that fall within the sovereign rights of a country should be 
managed only by the government and people of that country. And affairs of the 
world should be addressed by the governments and peoples of all countries 
through "consultation". 
 Herein, lies the democratic principle for the handling of "international affairs" which should be universally observed. 

 SOURCE:  http://www.china.org.cn/business/2021-03/21/content_77332364.htm

"... Title: China's development blueprint to stabilize global economic recovery ( Date: March 21, 2021 ) 
 [ available here:  http://english.www.gov.cn/policies/latestreleases/202011/03/content_WS5fa159efc6d0f7257693edc1.html ]

... China has mapped out its social and economic development priorities for the coming five years 
and the decades beyond in a recently released development blueprint, 
and analysts believe the country's consistency on policy will help stabilize and boost the global market prospects. [ release URL above ]

SOURCE: http://english.www.gov.cn/policies/latestreleases/202011/03/content_WS5fa159efc6d0f7257693edc1.html

"... CPC Central Committee's development proposals set long-range goals through 2035
 ( Updated: Nov 03, 2020 09:23 PM )    Xinhua

BEIJING — The Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee's development proposals put forward a set of long-range objectives for China to basically achieve socialist modernization by 2035.

The CPC Central Committee's proposals for formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035 were adopted at the fifth plenary session of the 19th CPC Central Committee which closed on Oct 29. The full text of the proposals was made public on Nov 3. Following are major goals for the next 15 years:

— China's economic and technological strength, and composite national strength will increase significantly. A new stride will be made in the growth of the economy and the per capita income of urban and rural residents. Making major breakthroughs in core technologies in key areas, China will become a global leader in innovation;

— New industrialization, IT application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization will be basically achieved. China will finish building a modernized economy;

— The modernization of China's system and capacity for governance will be basically achieved. The people's rights to participate and to develop as equals will be adequately protected. The rule of law for the country, the government, and society will be basically in place;

— China will become a strong country in culture, education, talent, sports and health. The well-rounded development of all people and social etiquette and civility will be significantly enhanced. China's cultural soft power will grow much stronger;

— Eco-friendly ways of work and life will be advanced to cover all areas of society. Carbon emission will steadily decline after reaching a peak, and there will be a fundamental improvement in the environment with the goal of building a Beautiful China basically reached;

— The opening-up will reach a new stage with substantial growth of the country's strengths for participating in international economic cooperation and competition;

— The per capita GDP will reach the level of moderately developed countries. The size of the middle-income group will be significantly expanded. Equitable access to basic public services will be ensured. Disparities in urban-rural development, in development between regions, and in living standards will be significantly reduced;

— The implementation of the Peaceful China initiative will be promoted to a higher level. The modernization of national defense and the military will be basically achieved;

— People will lead a better life, and more notable and substantial progress will be achieved in promoting well-rounded human development and achieving common prosperity for everyone.

Premier Li: 14th Five-Year Plan should stand the test of practice and history
Premier Li stresses high-standard formulation of new five-year plan
New Energy Vehicle (NEV) firms to have more say in sector's future
 ( https://www.argusmedia.com/en/news/2149213-china-announces-nev-development-plan ) ..."

 Instead of focusing on the pace of growth, China is striving to pursue high-quality development. 
Increasing people's incomes, boosting domestic consumption, seeking to foster a world-class business environment and building an innovation-driven society, among others, 
are high on the agenda in
China's Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035. [ link ]

MARKET POTENTIAL  [ the American: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disposable_household_and_per_capita_income ]

Over the next five years (2021-2025) , the country will increase the disposable income per capita basically in line with its growth in gross domestic product, 
 and continue expanding its middle-income group and tapping the market potential.

 "... Officially about 400 million Chinese are categorised as middle income, which is generally defined by the National Bureau of Statistics 
 - as a family of three earning between 100,000 yuan (US$15,200) to 500,000 yuan annually, though the definition is not always consistent.Nov 30, 2020 ..."
 SOURCE: https://www.scmp.com › Economy › China Economy

According to the "plan", 
the country will boost and upgrade domestic consumption, reduce import tariffs and institutional costs, and expand imports of high-quality consumer goods, 
 advanced technologies, crucial equipment and energy resources.

With the burgeoning demand and purchasing power, the country will become a "huge market" that is increasingly important for global goods.

China is a mega economy with long-term potential for high economic growth, said Zhang Liqun, a researcher with the Development Research Center of the State Council.

As an "essential locomotive" for world economic growth, the Chinese market will help pull the world economy out of difficulties, Zhang said.

In the first two months of 2021, China's total goods imports and exports expanded 32.2 percent year on year to 5.44 trillion yuan 
  (about 838.16 billion U.S. dollars), according to the General Administration of Customs (GAC).

The country's imports grew 14.5 percent year on year, topping 2.38 trillion yuan during the period, GAC data shows.


Besides predictable surging demand, the country also showed prospects for a greater degree of "opening-up". 

 It will further improve its business environment to attract and better utilize foreign capital.

China will advance the opening of related businesses in the fields of telecommunications, the Internet, education, culture and medical care
  in an orderly manner, according to the new five-year plan.

The latest report from "Fitch Ratings" [ A]  shows that China had seen a steady increase in high-tech foreign direct investment over the past decade. 
 It attributes the increase to strong government support, foreign companies' growing interest in China's market sales opportunities, 
 as well as an improving innovation ecosystem. [ The American visited the "Fitch Ratings" URL [ https://www.fitchratings.com/region/china ] There are many "China" pages.
 Please cite the specific source URL - of your comment above. ]

Fitch Ratings expects [cite?]  the research and development activities of the foreign-invested enterprises in China to increase 
 -as the country continues emphasizing and promoting innovation - and improving intellectual-property protection - to drive high-quality economic growth, 
   as outlined in the new five-year plan. [the American: "Reverse engineering" - is not the same activity - as "creative innovation" - to solve a problem. 
  ... A "problem" - not addressed - by China (yet) - is the fundamental difference - in the way "Americans think". Americans are raised - from birth - to think "independently" ; 
   to build a "better mouse-trap" ; whereas, speeches presented to Chinese audiences - I have thus read ( in VOL 1) - stress plans (developed by a Central Committee) and "unity".
  Going along - rah - rah  - and encouraging others - to contribute - to a common goal. This works for "football teams - on the field - and pep rallies" - before the game. 
  The American was a "Public" Junior High School "cheer leader".  ]

Besides, the plan underlines continuous efforts to further improve the country's "business environment" that is based on market principles
  and governed by the law and meets international standards.

With an improved and more predictable business environment in the coming five years, foreign-funded enterprises can make full use of the opportunities, 
  explore new fields and achieve high-quality development along with China, said Obara Masamichi, vice president of the Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry in China.


 For example:  My sister - Mildred CassAdy - and her husband (not Italian) - founded a "Pizza shop" in Columbus, Ohio - in the 1960s. 
  Bob Thompson - a US Navy veteran - had worked in several local Pizza shops. He knew how to operate Pizza ovens... at 400+ degrees - and cook pizzas.
  Joe - his sister's husband - who was Italian  - brought in his mother's recipe - for a sauce - AND a dough. Bob checked them out - modified the preparations - made Joe his "partner", 
   hired every "CassAdy" - "who wanted to" - to work for him. Columbus, Ohio is "CassAdy" [ Scottish ] turf - because of Ohio State University Football.
  In a "short time" - Bob was a "million-aire" - with multiple "Pizza Shops" - all over Columbus; and, he invested in Real-Estate. ... 
   Bob was killed - instantly - in a motorcycle accident.] 

 Dear faculty members and students, 

Last November, the CPC held its 18th National Congress. 
 [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_National_Congress_of_the_Chinese_Communist_Party ]
  According to the "blueprint" it [CPC] mapped out for the country’s development in the near future, China 
will double its 2010 GDP and per capita income for both urban and rural 
residents by 2020, complete the building of a "moderately prosperous society" in 
all respects when the Party celebrates its centenary in 2021, and turn itself into a 
 "modern socialist country" that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally 
advanced and harmonious when the PRC marks its centenary in 2049. 
At the same time, we are soberly aware that, as a large developing country with over 
1.3 billion people, China will encounter still greater and more testing challenges 
on the road to progress, which calls for continuous and strenuous efforts on our 
part if the goals as identified are to be reached. 

The great renewal of the Chinese nation has become the grandest dream of 
the Chinese people in modern times. We call it the Chinese Dream, with 
prosperity for the country, renewal for the nation and happiness for the people as 
its fundamental elements. China has always been a peace-loving nation. But it 

was subjected to a century of untold sufferings as a result of repeated foreign 
aggression and domestic turmoil. We know too well the value of peace, and the 
need to build the country and improve the people’s well-being in a peaceful 
environment. China is committed to the path of peaceful development, 
dedicating itself to open, cooperative and mutually beneficial development, 
while calling on all countries to follow this path. China always pursues a defense 
policy that is defensive in nature, not engaging in any arms race nor posing a 
military threat to any country. By growing stronger through development, China 
will bring more opportunities, rather than threats, to the rest of the world. The 
Chinese Dream which we cherish will not only serve the Chinese people but 
benefit people throughout the world. 

It is heartening to see that, each as the other’s largest neighbor, China and 
Russia enjoy a high complementarity in development strategy. Russia has set the 
goal of reaching or approaching the level of the developed countries by 2020 in 
terms of per capita GDP and is accelerating its advance in material development. 
We sincerely wish you success in achieving your goals as soon as possible. A 
strong and prosperous Russia is in the interests of China, and conducive to peace 
and stability in the Asia Pacific and the world at large. 

The relationship between China and Russia is one of the most important 
bilateral relationships in the world. It is also the best relationship between major 
countries. A strong and high-performance relationship like this not only serves 
the interests of our two countries but also provides an important safeguard for 
maintaining the international strategic balance as well as peace and stability in 
the world. With our consistent efforts over the past 20 years and more, we have 
established a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination, and a 
relationship that fully accommodates each other’s interests and concerns, and 
delivers tangible benefits to the two peoples. We have resolved historical 
boundary issues once and for all and signed the Treaty of Good-neighborliness 
and Friendly Cooperation Between the People’s Republic of China and the 
Russian Federation, thus laying a solid foundation for the long-term growth of 
China-Russia relations. 

At present, both China and Russia are at a crucial stage of national renewal, 
as their relations have entered a new period characterized by provision of vital 
mutual development opportunities and serving as primary mutual cooperation 
partners. To ensure continued growth of China-Russia relations, we need to 

work still harder in the following areas: 

First, stay firmly committed to building a forward-looking relationship. 
That China and Russia should live in everlasting amity and never be enemies is 
the shared aspiration of the two peoples. We need to stand tall and look far, 
working on our bilateral relations with a holistic approach. President Putin once 
said, “Russia needs a prosperous and stable China, and China needs a strong and 
successful Russia.” I could not agree more. By achieving common development, 
we will give ever broader space to our comprehensive strategic partnership of 
coordination and provide positive energy to the international order and global 
systems in their movement towards greater fairness and rationality. China and 
Russia will forever be good neighbors, good friends and good partners, taking 
concrete actions to firmly support each other on respective core interests, on 
respective development and renewal, on following the development paths suited 
to our national conditions and on success in our affairs and endeavors. 

Second, stay firmly committed to cultivating a cooperative and mutually 
beneficial relationship. China and Russia differ in realities and national 
conditions. By engaging in close cooperation and drawing on each other’s 
strengths to make up for respective shortcomings, we can show to the world that 
one plus one can be greater than two. Last year, our two-way trade reached USS 
88.2 billion-worth and there were 3.3 million visits exchanged between our 
peoples. These figures give full expression to the enormous potential and broad 
prospects of China-Russia relations. Bilateral cooperation in energy has 
advanced steadily. The China-Russia oil and gas pipelines have long since 
replaced the “Ten Thousand Li Tea Route”^ of the 17th century as the new 
“arteries of the century” connecting the two countries. Right now, we are 
looking actively to bridge the development strategies of our respective countries 
and regions in an effort to create still more converging interests and growth areas 
in bilateral cooperation. We will expand the scope of bilateral cooperation from 
the energy and resources sector to investment, infrastructure, hi-tech, finance 
and other areas, and from trade in goods to joint R&D and joint production so as 
to elevate the result-oriented cooperation between the two countries. 

Third, stay firmly committed to cementing the friendship between the two 
peoples. Amity between peoples holds the key to relations between countries. It 
is the people’s deep friendship that drives state-to-state relations forward. Here, I 

want to share a couple of stories about the mutual support and mutual help 
between our peoples. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese 
Aggression, Captain Gregory Kurishenko of the air force of the Soviet Union 
came to China and fought side by side with the Chinese people. He once said, “1 
feel the Chinese people’s sufferings as if 1 were feeling the sufferings of my own 
motherland.” He died heroically on Chinese soil. The Chinese people never 
forget this hero. An ordinary Chinese mother and her son have kept vigil at his 
tomb for more than half a century. In 2004, China invited some of the children 
traumatized in the Beslan school hostage incident^ to China for rehabilitation 
treatment. The children received meticulous care. The head doctor from the 
Russian side said to the Chinese side, “Your doctors have given our children 
such great help, and they will always remember you.” When Wenchuan was hit 
by a devastating earthquake in 2008^ Russia raced against time to extend a 
helping hand, and invited the children from disaster areas to Russia’s Far East 
for rehabilitation. Three years ago, I saw with my own eyes at the Ocean 
Children’s Center in Vladivostok the loving care Russian teachers showered on 
our children. As we Chinese often say, love knows no borders. These Chinese 
children have learned for themselves the love, friendship and kindness of the 
Russian people. There are many more touching stories like these, and together 
they keep the tree of our friendship nourished, strong and evergreen. 

Russia and China each has a time-honored history and splendid culture, and 
cultural exchanges between us play an irreplaceable role in advancing the 
friendship between the two peoples. Ancient Chinese philosophers such as 
Confucius and Lao Zi are well known in Russia while Russian culture left a deep 
mark on the older generations of Chinese revolutionaries. Even people of my age 
have read many Russian classic masterpieces. In my youth, I read the works of 
such Russian literary giants as Pushkin, Lermontov, Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, 
Tolstoy and Chekhov, and savored the powerful charm of Russian literature. It is 
no wonder that cultural exchanges between China and Russia enjoy fertile 

The youth are the future of a country and the future of the world. They also 
hold in their hands the future of China-Russia friendship. During this visit of 
mine, President Putin and I jointly announced that China and Russia would host 
the Year of Youth Friendship and Exchanges in 2014 and 2015, respectively. On 
the Chinese side, we will invite a delegation of Russian university students, 

including students of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, to 
China. I see in you some of the best and brightest of the young generation in 
Russia. I hope that more and more young people from both countries will take 
over the baton of China-Russia friendship by actively involving themselves in 
the cause of friendship. 

Dear faculty members and students, 

As a Russian proverb goes, “Big ships sail far.” We also have lines of an 
ancient poem which read, “Forging ahead like a gigantic ship breaking through 
strong winds and heavy waves, I’ll set my towering sail to cross the sea which 
raves.I am convinced that with the joint efforts of the governments and 
peoples of our two countries, China-Russia relations will continue to press 
ahead, overcoming difficulties, bringing greater benefits to the two peoples, and 
making ever-greater contributions to global peace and development. 

Thank you. 


[1] The “Ten Thousand Li Tea Route” was a tea trade route stretching 13,000 km through more than 
200 cities. Opened by Shanxi businessmen from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) to the early Qing 
Dynasty (1644-1911), it started from Meicun Village at the foot of the Wuyi Mountain in Fujian Province 
in Southeast China, reached Kyakhta in Russia and from there to St. Petersburg. It was an important route 
for international trade, enjoying equal fame with the Silk Road. 

[2] It refers to a terrorist attack at School Number One in the town of Beslan, North Ossetia (an 
autonomous republic in the North Caucasus region) of the Russian Federation on September 1, 2004, 
resulting in more than 300 deaths. 

[3j The earthquake, registering 8.0 on the Richter scale, occurred at 14:28:04 China Standard Time 
on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province. The epicenter (06:08:01 UTC) was located 38° 
southwest of and 11 km away from Yingxiu Town. As of September 25, 2008, official figures stated that 
69,227 were confirmed dead, 374,643 injured and 17,923 missing. The direct economic loss in the hardest- 
hit areas reached RMB 845.1 billion. 

[4j See note 3, p. 39. 

    -  Build a New Model of Major-country Relationship Between China and the United States

June 7, 2013 

* Main points of the speech when meeting the press with US President Barack Obama. 

President Obama and 1 have just had our first meeting. We had a candid and 
in-depth exchange of views on our respective domestic and foreign policies, on 
building a new model of major-country relationship between China and the 
United States, and on major international and regional issues of mutual concern. 
We have reached a consensus on many important issues. 

I told President Obama explicitly that China will unswervingly follow the 
path of peaceful development, further its refonn and opening up, strive to realize 
the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and promote the 
noble cause of peace and development of mankind. 

The Chinese Dream is about making our country prosperous and strong, 
revitalizing the nation and bringing a happy life to its people. It is a dream of 
peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit. It has many things in 
common with all the beautiful dreams, including the American Dream, of people 
all over the world. 

President Obama and I both maintain that China and the US should and can 
build a new model of relationship different from the historical clashes and 
confrontations between major powers, given the rapid economic globalization 
and the need for all countries in the world to work together. We both agreed to 
make joint efforts to build a new model of major-country relationship, respect 
each other, cooperate and seek mutual interests, and bring benefits to our people 
and the people of the world at large. The world community also expects a 
continuously improved and expanded China-US relationship. Good China-US 
cooperation will serve as an anchor for global stability and a booster for world 

The two sides agreed to enhance dialogues and communication at all levels, 
and constantly increase mutual trust and understanding. President Obama and 1 
will keep in close touch with each other through exchanges of visits, meetings, 
telephone conversations and letters. 1 have extended an invitation to President 
Obama to visit China at a suitable time for a new round of meetings and realize 
an exchange of visits as soon as possible. The two sides will act in close 
coordination to make sure that the new round of China-US strategic and 
economic dialogues, and high-level consultations on cultural and people-to- 
people exchanges will achieve positive results. The Chinese defense minister 
and foreign minister will visit the US on invitation. 

The two sides also agreed to enhance cooperation in a wide range of areas 
such as economy, trade, energy, environment, and culture and humanities, as 
well as cooperation among different regions, so as to expand the converging 
interests between the two countries in an all-round way. We will improve and 
develop bilateral military relations, and build a new model of China-US military 
relationship. We will strengthen coordination concerning macro-economic 
policies, expand cooperation in the process of our economic development, and 
promote robust, sustainable and balanced economic growth in the Asia Pacific 
region and the world at large. 

Where there is a will there is a way. I am confident about the new model of 
major-country relationship between China and the US. First, both sides have the 
political will to build such a relationship. Second, bilateral cooperation between 
the two countries over the past more than 40 years has laid a solid foundation for 
our future cooperation. Third, the two sides have established more than 90 
mechanisms for high-level dialogues on strategy, economy, culture and 
humanities, which serve as guarantee mechanisms for the building of the new 
model of major-country relationship. Fourth, sister provinces and states, and 
sister cities totaling more than 220 pairs have been established between the two 
sides; nearly 190,000 Chinese students are studying in the US and more than 
20,000 US students are studying in China - a good public opinion foundation for 
the building of the new model of relationship. Fifth, there is broad scope for 
future bilateral cooperation. 

The building of a new model of major-country relationship between China 
and the US is unprecedented, but it will be faithfully carried out by the two 
sides. China and the US should work together to push forward the new model of 
major-country relationship by increasing dialogues, promoting mutual trust, 
expanding cooperation and controlling disputes. 

Both the Chinese and American nations are great nations, and both peoples 
are great peoples. 1 believe that, with determination, confidence, patience and 
wisdom, the two sides will accomplish our goals as long as we keep the overall 
situation in mind while starting with the daily routine and making constant 

China has been a victim of computer hacker attacks. As a defender of cyber 
security, China has the same concerns as the US in this field. The two sides have 
decided through consultations to establish a cyber security working team within 
the framework of China-US strategic and security dialogues, and to start to work 
on the issue as soon as possible. The two sides should eschew mistrust and 
engage in cooperation so as to make cyber security a new bright spot in China- 
US cooperation. 


  1. ° Build a Bridge of Friendship and Cooperation Across the Eurasian Continent 

Neighborhood Diplomacy 

  1. ° Work Together to Build the Silk Road Economic Belt 
  2. ° Work Together to Build a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road 
  3. ° Diplomacy with Neighboring Countries Characterized by Friendship. Sincerity. Reciprocity and Inclusiveness Cooperation with Developing Countries 
  4. ° Be Trustworthy Friends and Sincere Partners Forever 
  5. ° Forge a Stronger Partnership Between China and Latin America and the Caribbean 
  6. ° Promote the Silk Road Spirit. Strengthen China-Arab Cooperation Multilateral Relations 
  7. ° Work Hand in Hand for Common Development  
  8. ° A Better Future for Asia and the World 
  9. ° Jointly Maintain and Develop an Open World Economy 
  10. ° Carry Forward the “Shanghai Spirit” and Promote Common Development 
  11. Work Together for a Better Asia Pacific  
  12. New Approach for Asian Security Cooperation 

Close Ties with the People 

° Strictly Enforce Diligence and Thrift. Oppose Extravagance and Waste 

° The Mass Line: Fundamental to the CPC 

° The Guiding Thoughts and Goals for the Program of Mass Line 

Education and Practice 

° Establish and Promote the Conduct of “Three Stricts and Three Earnests” 

Combat Corruption 

° Power Must Be “Caged” by the System 

° Historical Wisdom Helps Us Combat Corruption and Uphold Integrity 

° Improve Party Conduct. Uphold Integrity and Combat Corruption 

The CPC Leadership 

° Follow a Good Blueprint 
o Study for a Brighter Future 

° “Governing a Big Country Is as Delicate as Frying a Small Fish” 

° Train and Select Good Officials   


Build a New Model of Major-country Relationship Between China and the United States 

June 7, 2013  
[  https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/07/remarks-president-obama-and-president-xi-jinping-peoples-republic-china- ]

* Main points of the speech when meeting the press with US President Barack Obama. 

President Obama and 1 have just had our first meeting. We had a candid and 
in-depth exchange of views on our respective domestic and foreign policies, on 
building a new model of major-country relationship between China and the 
United States, and on major international and regional issues of mutual concern. 
We have reached a consensus on many important issues. 

I told President Obama - explicitly - that China will unswervingly follow the 
path of peaceful development, further its refonn and opening up, strive to realize 
the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and promote the 
noble cause of peace and development of mankind. 

The "Chinese Dream" is about making our country prosperous and strong, 
revitalizing the nation and bringing a happy life to its people. It is a dream of 
peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit. It has many things in 
common with all the beautiful dreams, including the American Dream, of people all over the world. 

President Obama and I both maintain that China and the US should and can 
build a new model of relationship different from the historical clashes and 
confrontations between major powers, given the rapid economic globalization 
and the need for all countries in the world to work together. 

We both agreed to make joint efforts to build a new model of major-country relationship, respect 
each other, cooperate and seek mutual interests, and bring benefits to our people 
and the people of the world at large. The world community also expects a 
continuously improved and expanded China-US relationship. Good China-US 
cooperation will serve as an anchor for global stability and a booster for world peace. 

The two sides agreed to enhance dialogues and communication at all levels, 
and constantly increase mutual trust and understanding. President Obama and 1 
will keep in close touch with each other through exchanges of visits, meetings, 
telephone conversations and letters. I have extended an invitation to President 
Obama to visit China - at a suitable time - for a new round of meetings and realize 
an exchange of visits as soon as possible. 

[2016 - https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/obamas-china-visit-gets-off-to-rocky-start/2016/09/03/a188b2c6-71df-11e6-b786-19d0cb1ed06c_story.html ]
[2009 -  https://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/18/world/asia/18prexy.html ]
[ 2016 - https://www.military.com/daily-news/2013/08/16/chinas-defense-minister-to-visit-norad.html ]
The two sides will act in close coordination to make sure that the new round of China-US strategic and 
economic dialogues, and high-level consultations on cultural and people-to- 
people exchanges will achieve positive results. 

The Chinese defense minister and foreign minister will visit the US on invitation. 
[ 2009 - https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-china/u-s-china-spat-complicates-ministers-visit-idUSTRE52958S20090310 ]
[ 2012 - https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-china-defense/chinese-defense-minister-to-tour-u-s-next-week-idUSBRE8411K720120502 ]

The two sides also agreed to enhance cooperation in a wide range of areas 
such as economy, trade, energy, environment, and culture and humanities, as 
well as cooperation among different regions, so as to expand the converging 
interests between the two countries in an all-round way. 

We will improve and develop bilateral military relations, and build a new model of China-US military relationship. 
We will strengthen coordination concerning macro-economic 
policies, expand cooperation in the process of our economic development, and 
promote robust, sustainable and balanced economic growth in the Asia Pacific region and the world at large. 

Where there is a will there is a way. I am confident about the new model of 
major-country relationship between China and the US. First, both sides have the 
political will to build such a relationship. Second, bilateral cooperation between 
the two countries over the past more than 40 years has laid a solid foundation for 
our future cooperation. Third, the two sides have established more than 90 
mechanisms for high-level dialogues on strategy, economy, culture and 
humanities, which serve as guarantee mechanisms for the building of the new 
model of major-country relationship. Fourth, sister provinces and states, and 
sister cities totaling more than 220 pairs have been established between the two 
nearly 190,000 Chinese students are studying in the US and more than 
20,000 US students are studying in China - a good public opinion foundation for 
the building of the new model of relationship. Fifth, there is broad scope for 
future bilateral cooperation. 

The building of a new model of major-country relationship between China 
and the US is unprecedented, but it will be faithfully carried out by the two 

China and the US should work together to push forward the new model of 
major-country relationship by increasing dialogues, promoting mutual trust, 
expanding cooperation and controlling disputes. 

Both the Chinese and American nations are great nations, and both peoples 
are great peoples. I believe that, with determination, confidence, patience and 
wisdom, the two sides will accomplish our goals as long as we keep the overall 
situation in mind while starting with the daily routine and making constant 

China has been a victim of computer hacker attacks. 
As a defender of cyber security, China has the same concerns as the US in this field. 
The two sides have decided through consultations to establish a cyber security working team within 
the framework of China-US strategic and security dialogues, and to start to work 
on the issue as soon as possible. 
 Google >  US China "cyber security" working team
[ https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/belfer-center-convenes-us-china-cyber-security-working-group ]

[ 2021 - https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/19/nato-and-eu-launch-a-cyber-security-alliance-to-confront-chinese-cyberattacks.html ]

The two sides should eschew mistrust and engage in cooperation so as to make cyber security a new bright spot in China- US cooperation. 


Build a Bridge of Friendship and Cooperation Across the  Eurasian Continent 

Build a Bridge of Friendship and Cooperation Across the 

Eurasian Continent 

April 1, 2014 

* Part of the speech at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium. 

China and Europe may seem far apart geographically, but we are living in 
the same era and on the same earth. 1 feel that we are as close to each other as 
neighbors. Both China and Europe are in a crucial stage of development, and are 
facing unprecedented opportunities and challenges. 1 hope to work with our 
European friends to build a bridge of friendship and cooperation across the 
Eurasian continent. For that we actually need to build four bridges - for the 
peace, growth, reform and progress of civilization - so that the China-EU 
comprehensive strategic partnership will take on even greater global 

- We need to build a bridge of peace and stability, linking the two strong 
forces of China and the EU. Together, China and the EU make up one tenth of 
the total area of the earth, and represent one fourth of the world’s population. 
Together we hold three permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. 
We all need peace, multilateralism and dialogue, instead of war, unilateralism 
and confrontation. We need to enhance communication and coordination on 
global issues, and play a key role in safeguarding world peace and stability. 
Culture can spread, and so can peaceful development. China stands ready to 
work with the EU to let the sunlight of peace drive away the shadow of war, and 
the bonfire of prosperity warm up the global economy in the cold early spring, 
and enable all mankind to embark on the path of peaceful development and 
mutually beneficial cooperation. 

- We need to build a bridge of growth and prosperity linking the two big 
markets of China and Europe. China and the EU are the two most important 
economies in the world, accounting for one third of the global economy. We 
must uphold open markets, speed up negotiations on investment agreements, 

proactively explore the possibility of a free trade area, and strive to achieve the 
ambitious goal of bringing bilateral trade to US$1 trillion-worth by 2020. We 
should also look to combine China-EU cooperation with the initiative of 
developing the Silk Road Economic Belt, so as to integrate the market of Asia 
and Europe, energize the people, businesses, capital and technologies of Asia 
and Europe, and make China and the EU the twin engines for global economic 

- We need to build a bridge of reform and progress, linking the reform 
process in China and the EU. Both China and the EU are pursuing reforms that 
are unprecedented in human history, and both are sailing uncharted waters. We 
should enhance dialogue and cooperation on macro economy, public policy, 
regional development, rural development, social welfare and other fields. We 
need to respect each other’s paths of reform, draw upon each other’s reform 
experience, and promote world development and progress through our reform 

- We need to build a bridge of common cultural prosperity linking the two 
major civilizations of China and Europe. China represents in an important way 
Eastern civilization, while Europe is the birthplace of Western civilization. The 
Chinese people are fond of tea, and Belgians love beer. To me, the moderate tea 
drinker and passionate beer lover represent two ways of understanding life and 
knowing the world, and 1 find them equally rewarding. When good friends get 
together, they may want to drink to their hearts’ content to show their friendship. 
They may also choose to sit down quietly and drink tea while chatting about 
their lives. In China we value our ideal of “harmony without uniformity.”^ And 
here in the EU people stress the need to be “united in diversity.” Let us work 
together for all flowers of human civilization to blossom together. 

In the face of all changes in the international landscape, China has always 
supported European integration and a bigger role in international affairs for a 
united, stable and prosperous EU. China will soon release its second EU policy 
paper to reiterate the great importance it places on the EU and on its relations 
with the EU. Last year, China and the EU jointly formulated the Strategic 
Agenda 2020 for China-EU Cooperation, setting out a host of ambitious goals in 
nearly a hundred fields. The two sides should work in concert to turn the 
blueprint into reality at an early date, and strive for greater progress in China-EU 

relations in the coming decade. 


[1] See note 11, p. 197. 

Neighborhood Diplomacy 

Work Together to Build the Silk Road Economic Belt* 

September 7, 2013 

* Part of the speech at Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan. 

More than 2,100 years ago during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), a 
Chinese envoy named Zhang Qian was twice sent to Central Asia on missions of 
peace and friendship. His journeys opened the door to friendly contacts between 
China and Central Asian countries, and started the Silk Road linking the East 
and West, Asia and Europe. 

Shaanxi, my home province, is right at the starting point of the ancient Silk 
Road. Today, as 1 stand here and look back at history, 1 seem to hear the camel 
bells echoing in the mountains and see the wisps of smoke rising from the desert, 
and this gives me a specially good feeling. 

Kazakhstan, located on the ancient Silk Road, has made an important 
contribution to the exchanges between the Eastern and Western civilizations and 
the interactions and cooperation between various nations and cultures. This land 
has borne witness to a steady stream of envoys, caravans, travelers, scholars and 
artisans traveling between the East and the West. The exchanges and mutual 
learning thus made possible promoted the progress of human civilization. 

The ancient city of Almaty is also on the ancient Silk Road. In Almaty, 
there is a Xian XinghaifU Boulevard, which got its name from a true story. After 
the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War in 1941, Xian, a renowned Chinese 
composer, found his way to Almaty. By then, he was worn down by poverty and 
illness and had no one to turn to. Fortunately, the Kazakh composer Bakhitzhan 
Baykadamov took care of Xian and provided him with the comfort of a home. 

It was in Almaty that Xian composed his famous works: Liberation of the 
Nation, Sacred War and Red All over the River. He also wrote the symphony 
Amangeldy based on the exploits of the Kazakh national hero. These works 
served as a rallying call to fight Fascism and proved immensely popular with the 

local people. 

Throughout the millennia, the peoples of various countries along the 
ancient Silk Road have written a chapter of friendship that has been passed on to 
this very day. More than 2,000 years of exchanges demonstrate that on the basis 
of unity, mutual trust, equality, inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutually 
beneficial cooperation, countries of different races, beliefs and cultural 
backgrounds are fully able to share peace and development. This is the valuable 
inspiration we have drawn from the ancient Silk Road. 

Over the past 20 years, the relations between China and Eurasian countries 
have grown rapidly, and the ancient Silk Road has gained new vitality. In a new 
way, it is lifting the mutually beneficial cooperation between China and Eurasian 
countries to a fresh height. 

A neighbor is better than a distant relative. China and Central Asian 
countries are close and friendly neighbors. China values its friendship and 
cooperation with these countries, and takes improving these relations as a 
foreign policy priority. 

China’s relations with the Central Asian countries now face a golden 
opportunity of growth. We hope to work with these countries to strengthen trust, 
friendship and cooperation, and promote common development and prosperity to 
the benefit to all our peoples. 

- We should pass on our friendship from generation to generation and 
remain good neighbors living in harmony. China is committed to peaceful 
development and an independent foreign policy of peace. We respect the 
development paths and domestic and foreign policies pursued independently by 
the people of every country. We will never interfere in the internal affairs of 
Central Asian countries. We do not seek to dominate regional affairs or establish 
any sphere of influence. We stand ready to enhance consultation and 
coordination with Russia and all Central Asian countries to sustain harmony in 
our region. 

- We should firmly support and trust each other and be sincere and good 
friends. Rendering each other firm support on major issues concerning core 
interests such as sovereignty, territorial integrity, security and stability underlies 

China’s strategic partnership with the Central Asian countries. We will reinforce 
trust and cooperation with the Central Asian countries bilaterally and within the 
framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)^ to combat the 
“three forces” of terrorism, separatism and extremism as well as drug trafficking 
and organized transnational crimes, and this will create a favorable environment 
for promoting economic development and improving the well-being of the 
people in this region. 

- We should vigorously enhance practical cooperation and be good partners 
of mutually beneficial cooperation. Both China and the Central Asian countries 
are at a crucial stage of development, and we face unprecedented opportunities 
and challenges. We have all set medium- to long-term development goals based 
on our national conditions. Our strategic goals are the same - to ensure 
sustainable and stable economic development, build a prosperous and strong 
nation and achieve national revitalization. Therefore, we need to enhance 
practical cooperation across the board, use our good political relations, 
geographical proximity and economic complementarities to boost sustainable 
growth, and build a community of shared interests and mutual benefit. 

- We should expand regional cooperation with a more open mind and 
broader vision, and achieve joint progress. Global economic integration is 
accelerating, and regional cooperation is booming. The Eurasian region has a 
number of regional cooperation organizations. The members and observers of 
the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) and the SCO are from Eurasia, 
South Asia and West Asia. By intensifying cooperation between the SCO and 
the EAEC, we will create further space for development. 

To forge closer economic ties, deepen cooperation and expand development 
space in the Eurasian region, we should take an innovative approach and jointly 
build an economic belt along the Silk Road. This will be a great undertaking 
benefitting the people of all countries along the route. To turn this vision into 
reality, we may start in specific areas and connect them over time to cover the 
whole region. 

First, we need to step up policy consultation. Countries should have full 
discussions on development strategies and policies, adopt plans and measures for 
advancing regional cooperation through consultation in the spirit of seeking 
common ground while setting aside differences, and give the policy and legal 

“green light” to regional economic integration. 

Second, we need to improve road connections. The SCO is working on an 
agreement on transport facilitation. Its early signing and implementation will 
open up a major transport route connecting the Pacific and the Baltic. On this 
basis, we can actively discuss the best way to improve cross-border transport 
infrastructure and work towards a transport network connecting East Asia, West 
Asia and South Asia to facilitate economic development and travel in the region. 

Third, we need to promote unimpeded trade. The envisaged economic belt 
along the Silk Road is inhabited by nearly three billion people and it represents 
the biggest market in the world, with enormous, unparalleled potential for trade 
and investment cooperation between the countries involved. We should discuss a 
proper arrangement for trade and investment facilitation, remove trade barriers, 
reduce trade and investment costs, increase the speed and raise the quality of 
regional economic flows and achieve mutually beneficial progress in the region. 

Fourth, we need to enhance monetary circulation. China and Russia already 
have sound cooperation on settling trade in local currencies, and have made 
good progress and yielded rich experience in this respect. This good practice can 
be shared with others in the region. If our region can realize local currency 
convertibility and settlement under the current and capital accounts, it will 
significantly lower circulation cost, increase our ability to fend off financial 
risks, and make our region more competitive internationally. 

Fifth, we need to increase understanding between our peoples. Friendship 
between peoples is the key to good relations between states. To pursue 
productive cooperation in the above-mentioned areas, we need the support of our 
peoples. We should encourage more friendly exchanges between our peoples to 
enhance mutual understanding and traditional friendship, and build strong public 
support and a solid social foundation for regional cooperation. 


[1] Xian Xinghai (1905-1945) was a Chinese musician. 

[2] The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international 
organization established on June 15, 2001, in Shanghai (China) by six countries - China, Russia, 
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Its prototype was the Shanghai Five Mechanism. The 

main goals of the SCO are strengthening mutual confidence and good neighborly relations among the 
member countries; promoting effective cooperation in politics, trade and economy, science and technology, 
and culture as well as education, energy, transportation, tourism, environmental protection and other fields; 
making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region; and moving towards 
the establishment of a new, democratic, just and rational political and economic international order. The 
heads of state meet once every year, and the heads of government meet at fixed time, alternatively in each 
of the member states. 

Work Together to Build a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road* 

October 3, 2013 

Work Together to Build a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road* 

October 3, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the People’s Representative Council of Indonesia. 

China and the ASEAN countries are close neighbors sharing kinship. This 
year marks the tenth anniversary of the China-ASEAN strategic partnership, and 
our relationship is at a new historical starting point. 

China places great importance on Indonesia’s standing and influence in 
ASEAN. We wish to work with Indonesia and the other ASEAN countries to 
ensure that China and ASEAN are good neighbors, good friends and good 
partners who share prosperity and security and stick together through thick and 
thin. Through our joint efforts, we can build a close China-ASEAN community 
of common destiny so as to bring more benefits to both China and ASEAN and 
to the people in the region. 

To achieve this goal, we should take the following steps: 

First, build trust and good-neighborly ties. Trust is the very foundation of 
both interpersonal and state-to-state relations. China is committed to forging a 
relationship with the ASEAN countries featuring sincerity, friendship, and 
enhanced mutual political and strategic trust. 

There is no one-size-fits-all development model in the world or an 
unchanging development path. Both the Chinese people and the people of the 
ASEAN countries have embraced change and innovation with an open mind, and 
searched and found, in a pioneering and enterprising spirit, development paths in 
keeping with their specific national conditions that conform to the trend of the 
times. These efforts have opened up a broad prospect for their economic and 
social development. 

We should each respect the other’s right to independently choose social 
system and development path as well as the right to explore and pursue new 

ways of economic and social development, and improve its people’s lives. We 
should have full confidence in each other’s strategic choice, support each other 
on issues of major concern, and never deviate from the general goal of China- 
ASEAN strategic cooperation. 

China is ready to discuss with the ASEAN countries the conclusion of a 
treaty of good-neighborliness, friendship and cooperation in a joint effort to 
build good-neighborly relations. China will continue to support ASEAN in 
enhancing its strength, building the ASEAN community, and playing a central 
role in regional cooperation. 

Second, work for mutually beneficial cooperation. As a Chinese saying 
goes, “The interests to be considered should be the interests of all.”^ China is 
ready to open its door wider to the ASEAN countries on the basis of equality and 
mutual benefit and enable the latter to gain more from China’s development. 
China is prepared to upgrade the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area and increase 
two-way trade to one trillion dollar-worth by 2020. 

China is committed to enhancing its connections with the ASEAN 
countries. China proposes the establishment of an Asian infrastructure 
investment bank to support the ASEAN countries and other developing countries 
in our region to strengthen links in infrastructural development. 

Southeast Asia has since ancient times been an important hub along the 
ancient Maritime Silk Road. China will strengthen maritime cooperation with 
the ASEAN countries, and the China-ASEAN Maritime Cooperation Fund set 
up by the Chinese government should be used to develop maritime partnership in 
a joint effort to build the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st century. China is ready 
to expand its practical cooperation with the ASEAN countries across the board 
to meet each other’s needs and complement each other’s strengths. This will 
enable us to jointly seize opportunities and meet challenges in the interest of 
common development and prosperity. 

Third, stand together and assist each other. China and the ASEAN countries 
are intimate partners, and we share the responsibility for regional peace and 
stability. In the past, the people of China and the ASEAN countries stood 
together in the fight to take our destiny back into our own hands. In recent years, 
our peoples have stood side by side and forged strong synergy in responding to 

the Asian financial crisis and the international financial crisis, and in responding 
to the Indian Ocean tsunami and China’s Wenchuan earthquake. 

We should cast away the Cold War mentality, champion the new thinking 
of comprehensive security, common security and cooperative security, and 
jointly uphold peace and stability in our region. We should have deeper 
cooperation in disaster prevention and relief, cyber security, combating cross- 
border crimes and joint law enforcement to create a more peaceful, tranquil and 
amicable home for the people of the region. 

China is ready to work with the ASEAN countries to improve the China- 
ASEAN defense ministers’ meeting mechanism and hold regular dialogues on 
regional security issues. 

With regard to differences and disputes between China and some Southeast 
Asian countries on territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, 
peaceful solutions should be sought, and differences and disputes should be 
properly handled through equality-based dialogue and friendly consultation in 
the overall interests of bilateral ties and regional stability. 

Fourth, enhance mutual understanding and friendship. As a Chinese saying 
goes, “A tall tree grows from a small seedling; and the building of a nine-story 
tower starts with the first shovel of earth.”^ To ensure that the tree of China- 
ASEAN friendship remains evergreen, the soil of social support for our relations 
should be fertile. Last year saw 15 million people traveling between China and 
the ASEAN countries, and there are over 1,000 flights between the two sides 
each week now. Increased interactions have nurtured a deeper bond between us 
and made our people feel ever-closer to each other. 

We should encourage more friendly exchanges between the young people, 
think tanks, parliaments, NGOs and civil organizations of the two sides, which 
will generate further intellectual support for the growth of China-ASEAN 
relations and help increase the mutual understanding and friendship between our 
peoples. China is ready to send more volunteers to the ASEAN countries to 
support their development in the cultural, educational, health and medical fields. 
China proposes to designate 2014 as the year of China-ASEAN cultural 
exchanges. China will provide the ASEAN countries with 15,000 government 
scholarships in the coming three to five years. 

Fifth, be open and inclusive. The sea is vast because it is fed by all rivers. 
In the long course of human history, the people of China and the ASEAN 
countries have created splendid and great civilizations renowned throughout the 
world. Ours is a diversified region where various civilizations have assimilated 
and interacted with one another, and this has provided an important cultural 
foundation for the people of China and the ASEAN countries to gain from each 
other’s experience. 

We should draw on the experience gained by other regions in development, 
and welcome countries outside the region to play a constructive role in 
promoting development and stability in the region. The outside countries, on 
their part, should respect the diversity of our region and do their part to facilitate 
its development and stability. The China-ASEAN community of shared destiny 
is closely linked with the ASEAN community and the East Asian community. 
The two sides need to give full rein to our respective strength to enhance 
diversity, harmony, inclusiveness and common progress in our region for the 
benefit of both our people and the people outside the region. 

An increasingly cohesive China-ASEAN community of common destiny 
conforms to the trend of the times of seeking peace, development, cooperation 
and mutual benefit and meets the common interests of the people of Asia and the 
rest of the world. This gives it a broad space and huge potential for growth. 


[1] A scroll hand-written by Yu Yu-jen (1879-1964), an educator, scholar, calligrapher and politician 
as well as one of the founders of the Kuomintang of China. It was a gift to Chiang Ching-kuo (1910-1988), 
former chairman of the Kuomintang of China. 

[2] Lao Zi or Dao De Jing. 

Diplomacy with Neighboring Countries Characterized by 
Friendship, Sincerity, Reciprocity and Inclusiveness 

October 24, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at a seminar on the work of neighborhood diplomacy. 

Good diplomacy with neighboring countries is a requirement for realizing 
the Two Centenary Goals, and the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the 
Chinese nation. We need to work harder to promote our diplomacy with 
neighboring countries, strive for a sound regional environment for our 
development, apply our own development for the benefit of neighboring 
countries, and achieve common development with them. 

Following the founding of the PRC in 1949, the Party’s first generation of 
collective central leadership under Comrade Mao Zedong, the second generation 
under Comrade Deng Xiaoping, the third generation under Comrade Jiang 
Zemin, and the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao as general 
secretary, all attached high importance to diplomacy with neighboring countries. 
They developed important strategic ideas and guiding policies, created a sound 
environment, and laid a solid foundation for future diplomatic work. After the 
18th National Congress, committed to ensuring continuity and stability in 
China’s foreign policy, the CPC Central Committee defined, planned, and 
carried out a series of major diplomatic initiatives, paying particular attention to 
neighboring countries which are important to our development and diplomatic 

Regions around our borders are strategically significant to our country in 
terms of geography, the environment, and relationships. When dealing with 
neighboring countries and related issues, we need a multi-dimensional 
perspective that extends beyond the immediate confines of time and space. 
Reviewing the situation, we can see that great changes have taken place in the 
general environment and in relationships with our neighbors. Our economic and 
trade ties with neighboring countries are closer, with unprecedented levels of 

exchange between them and us. Current circumstances demand that we keep 
pace with the times and be ever more active in blueprinting diplomatic strategies 
and undertaking diplomatic work with our neighbors. 

China and its neighbors are full of vigor and vitality, and show obvious 
strengths in development and high potential. The region is stable on the whole, 
and most of our neighbors maintain an amicable relationship geared towards 
mutual benefit and cooperation with China. We must appreciate the situation to 
the full, devise appropriate strategies, and plan carefully, to perform better in our 
diplomatic exchanges with our neighbors. 

China’s diplomacy in this area is driven by and must serve the Two 
Centenary Goals and our national rejuvenation. To achieve these strategic aims, 
we must create and cement friendly relations and further mutually beneficial 
cooperation with neighboring countries, maintain and make the best use of the 
strategic opportunities we now enjoy, and safeguard China’s state sovereignty, 
national security, and development interests. Together we must strive to build 
more amicable political relationships and closer economic ties, to further 
security cooperation and to encourage more cultural and people-to-people 
exchanges with neighboring countries. 

China’s basic policy of diplomacy with neighboring countries is to treat 
them as friends and partners, to make them feel secure and to support their 
development. This policy is characterized by friendship, sincerity, reciprocity 
and inclusiveness. Friendship is a consistent principle of China’s diplomacy with 
its neighbors. In adherence to this principle, we need to help neighbors in times 
of crisis, treat them as equals, visit them frequently, and take actions that will 
win us support and friendship. 

In response, we hope that neighboring countries will be well inclined 
towards us, and we hope that China will have a stronger affinity with them, and 
that our appeal and our influence will grow. We must treat neighbors with 
sincerity and cultivate them as friends and partners. We should cooperate with 
our neighbors on the basis of reciprocity, create a closer network of common 
interests, and better integrate China’s interests with theirs, so that they can 
benefit from China’s development and China can benefit and gain support from 
theirs. We should advocate inclusiveness, stressing that there is enough room in 
the Asia Pacific region for all countries to develop, and promoting regional 

cooperation with an open mind and enthusiasm. We must embrace and practice 
these ideas, so that they will become the shared beliefs and norms of conduct for 
the whole region. 

As circumstances evolve, diplomacy with neighboring countries requires us 
to analyze and deal with issues strategically, improve our capabilities in planning 
and implementation, and promote every aspect of this diplomacy. We must also 
do everything possible to safeguard peace and stability in the region. The path of 
peaceful development is the Party’s strategic choice, in line with the times and 
aligned with the fundamental interests of the country. A major aim of this 
diplomacy is peace and stability in the region. 

We must make every effort to achieve mutually beneficial reciprocity. We 
have to make overall plans for the use of our resources in the areas of economy, 
trade, science and technology, and finance. We must take advantage of our 
comparative strengths, accurately identify strategic points of convergence for 
mutually beneficial cooperation with neighbors, and take an active part in 
regional economic cooperation. We should work with our neighbors to speed up 
connection of infrastructure between China and our neighboring countries, and 
establish a Silk Road Economic Belt and a Maritime Silk Road geared towards 
the demands of the 21st century. We should accelerate the pace of 
implementation of the strategy of free trade zones with our neighboring 
countries as the base, expand cooperation in trade and investment, and create a 
new pattern of regional economic integration. 

We need to further advance regional financial cooperation, prepare for and 
establish an Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and improve the regional 
financial security network. We should open the border areas more quickly and 
reinforce reciprocal cooperation between the border areas of China and 
neighboring countries. 

We must make efforts to promote regional security cooperation, which is 
needed by both China and our neighboring countries. A new outlook on security 
is required that features mutual trust and reciprocity, based on equality and 
cooperation. We must develop a comprehensive security strategy with 
neighboring countries, actively participate in regional and sub-regional security 
initiatives, push forward cooperation and enhance mutual trust. 

We must strengthen publicity work, public diplomacy, people-to-people 
and cultural exchanges with neighboring countries, and consolidate and expand 
the social and public basis for the long-term development of our relationships 
with them. Diplomatic relations rely on the bonds between peoples. We should 
promote exchanges in all respects, including tourism, science, education and 
regional cooperation, to make friends in a broad range of sectors. We should 
clearly present our domestic and foreign policies to the outside world, explain 
China in an acceptable way, speak out and make ourselves heard, interpret the 
Chinese Dream from the perspective of our neighbors and their aspirations for a 
better life and regional prosperity, and let a sense of common destiny take root. 

Policies and strategies are the lifelines of the Party, and of our diplomatic 
work as well. To do good diplomatic work, we must keep our eye on the 
situation both at home and abroad. Our domestic focus is to realize the Two 
Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream; our international objectives are to 
strive for favorable external conditions for China’s reform, development and 
stability, to safeguard state sovereignty, security and development interests, and 
to maintain world peace and stability, and promote common development. We 
should seek common ground and find converging interests, stick to the sound 
values of justice and benefit, hold to principles that we can act upon, cherish 
friendship and righteousness, and offer any assistance to developing countries 
that is within our means. For best results we need to promote reform and 
innovation in diplomatic work and strengthen the planning of our diplomatic 
activities. To achieve greater progress we should build a general framework to 
coordinate diplomatic work, weigh every relevant factor, and give full play to 
every department involved. 

Diplomatic work with neighboring countries is arduous and demanding. 
Those charged with this responsibility must have a sense of mission and 
urgency. They must bear in mind the purpose of this work, improve their 
competence and working practices, devote themselves to the task, be bold in 
assuming responsibilities and making innovations, and engage in this work with 
drive and enthusiasm. 

Cooperation with Developing Countries 

Be Trustworthy Friends and Sincere Partners Forever 

March 25, 2013 

* Speech at the Julius Nyerere International Convention Center in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 

Your Excellency President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

Habari^! Habari! It both gives me great pleasure and fills me with warmth 
to meet so many friends here at the Julius Nyerere International Convention 

This is my first visit to Africa as the Chinese president but my sixth visit to 
the African continent. The moment I set foot on this beautiful land, I was 
overwhelmed by the friendship of the Tanzanian people towards the Chinese 
people. The government and people of Tanzania held a special and grand 
welcoming ceremony for me. It shows not only the importance you accord to me 
and my delegation, but also the profound traditional friendship between the two 
countries and two peoples. 

Let me begin by extending, on behalf of the Chinese government and 
people and in my own name, warm greetings and best wishes to all the friends 
present today and to the brotherly people of Tanzania and across Africa. I also 
wish to thank you, President Kikwete, and the Tanzanian government for your 
warm hospitality. 

Tanzania is a cradle of mankind. The Tanzanian people have a glorious 
tradition, and you have made a substantial contribution to the victory of the 
African people’s struggles for independence and their fights against apartheid. 

Under the leadership of President Kikwete, Tanzania has maintained 

political stability, made big strides in development, and played an important role 
in African and international affairs. The Chinese people rejoice at what you have 
achieved and sincerely wish the brotherly people of Tanzania new and still 
greater success. 

When 1 visit Africa, I am always struck by two things. One is its continuous 
progress. Each time 1 come to Africa, I am deeply impressed by new progress in 
development, which is most encouraging. The other is the warmth of the African 
people. The goodwill of the African people towards the Chinese people is as 
warm and unforgettable as the sunshine in Africa. 

As an African saying goes, “A river runs deep because of its source.” The 
friendly exchanges between China and Africa date back a long time. In the 
1950s and 60s, the first-generation leaders of the PRC - Mao Zedong, Zhou 
Enlai^ and others - and African statesmen of the older generation ushered 
China-Africa relations into a new era. Since then, the Chinese and African 
peoples have supported and cooperated with each other in our respective 
endeavors to fight against colonialism and imperialism and win independence 
and liberation, and in the pursuit of development and national renewal. A 
fraternal bond of shared destiny has been forged between us. 

Today, thanks to the concerted efforts of both sides, China-Africa relations 
are on a fast track of all-round development. We have set up the Forum on 
China-Africa Cooperation^ and established a new type of strategic partnership. 
Our cooperation in various fields has delivered many gains. In 2012, China- 
Africa trade approached US$200 billion-worth. Over 1.5 million mutual visits 
were made between the two sides. China’s cumulative direct investment in 
Africa topped US$15 billion. This year marks the 50th anniversary of the 
dispatch of Chinese medical teams to Africa. In the past five decades, 18,000 
Chinese medical personnel have worked in Africa, providing medical care and 
treatment to 250 million local patients. 

The African people, on their part, have given full support and selfless help 
to the Chinese people. When the 2008 Beijing Olympic torch relay came to Dar 
es Salaam, the Tanzanian people welcomed the Olympic flame with song and 
dance, as if celebrating their own festival. This jubilant occasion is etched in the 
memory of the Chinese people. 

In the wake of the devastating earthquake in Wenchuan, African countries 
rushed to China’s assistance. An African country, with a population of fewer 
than two million and not well-off itself, made a generous donation of two million 
Euros to the quake area - about one Euro per person! This outpouring of 
compassion warmed our hearts. 

In regional and international affairs, China and Africa have stepped up 
coordination and collaboration, and successfully upheld the common interests of 
developing countries. Friendship and cooperation between the Chinese and 
African peoples have become a symbol of China-Africa relations and are well 
regarded by the international community. 

Our joint endeavors and the fruitful results therefrom over the past five 
decades have laid a solid groundwork and provided valuable experience for 
furthering China-Africa relations. 

- A review of this period of history shows that China-Africa relations have 
not grown to this stage overnight, nor are they a gift from some third party. 
Rather, they have been nurtured and built, step by step, by our two sides over the 
years as we met challenges and faced difficulties together. As a Chinese saying 
goes, “When we drink water from the well, we should not forget those who dug 
it.” We will always honor the memory of all those pioneers who devoted 
themselves to building China-Africa relations. As we move ahead, we can 
always draw strength from history. 

- A review of this period of history shows that China and Africa have 
always shared a common destiny. Similar historical experience, common 
development tasks and shared strategic interests have bound us together. We 
both view the other’s development as our own opportunity, and we both seek to 
promote mutual development and prosperity through closer cooperation. 

- A review of this period of history shows that the defining features of 
China-Africa relations are sincerity, friendship, mutual respect, equality, mutual 
benefit and common development. We get along well and treat each other as 
equals. Neither side seeks to impose its will on the other. China has done its best 
to help Africa’s development. Yet China is always grateful to African countries 
and peoples for their firm support and selfless help over the years. On issues 
involving the core interests of either side, we have taken a clear position and 

given unequivocal support to each other. 

- And a review of this period of history shows that if we are to maintain the 
strong vitality of China-Africa relations, we must keep pace with the times and 
forge ahead in an innovative and enterprising spirit. Over the past 50 years, at 
every crucial juncture of China-Africa relations, both sides were able to 
approach these relations with vision, identify new converging interests and 
growth areas for cooperation, and bring bilateral relations to new heights. Such 
an enterprising spirit of “cutting a way through when confronted by mountains 
and building a bridge when blocked by a river” is crucial for steadily upgrading 
China-Africa cooperation. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

China-Africa relations, enjoying a favorable international and domestic 
environment as well as popular support, stand at a new historical starting point. 
Africa, a continent of hope and promise, has become one of the fastest-growing 
regions in the world and is forging ahead like a galloping African lion. China, on 
its part, continues to enjoy a sound development momentum. The foundation of 
China-Africa cooperation is more solid, and our cooperation mechanisms have 
been further improved. Advancing China-Africa cooperation represents the trend 
of the times and the will of our peoples. 

This is what 1 want to tell you, my dear friends: In this new era, China- 
Africa relations have become more important with increasing common interests, 
instead of less important with fewer common interests. China will intensify, not 
weaken, its efforts to develop relations with Africa. 

First, we will continue to treat our African friends with sincerity. Nothing is 
more valuable than true friends. The China-Africa traditional friendship is what 
we cherish dearly. Unity and cooperation with African countries have always 
been an important foundation of China’s foreign policy. This will never change, 
even should China grow stronger and enjoy a higher international standing. 
China believes in equality among all countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich 
or poor. China upholds justice and opposes the practice of the big bullying the 
small, the strong lording over the weak, and the rich oppressing the poor, just as 
it opposes interference in others’ internal affairs. China and Africa will continue 
to support each other on issues involving their core interests and major concerns. 

China will continue to firmly support Africa’s just position on regional and 
international affairs, and uphold the common interests of developing countries. 
China will continue to firmly support Africa in its endeavors to independently 
resolve African issues, and make a greater contribution to peace and security in 

There is no one-size-fits-all development model in the world. The diversity 
of civilizations and development models should be respected by all. China will 
continue to firmly support African countries in their quest for development paths 
that suit their national conditions and increase exchanges of experience in 
governance with African countries. This will enable us to draw on each other’s 
time-honored civilizations and development practices, and better promote the 
common development and prosperity of China and Africa. 

To all Chinese, “harmony in the family leads to success in everything.” 
Africa is a big family of shared destiny. This year marks the 50th anniversary of 
the founding of the Organization of African Unity - a milestone in the African 
people’s pursuit of greater strength through unity. We sincerely hope that Africa 
will make bigger strides in seeking strength from unity and achieve new success 
in peace and development, and we will firmly support Africa in this endeavor. 

China is dedicated to developing strong ties with Africa. We also hope to 
see better relations between other countries and Africa. Africa belongs to the 
African people. In promoting relations with Africa, all countries should respect 
Africa’s dignity and independence. 

Second, we seek to deliver real outcomes in conducting cooperation with 
Africa. China both champions and applies mutually beneficial cooperation with 
Africa. China views its own development as closely connected with that of 
Africa and the interests of the Chinese people as closely connected with those of 
the African people. China shares development opportunities with Africa. China 
sincerely hopes to see faster development in Africa and a better life for the 
African people. While pursuing its own development, China has provided 
support and assistance to African friends to the best of our ability. In recent 
years, in particular, China has increased assistance to and cooperation with 
Africa. We will honor every commitment we have made to Africa in both letter 
and spirit. 

China will continue to expand investment and financing cooperation with 
Africa, follow through on the commitment of providing a US$20 billion credit 
line to Africa from 2013 to 2015, implement the partnership on transnational and 
trans-regional infrastructural development, enhance mutually beneficial 
cooperation in agriculture and manufacturing, and help Africa exploit its wealth 
of resources, and achieve independent and sustainable development. 

As the saying goes, “It is more helpful to teach people how to fish than to 
just give them fish.” China will actively implement the “African Talent 
Program,” train 30,000 African professionals in various areas, provide 18,000 
government scholarships to Africa between 2013 and 2015, and increase 
technology transfer and experience sharing with Africa. 

As its own economy and strength increase, China will continue to provide 
due assistance to Africa with no political strings attached. 

Third, we will continue to build a close bond of friendship with Africa. The 
Chinese and African peoples share a natural feeling of affinity towards each 
other. We Chinese believe that “the pleasure of life lies in having bosom 
friends.” Then how can China and Africa become bosom friends? I believe that 
in-depth dialogue and concrete action are the way to strike a chord in our hearts. 

Our two peoples form the foundation and lifeline of China-Africa relations. 
Therefore, the growth of our relations should be more people-oriented. In recent 
years, growing China-Africa relations have brought our peoples closer to each 
other than ever before. Some African performers have become popular stars in 
China. Great Life of a Wife, a Chinese TV series about how life unfolds in 
ordinary Chinese families, has become quite a hit in Tanzania. 

Let me tell you a story about a young Chinese couple. When they were 
children, they got to know about Africa from Chinese TV programs and have 
since been captivated by this continent. Later, they got married and decided to 
make Tanzania their honeymoon destination. So, on their first Valentine’s Day 
after the wedding, they came here on a visit. They were overwhelmed by the 
hospitality and friendship of the local people and the magnificent savanna of 
Serengeti. After the couple returned to China, they posted what they had 
experienced in Tanzania on their blog, which was visited tens of thousands of 
times and received several hundred comments. This is what they wrote on their 

blog, “We have fallen head over heels in love with Africa, and our hearts will 
forever be with this fascinating land.” This story highlights the natural affinity 
between the Chinese and African peoples. As long as we keep expanding 
people-to-people exchanges, friendship between our peoples will strike deep 
roots and flourish. 

We will further boost people-to-people and cultural exchanges between 
China and Africa so as to enhance mutual understanding and perception, and 
increase public support for China-Africa friendship. To promote China-Africa 
relations is a cause for the future, an undertaking that calls for unremitting 
efforts of young people in China and Africa from generation to generation. Both 
sides should vigorously promote youth exchanges so that China-Africa 
friendship will be full of vigor and vitality. 

Fourth, we will resolve problems that may occur in our cooperation with 
good faith. China and Africa are both experiencing rapid development and each 
needs to learn more about the other. China will deal with new developments and 
new problems confronting our relations with sincerity. We should handle such 
problems in a spirit of mutual respect and mutually beneficial cooperation. 

1 am convinced that there will always be more opportunities than challenges 
and more solutions than difficulties. Together with the African countries, China 
has taken and will continue to take concrete measures to resolve problems in our 
economic cooperation and trade, and we will make sure that Africa gains more 
from its cooperation with China. At the same time, we sincerely hope that 
African countries will help Chinese enterprises and businessmen in pursuing 
cooperation in Africa. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Since the birth of the PRC more than 60 years ago, and particularly since 
the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy more than 30 years ago, the 
CPC has led the Chinese people in opening a path of socialism with Chinese 
characteristics. China has made historic progress in its development, becoming 
the second largest economy in the world. China’s comprehensive national 
strength has grown significantly, and our people’s living standards have 
improved markedly. It only took China, a country of over 1.3 billion people, a 
few decades to travel a journey that took developed countries several centuries to 

cover. One can easily imagine how many challenges and difficulties China 
encountered in these years. 

At present, China remains a populous country with a weak economic 
foundation and uneven development. Our aggregate GDP is quite large. 
However, when divided by 1.3 billion, China’s per capita GDP is only around 
the 90th place in the world. Some 128 million Chinese are still living below the 
poverty line set by the United Nations. To provide a decent life for the over 1.3 
billion people, we still have a long way to go, and persistent and strenuous 
efforts are called for. As China continues to develop, its people will surely 
achieve a better life. However, no matter how strong it may grow, China will 
always see in Africa a tried and tested friend. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world or Africa. On 
their part, both the rest of the world and Africa also need China to seek 
prosperity and stability. Though there is a broad ocean between us, China and 
Africa share a strong empathy. We are bound not only by profound traditional 
friendship and closely-linked interests, but also by the dreams we each have. 

More than 1.3 billion Chinese are working hard to realize the Chinese 
Dream of great national renewal, and more than one billion Africans are striving 
to realize the African dream of gaining strength through unity and achieving 
development and rejuvenation. We Chinese and Africans should enhance unity, 
cooperation, mutual support and assistance so as to fulfill our dreams. We should 
also work with the international community to realize the global dream of 
enduring peace and common prosperity, and make a new and even greater 
contribution to the noble cause of peace and development of mankind. 



[1] Habari, Swahili, meaning “Hello.” 

[2] Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) was a Marxist, Chinese proletarian revolutionary, statesman, military 
strategist and diplomat, as well as one of the major leaders of the Communist Party of China and the 
People’s Republic of China, and co-founder of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. 

[3] The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation is a new platform for collective dialogues and 
cooperation between China and African countries - an effective mechanism to promote South-South 
cooperation. The First Ministerial Conference was held in October 2000 in Beijing. The Beijing Summit 
and the Third Ministerial Conference was held in November 2006, also in Beijing, attended by Chinese 
leaders and 48 heads of state and government and representatives from Africa. The Beijing Summit passed 
the Declaration of the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation and Forum on China- 
Africa Cooperation - Beijing Action Plan (2007-2009), confirming a new type of strategic partnership 
between China and Africa. 

[4] Asantenisana, Swahili, meaning “Thank you.” 

Forge a Stronger Partnership Between China and Latin America 

and the Caribbean 

June 5, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the Senate of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Once again, visiting Latin America, a vibrant and promising continent, I am 
all the more convinced that with its rich natural endowment, this continent is 
embracing another golden period of development. We believe that a more 
prosperous Latin America and the Caribbean will benefit both the rest of the 
world and China. 

Our relations with this area have now entered a period of opportunity for 
rapid growth. We should be visionary in approach, keep abreast of the times, 
build on traditional friendship, enhance exchanges in all areas, and upgrade 
cooperation. In so doing, we can forge a stronger partnership of comprehensive 
cooperation featuring equality, mutual benefit and common development. 

Politically, we should treat each other as sincere friends, and continue to 
show understanding and support for each other on issues involving the core 
interests and major concerns of both sides. 

Economically, we should seize opportunities created by the shift of growth 
model on both sides, fully tap cooperation potential, create new cooperation 
modalities, expand converging interests and foster an enduring, stable and 
mutually beneficial business partnership. 

Culturally, we should enhance inter-civilizational dialogue and cultural 
exchanges. As a Chinese saying goes, “One should value not only one’s own 
culture, but also the cultures of others, and this will contribute to the flourishing 
of all cultures.”^ I hope we will develop a mutually reinforcing and exemplary 
relationship of harmony between different civilizations. 

I hope that we will work together to launch the Forum of China-Latin 

America and the Caribbean Cooperation at an early date. We should give full 
rein to our respective strengths, build a strong partnership of comprehensive 
cooperation, and thus contribute more to stability and prosperity in the Asia 
Pacific region. 

As a Chinese proverb goes, “Just as distance tests a horse’s strength, time 
will show a person’s sincerity.” The growth of China-Latin America and the 
Caribbean relations has proved and will continue to prove that ours is an open, 
inclusive, mutually beneficial and cooperative relationship. We are convinced 
that a stronger partnership of comprehensive cooperation will boost the 
development of both sides as well as the peace, stability and prosperity of our 
respective regions and the world as a whole. 


[1] Fei Xiaotong: Appreciating Others’ Cultures and Human Civilizations, Chinese ed., Inner 
Mongolia People’s Publishing House, Hohhot, 2009, p. 262. Fei Xiaotong (1910-2005) was a Chinese 
sociologist, anthropologist and social activist. He served as vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the 
National People’s Congress and vice chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. 

Promote the Silk Road Spirit, Strengthen China-Arab Cooperation 

June 5, 2014 

* Speech at the opening ceremony of the Sixth Ministerial Conference of the China-Arab States 
Cooperation Forum. 

Your Excellency Prime Minister Jaber, 

Secretary-General El Araby of the League of Arab States, 

Heads of delegations, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

Al Salam aleikum^l Good morning! 1 am very happy today to get together 
with our Arab friends and discuss the development of the China-Arab States 
Cooperation Forum (CASCF)^ and China-Arab relations. Let me begin by 
extending, on behalf of the Chinese government and our people and in my own 
name, a warm welcome to all the guests, and let me offer my hearty 
congratulations on the convening of the sixth ministerial conference of the 

Arab friends always feel like old friends to me. This is attributable both to 
the warm and sincere attitude with which we treat each other, and to the long 
history of exchanges between the Chinese and Arab peoples. 

Looking back on the history of exchanges between the Chinese and Arab 
peoples, we immediately think of the land Silk Road and the maritime spice 
route. Our ancestors “crossed the desert for months on end on post-horses,”^ 
and “sailed the oceans day and night,putting themselves at the forefront of 
friendly exchanges between different nations in the ancient world. 

Gan YingJ^, Zheng He, and Ibn Battuta^ were goodwill envoys for China- 
Arab exchanges whom we still remember today. It was by way of the Silk Road 
that China’s four great inventions - paper-making, gunpowder, printing, and the 
compass - were transmitted via the Arab region to Europe, and it was also by 
way of the Silk Road that the Arabs’ astronomy, calendrical system, and 
medicines were introduced to China, marking an important chapter in the history 
of exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations. 

For hundreds of years the spirit embodied by the Silk Road, namely peace 
and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning, and mutual 
benefit, has passed down through the generations. The Chinese and Arab peoples 
have supported each other in maintaining national dignity and safeguarding state 
sovereignty, helped each other in exploring development and achieving national 
rejuvenation, and learned from each other in encouraging people-to-people and 
cultural exchanges and revitalizing national culture. 

We will not forget the promise to support the cause of the Palestinian 
people that China made to the Arab states - with which we had not yet 
established diplomatic relations - at the Bandung Conference^ 60 years ago. 
Nor will we forget the votes cast over 40 years ago by 13 Arab states, together 
with our African friends, for the PRC to regain its UN seat. We will not forget 
the 10,000 Chinese doctors who worked to save lives in the Arab states. Nor will 
we forget the most generous aid China received from our Arab brothers after the 
massive Wenchuan earthquake. 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The next decade will be a crucial period for the development of both China 
and the Arab states. China has entered a decisive phase in its drive to complete 
the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and the 
fulfillment of this goal represents a crucial step towards the Chinese Dream of 
national rejuvenation. To do so, we have made overall plans for driving our 
reform to a deeper level. A key focus of this drive is to develop all-round 
international cooperation within an open economic system of quality and 
vitality, and to expand our common interests with various countries and regions 
in pursuit of mutual benefit. The Middle East is in a phase of unprecedented 
change, and the Arab states are making efforts to seek reform in their own way. 
The challenge of achieving national renewal calls on us to carry forward the Silk 

Road spirit, bolster development and cooperation, and constantly reinforce a 
strategic China-Arab relationship of comprehensive cooperation and common 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to boost mutual learning between 
civilizations. There is no such thing as a good or a bad civilization. Rather, 
different civilizations are enriched through exchange. As a Chinese philosopher 
said, “The matching of different colors leads to greater beauty, and the 
combination of different musical instruments creates harmony and peace. 
China and the Arab states have always viewed each other with an open and 
inclusive attitude, and engaged in dialogues and exchanges rather than conflict 
and confrontation. We have set a good example of harmonious coexistence 
between countries with different social systems, beliefs, and cultural traditions. 
China will never falter in its support for the Arab states in safeguarding their 
national cultural traditions, and will oppose all discrimination and prejudice 
against any ethnic groups and religions. We should work together to advocate 
tolerance towards different civilizations, and prevent extremist forces and ideas 
from creating division between us. 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to respect each other’s choice of 
development path. “People don’t need to wear the same shoes; they should find 
what suit their feet. Governments don’t have to adopt the same model of 
governance; they should find what benefits their people.”^ Whether the path of 
a country is the right one is a matter to be decided by its people. Just as we do 
not expect all flowers to be violets, we cannot demand that countries with 
diverse cultural traditions, historical experiences, and contemporary national 
conditions should adopt the same development mode. That would make for a 
dull world. The Arab states are making their own efforts to explore their own 
development paths. We are willing to share our experience of governance with 
our Arab friends, so that each can draw on the wisdom of the other’s time- 
honored civilization and development mode. 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to focus on mutually beneficial 
cooperation. What China pursues is common development, which means we are 
aiming for a better life for the Chinese people and for the peoples of other 
countries. In the next five years, China’s imports will surpass US$10 trillion- 
worth, and our outward FDI will surpass US$500 billion. In 2013, China’s 

imports from the Arab states were worth US$140 billion, accounting for only 
7% of the annual US$2 trillion in imported goods that China plans for the years 
ahead; and China’s outward FD1 to the Arab states was US$2.2 billion, 
accounting for only 2.2% of the US$100 billion in annual outward FDI that 
China plans for the years ahead. These facts represent an indicator of great 
potential and opportunity. China is happy to connect its own development with 
the development of the Arab states, and to support them in promoting 
employment, industrialization and economic growth. 

To promote the Silk Road spirit, we need to advocate dialogue and peace. 
China firmly supports the Middle East peace process and the establishment of an 
independent State of Palestine, with full sovereignty, based on the 1967 borders, 
and with East Jerusalem as its capital. We hope the parties involved will take 
concrete measures to remove obstacles to peace talks and break the stalemate as 
soon as possible. China respects the reasonable demands of the Syrian people, 
and supports the early adoption of the Geneva communique and the opening of 
an inclusive political transition, to bring about a political resolution to the Syrian 
issue. China is deeply concerned about the humanitarian situation in Syria, and 
will provide a new batch of humanitarian aid to Syrian refugees in Jordan and 
Lebanon to alleviate their plight. China supports the establishment of a Middle 
East nuclear-weapon-free zone, and opposes any attempt to change the political 
landscape of the Middle East. China will play a constructive role in regional 
affairs, speak up for justice, and work with the Arab states to encourage dialogue 
as a way to find the greatest common denominator on issues of concern to all 
parties. We will direct a greater level of diplomatic effort to the proper 
settlement of regional flashpoints. 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The “One Belt and One Road,” namely the Silk Road Economic Belt and 
the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st Century, represent paths towards mutual 
benefit which will bring about closer economic integration among the countries 
involved, promote development of their infrastructure and institutional 
innovation, create new economic and employment growth areas, and enhance 
their capacity to achieve endogenous growth and to protect themselves against 

As friends brought together by the Silk Road, China and the Arab states are 

natural partners in a joint effort to develop the “One Belt and One Road.” 

To develop the “One Belt and One Road,” the two sides need to follow the 
principles of discussion, joint development, and sharing of benefits. 
“Discussion” requires that we pool collective wisdom and carry out relevant 
initiatives through negotiations, so that the interests and concerns of both sides 
are balanced, and the wisdom and ideas of both sides are reflected. “Joint 
development” requires that we give full play to the strengths and potential of 
both sides, so that a combination of efforts will lead to sustained progress. As the 
saying goes, “A tower can be built one stone at a time; a pool can be formed 
from single drops of water.” So we must persist in doing so. “Sharing of 
benefits” requires that both peoples benefit equally from the fruits of 
development, with a view to joining China and the Arab states even more closely 
through our shared interests and destiny. 

To develop the “One Belt and One Road,” the two sides need to be both far¬ 
sighted and down-to-earth. To be far-sighted, we need to produce the optimum 
top-level design, identify our orientation and goals, and establish a “1+2+3” 
cooperation pattern. 

“1” refers to cooperation in energy as the core. We will strengthen 
cooperation in the whole industrial chain of oil and natural gas, safeguard the 
security of energy transport corridors, and establish mutually beneficial, safe and 
reliable strategic cooperation in energy based on long-term friendship. 

“2” refers to “two wings” - one being infrastructure and the other being 
trade and investment. We will strengthen cooperation on major development 
programs and landmark projects for public well-being, and devise relevant 
institutional mechanisms to facilitate bilateral trade and investment. China will 
encourage its enterprises to import more non-oil products from the Arab states 
and optimize its trade structure, in a bid to increase the bilateral trade volume 
from last year’s US$240 billion-worth to US$600 billion-worth in the decade 
ahead. China will also encourage its enterprises to invest in energy, 
petrochemicals, agriculture, manufacturing, and services in the Arab states, 
aiming to increase China’s investment in the non-financial sector in the Arab 
states from last year’s US$10 billion to over US$60 billion in the following 

“3” refers to using three advanced technologies - nuclear energy, space 
satellites and new energy - as breakthrough levers in an effort to raise the level 
of pragmatic China-Arab cooperation. The two sides may discuss the 
establishment of technology transfer centers, jointly develop training centers in 
the Arab states for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and launch programs to 
introduce China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System to the Arab states. 

To be down-to-earth, we need to aim for quick successes. As an Arab 
proverb goes, “Words proved by action are the most powerful.” We need to step 
up negotiations on programs on which consensus has already been reached and 
for which the foundations have been laid - programs such as the Free Trade 
Area between China and the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the 
Gulf, the China-United Arab Emirates Joint Investment Fund, and the Arab 
states’ participation in the preparations for the Asian Infrastructure Investment 
Bank. These programs must be launched as soon as the conditions are ripe. The 
sooner we have substantial results to show from the development of the “One 
Belt and One Road,” the easier it will be to keep the various parties motivated 
and set examples for other programs. 

The two sides need to rely on and enhance the traditional friendship 
between China and the Arab states. The fostering of friendship between the 
peoples of the two sides represents a key foundation and an important element of 
the “One Belt and One Road.” I hereby declare that China and the Arab states 
have decided to designate 2014 and 2015 as Years of China-Arab Friendship and 
to hold a series of friendly exchange events. We are also willing to enhance 
cultural exchanges by hosting arts festivals, to encourage more students to 
engage in social exchanges with the other side such as study, and to strengthen 
cooperation in tourism, aviation, journalism, and publishing. In the next three 
years China will train another 6,000 Arab people in various skills to be applied 
in the Arab states. We will share our experiences of development and poverty 
alleviation with the Arab states, and introduce those of our advanced 
technologies that are suited to their needs. In the next decade, China will 
organize mutual visits and exchanges by 10,000 Chinese and Arab artists, 
promote and support dedicated cooperation between 200 Chinese and Arab 
cultural institutions, and invite and support 500 Arab cultural and artistic 
personages to study in China. 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The establishment of the CASCF was a strategic step taken for the long¬ 
term development of China-Arab relations. After 10 years, the Forum has 
become an effective means by which we are able to enrich the strategic content 
of China-Arab relations and promote pragmatic cooperation between the two 
sides. Our joint efforts to develop the “One Belt and One Road” represent a new 
opportunity and a new starting point for upgrading the Forum. Only by seizing 
this opportunity will we be able to maintain our current progress while ensuring 
sustainable development in the future; and only by starting from this new point 
will we be able to broaden our prospects and give further impetus to 
development. In one sentence, the Forum needs to serve as the basis of and 
support for further development between the two sides. 

We should take the Forum as a lever to enhance communication on policy. 
Instead of sidestepping the differences and problems between us, we need to 
treat each other in a frank and honest way, communicate with each other with 
regard to our respective foreign policies and development strategies, enhance 
political trust, and facilitate coordination strategies, with a view to providing 
policy support for our cooperation. 

We should take the Forum as a lever to extend cooperation in a pragmatic 
fashion. The development initiatives of both sides are mutually complementary. 
We need to promote the sharing of resources on both sides, and talk and 
cooperate with each other with the greatest possible frankness and sincerity. 
Instead of trying to achieve headline-grabbing successes, collective cooperation 
should aim for measures that lay the foundations for long-term development. 

We should take the Forum as a lever to forge ahead with innovation. 
Innovation constitutes the lifeblood of the Forum. The two sides need to adopt 
new ideas, new measures, and new mechanisms in a bid to resolve the 
difficulties that we encounter in pragmatic cooperation, and clear practical 
bottlenecks and unlock potential for cooperation through a spirit of reform and 

Ladies and gentlemen, dear friends, 

The rapid development of China-Arab relations has created a close link in 
the destiny of the peoples of both sides. In Zhejiang Province where I used to 
work, there is a Jordanian businessman named Muhamad who runs a genuine 
Arabian restaurant in Yiwu City, where a lot of Arab business people gather. 
Through bringing genuine Arabian cuisine to Yiwu, he has achieved business 
success in this prosperous Chinese city, and has gone on to marry a Chinese girl 
and settle down in China. Integrating his own goals with the Chinese dream of 
happiness, this young Arab man has built a marvelous life for himself through 
his perseverance - he embodies a perfect combination of the Chinese Dream and 
the Arab Dream. 

Both the Chinese and the Arab nations have created splendid civilizations, 
and both have experienced setbacks amidst the changing times of modern 
history. Therefore, national rejuvenation has become the goal of both sides. Let 
us work shoulder to shoulder to promote the Silk Road spirit, strengthen China- 
Arab cooperation, realize the Chinese Dream and Arab revitalization, and strive 
for the lofty cause of peace and development for humankind! 

 Thank you! 


[1] Al Salam aleikum, Arabic, meaning “Hello.” 

[2] Consisting of China and the 22 member states of the League of Arab States, the China-Arab 
States Cooperation Forum was established on January 30, 2004, aiming at strengthening the dialogue and 
cooperation between China and the Arab states to promote peace and development. 

[3] Fan Ye: The Book of Eastern Han (Hou Han Shu). Fan Ye (398-445) was a historian of the 
Northern and Southern Dynasties. 

[4] Records of the Manifestation of the Goddess ’ Power (Tian Fei Ling Ying Zhi Ji), commonly 
known as the “Inscription by Zheng He,” records the seven voyages by Zheng He to the western ocean 
(Indian Ocean). See note 4, p. 288. 

[5] Gan Ying (dates unknown) was an envoy of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Being sent to the Roman 
Empire in 97, Gan Ying traveled to as far as the Persian Gulf before returning. Although he did not reach 
Rome, his mission served to enhance China’s knowledge of Central Asian countries. 

[6] Ibn Battuta (1304-1377) was a Moroccan explorer. 

[7] The Bandung Conference was a meeting of India, Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), Ceylon (Sri 
Lanka), Pakistan, China, and 23 other Asian and African countries, which took place during April 18-24, 
1955, in Bandung, Indonesia. 

[8] Feng Youlan: “Inscription on the Monument of National Southwestern Associated University,” 

Complete Works of Sansongtang (San Song Tang Quan Ji), Vol. 14, Chinese ed., Henan People’s 
Publishing House, Zhengzhou, 2000, p. 154. Feng Youlan (1895-1990) was a Chinese philosopher and 
historian of philosophy. 

[9] Wei Yuan: Collected Works of Wei Yuan (Wei Yuan Ji). Wei Yuan (1794-1857) was a thinker, 
Confucian classicist, historian, and poet of the Qing Dynasty. 

[10] Shukran, Arabic, meaning “Thank you.” 

Holding talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin in the Kremlin, Moscow, Russia, 
March 22, 2013. 
 - http://www.china.org.cn/china/2014-10/23/content_33853817.htm 

Speaking at the Julius Nyerere International Convention Center in Dar es Salaam, 
Tanzania, March 25, 2013. 

Attending the Fifth BRICS Summit in Durban, South Africa, March 27, 2013. 

With state leaders and heads of international organizations, at the Boao Forum for Asia 
Annual Conference 2013, held in Hainan Province, April 7, 2013. 

Visiting a farming family with his wife, Peng Liyuan, during a state visit to Costa Rica, 
June 3, 2013. 

Attending the Eighth G20 Summit in St. Petersburg, Russia, September 6, 2013. 

Taking part in the 13th SCO Summit in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, September 13, 2013. 

Attending the 21st APEC Economic Leaders ’ Meeting, Bali, Indonesia, October 8, 2013. 

At a state banquet with his wife, Peng Liyuan, in their honor given by King Willem- 
Alexander of the Netherlands at the Royal Palace in Amsterdam, March 22, 2014. 

At the inauguration ceremony, with his wife, Peng Liyuan, of the Center for the Promotion 
of China-Lyons Relations and the Museum of History of Universite Franco-Chinoise, 
during his visit to the original site of the university, Lyons, France, March 26, 2014. 

Hosting a welcoming banquet on behalf of the Chinese government and people at the 
Shanghai International Conference Center for guests attending the Fourth Summit of the 
Conference on Interaction and Confidence-building Measures in Asia, May 20, 2014. 

Multilateral Relations 


Work Hand in Hand for Common Development 

March 27, 2013 

* A keynote speech at the Fifth BRICS Leaders Meeting, Durban, South Africa. 

Your Excellency President Jacob Zuma, 

Your Excellency President Dilma Rousseff, 

Your Excellency President Vladimir Putin, 

Your Excellency Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

It gives me great pleasure to come back to South Africa, the Rainbow 
Nation, after my last visit more than two years ago. I am deeply impressed by 
the warm hospitality of the South African people and their strong support for 
BRICS cooperation. I wish to extend my heartfelt thanks to you, President 
Zuma, and the South African government for the thoughtful arrangements you 
have made for the meeting. 

As an old Chinese saying goes, “Nothing, not even mountains and seas, can 
separate people with common goals and ideals.”^ The five countries from four 
continents are gathering here for the great goal of fostering partnership for 
common development and the noble cause of promoting democracy in 
international relations, and advancing the peace and development of mankind. 
To pursue peace, development and mutually beneficial cooperation is our 
common aspiration and responsibility. 

We should firmly uphold international fairness and justice, and world peace 
and stability. The world today is not peaceful; continually facing new global 
threats and challenges. The BRICS countries love and cherish peace, and we 
share the aspiration of lasting peace in the world, a peaceful and stable social 

environment for all countries and a decent life for all peoples. 

No matter how international situations may unfold, we should stay 
committed to pursuing peaceful development and mutually beneficial 
cooperation. What we need is peace and cooperation, not war and confrontation. 
While pursuing our own interests, we should also accommodate the legitimate 
concerns of other countries. 

No matter how the international setup may evolve, we should stay 
committed to the principles of equality, democracy and inclusiveness. We should 
respect the right of all countries to independently choose their social systems and 
development paths and the diversity of civilizations. Countries, irrespective of 
their size, strength and level of development, are all equal members of the 
international community; the internal affairs of a country should be handled by 
its own people, and international affairs should be managed by all countries 
through consultation. 

No matter how the reform of the global governance system may proceed, 
we should take an active and constructive part in the process of making the 
international order truly just and equitable, and thus provide institutional 
safeguards for world peace and stability. 

We should vigorously promote a global development partnership and work 
for the common prosperity of all countries. A single tree does not make a forest. 
In this era of continuing economic globalization, we BRICS countries should not 
just seek our own development, but also work for the common development of 
all countries. 

We should run our own affairs well by expanding our economy and 
improving the people’s lives, and create new sources of growth for the world 
economy. We should encourage all countries to strengthen coordination of 
macro-economic policies, reform the international monetary and financial 
systems, promote, liberalize, and facilitate trade and investment, and bolster the 
momentum of global economic growth. 

We should work together on setting the international development agenda, 
make full use of the productivity and material resources accumulated by 
mankind, achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals, narrow the North- 

South gap in development, and make global development more balanced. The 
theme of today’s meeting, “Partnership for Development, Integration and 
Industrialization,” is not only the development goal of the BRICS countries, but 
also an important area of cooperation between the BRICS countries and the 
African countries. 

We should forge a strong bond among the BRICS countries through 
building this partnership, advance our cooperation in economy and trade, 
finance, infrastructure, personnel interflow and other fields, and move towards 
the goal of integrated markets, multi-tiered financial, network, land, air and sea 
links, and greater cultural exchanges. 

We should jointly support Africa’s pursuit of stronger growth, accelerated 
integration, and industrialization, and help Africa become a new growth pole in 
the world economy. 

We should reinforce mutually beneficial cooperation and out-comes. We 
still have a long way to go before we can deliver a decent life to the three billion 
people of our countries and fully meet their aspirations for a better life. To 
accomplish this task, we should rely first and foremost on our own efforts, but 
we also need closer cooperation among the BRICS countries. 

We should continue to enhance political trust among our five countries and 
friendship among our peoples, do more to share experiences in governance, and 
jointly promote industrialization, IT application, urbanization and agricultural 
modernization. We should follow the law governing development, foster new 
ideas and meet difficulties head on in pursuing development. We should 
continue to step up coordination and cooperation under the frameworks of the 
United Nations, the G20 and international economic and financial institutions to 
uphold our common interests. 

We should translate our political consensus into concrete actions, actively 
pursue such initiatives as a BRICS development bank and contingent reserve 
arrangement, accelerate practical cooperation in all fields, consolidate the 
economic and social foundation of cooperation, and present a positive image of 
the BRICS countries pursuing both domestic development and international 

It is only five years since the BRICS mechanism was launched, and it is 
still at its initial stage of development. We should run our own affairs well, 
strengthen the cooperative partnership among BRICS countries and improve 
institutional building for BRICS cooperation. Our cause will surely thrive as 
long as we keep firm confidence in our own development paths and in 
cooperation among the BRICS countries, do not flinch from facing risks and are 
not misled by any distraction. 

Dear colleagues, 

I know you all have a keen interest in China’s future development. Looking 
ahead, China will work towards two goals: First, we will double China’s 2010 
GDP and per capita income of urban and rural residents by 2020 and bring about 
a moderately prosperous society in all respects that benefits our population of 
more than one billion. Second, we will build China into a modern socialist 
country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and 
harmonious by 2049, when we mark the centenary of the founding of the 
People’s Republic of China. 

To achieve these two goals, we will continue to make development our top 
priority and economic growth our central task, and promote economic and social 
development. We will put the people’s interests first, strive for all-round 
progress in the economic, political, cultural, social and ecological fields, 
coordinate all aspects of our modernization drive, and make China a beautiful 

Our development endeavor is an open one, as we will remain committed to 
the basic state policy of opening to the outside world and the mutually beneficial 
strategy of opening up and further liberalize our economy. 

Our development endeavor is a cooperative one, as we will work for 
common development, carry out economic and technological cooperation with 
all other countries on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, and promote our 
own development and the common development of all countries through 

To achieve these two goals, we need a sound external environment. China 
will continue to pursue an independent foreign policy of peace and align the 

interests of the Chinese people with those of the peoples of all other countries. 
We will work with other countries to strengthen macro-economic policy 
coordination, oppose protectionism, improve global economic governance and 
boost global growth. 

Dear colleagues, 

Enhancing cooperation with other BRICS countries has always been a 
diplomatic priority for China. Our country will continue to strengthen 
cooperation with the other BRICS countries, improve the structure, and make it 
more productive. The result will be more robust growth for all concerned. This 
will deliver real gains to people of all countries and make a greater contribution 
to world peace and development. 

Thank you! 

Notes 36

[1] Ge Hong: The Master Who Embraces Simplicity (Bao Pu Zi). Ge Hong (c. 281-341), also known 
as Bao Pu Zi, was a minor official during the Eastern Jin Dynasty(317-420). He was best known for his 
interest in Taoism, alchemy and techniques of longevity. Composed of two volumes, the Inner Chapter and 
the Outer Chapter, The Master Who Embraces Simplicity recounts the author’s pursuit of life through 
maintaining health with Taoism and governing the country with Confucianism. 


A Better Future for Asia and the World 

April 7, 2013 

* A keynote speech at the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2013. 

Your Excellencies, Heads of State and Government, Speakers of Parliament, 
Heads of International Organizations, Ministers, 

Members of the Board of Directors of the Boao Forum for Asia, 

Distinguished guests, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

In this balmy season of clear skies and warm, coconut-scented breezes, I am 
so glad to meet all of you at the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2013 
here in Hainan, a picturesque island embraced by the vast ocean. 

Let me begin by extending, on behalf of the Chinese government and 
people and also in my own name, a heartfelt welcome to you and warm 
congratulations on the opening of the Annual Conference of the Boao Forum. 

In the 12 years since its birth, the Boao Forum for Asia has become an 
important forum with growing global influence. In Chinese culture, 12 years 
form a zodiacal cycled In this sense, the Boao Forum has reached a new 
starting point, and I hope it will scale even greater heights. 

The theme of the current annual conference, “Asia Seeking Development 
for All: Restructuring, Responsibility and Cooperation,” is a highly relevant one. 
I hope you will engage in in-depth discussions on promoting development in 
Asia and beyond, thus contributing, with your vision and commitment, to peace, 
stability and prosperity in Asia and the world at large. 

The world today is going through profound and complex changes. 
Countries have become increasingly inter-connected and inter-dependent. 
Several billion people in a large number of developing countries are embracing 
modernization. The trend of the times - peace, development, cooperation and 
mutual benefit - is gaining momentum. 

On the other hand, our world is far from peaceful. Development remains a 
major challenge; the global economy has entered a period of profound 
readjustment, and recovery remains elusive. The international financial sector is 
fraught with risks, protectionism in various forms is on the rise, countries still 
face many difficulties in adjusting their economic structure, and the global 
governance mechanisms call for improvement. It remains an uphill battle for all 
countries to achieve common development. 

Asia is one of the most dynamic and most promising regions in the world, 
and its development is closely connected with that of other continents. Asian 
countries have energetically explored development paths suited to their national 
conditions and greatly boosted global development through their own. Working 
side by side with the rest of the world in a time of difficulty to tackle the 
international financial crisis, Asia has emerged as a major engine driving world 
economic recovery and growth. In recent years, Asia has contributed more than 
50 percent of global growth, instilling much-needed confidence into the rest of 
the world. What is more, Asia’s cooperation with other groupings at regional and 
sub-regional levels has great vitality and promising prospects. 

But we should also be keenly aware that Asia still faces many difficulties 
and challenges in boosting both its own development and joint development with 
other regions. The road ahead is neither smooth nor straight. 

Asia needs to transform and upgrade its development model in keeping 
with the trend of the times. Sustainable development is still of paramount 
importance to Asia, because this holds the key to solving major problems and 
difficulties. It is important that we should shift the growth model, adjust the 
economic structure, make development more cost-effective and improve the 
quality of life. 

We should make concerted efforts to resolve major difficulties to ensure 
stability in Asia, which now faces new challenges, as new flashpoints keep 

emerging, and both traditional and non-traditional security threats exist. Asian 
countries should increase mutual trust and work together to ensure durable peace 
and stability in our region. 

We need to build on past success and promote cooperation in Asia. There 
are many mechanisms and initiatives for enhancing cooperation in Asia, and a 
lot of ideas are being explored by various parties. What we need to do is to 
enhance mutual understanding, build consensus and enrich cooperation so as to 
strike a balance among the interests of the various stakeholders and build 
mechanisms that bring benefits to us all. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

Mankind has only one earth, and it is home to all countries. Common 
development - the very foundation of sustainable development - meets the long¬ 
term and fundamental interests of all the people in the world. As members of the 
same global village, we should foster a sense of community of shared destiny, 
follow the trend of the times, keep to the right direction, stick together in time of 
difficulty and ensure that development in Asia and the rest of the world reaches 
new heights. 

First, we should boldly break new ground and create an irresistible impetus 
for common development. 

Over the years, many countries and regions have developed good practices 
in maintaining stability and promoting growth. We should continue such 
practices. However, nothing in the world remains constant, and, as a Chinese 
saying goes, “A wise man changes his way as circumstances change; a 
knowledgeable person alters his means as times evolve.”^ We should abandon 
our outdated mindsets, break away from the old confines that fetter 
development, and unleash all potentials for development. We should redouble 
our efforts to shift the growth model and adjust the economic structure, raise the 
quality of development and improve the quality of life. We should steadily 
reform the international economic and financial systems, improve global 
governance mechanisms, and ensure sound and stable global economic growth. 
Asia, with its long-standing capacity for adjusting to change, should ride on the 

waves of the times, and make changes in Asia and global development reinforce 
and benefit each other. 

Second, we should work together to uphold peace so as to provide a secure 
environment for common development. 

Peace is the ever-lasting wish of our people. Peace, like air and sunshine, is 
hardly noticed when people enjoy it. But none of us can live without it. Without 
peace, development is out of the question. Countries, big or small, strong or 
weak, rich or poor, should all contribute their share to maintaining and 
enhancing peace. 

Rather than undermining each other’s efforts, we should complement each 
other and work for joint progress. The international community should champion 
the vision of comprehensive, common and cooperative security so as to turn our 
global village into one big platform for common development rather than an 
arena where gladiators fight each other. No one should be allowed to cause 
chaos in any region or even the whole world for selfish gains. 

With growing interaction among countries, problems are inevitable. What is 
important is that countries should resolve differences through dialogue, 
consultation and peaceful negotiation in the broader interest of a sound growth 
of their relations. 

Third, we should boost cooperation as an effective vehicle for enhancing 
common development. 

As we often say in China, a single flower does not make spring, while one 
hundred flowers in full blossom bring spring to the garden. All countries are 
closely linked and share converging interests. They should both pool and share 
their strength. While pursuing its own interests, a country should respect the 
legitimate concerns of others. In pursuing its own development, a country should 
promote the common development of all. We should enhance South-South 
cooperation and North-South dialogue, promote balanced development of the 
developing and developed countries, and consolidate the foundation for 
sustaining stable growth of the global economy. We need to work harder to 
create and upgrade cooperation, deliver more development dividends to our 
people, and contribute more to global growth. 

Fourth, we should remain open and inclusive to broaden the scope for 
enhancing common development. 

The ocean is vast because it is fed by hundreds of rivers. We should respect 
the right of a country to independently choose its social system and development 
path, ease distrust and misgivings, and turn the diversity of our world and 
differences among countries into dynamism and momentum. We should keep an 
open mind, draw upon development practices of other continents, share 
development resources and promote regional cooperation. 

During the first decade and more of the new century, trade within Asia has 
increased from US$800 billion-worth to US$3 trillion-worth, and Asia’s trade 
with other regions has grown from US$1.5 trillion-worth to US$4.8 trillion- 
worth. This demonstrates that cooperation in Asia is open and goes hand in hand 
with Asia’s cooperation with other regions, and that everyone has gained from 
such cooperation. 

Asia should welcome non-Asian countries to play a constructive role in 
ensuring stability and development of the region. Likewise, non-Asian countries 
should respect Asia’s diversity and its long-standing tradition of cooperation. 
This will create a dynamic environment in which Asia and other regions enjoy 
mutually reinforcing progress. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

China is an important member of the Asian family and the global family. 
China cannot develop itself in isolation from the rest of Asia and the world. On 
their part, the rest of Asia and the world cannot enjoy prosperity and stability 
without China. 

Last November, the CPC held its 18th National Congress, which designed 
the blueprint for China’s development in the years to come. The main goals we 
set for China are as follows: 

By 2020, China’s GDP and per capita income for urban and rural residents 
will double the 2010 figures, and the building of a moderately prosperous 

society in all respects will be accomplished. By the mid-21st century, China will 
be turned into a modern, prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and 
harmonious socialist country; and the Chinese Dream - the renewal of the 
Chinese nation, will be realized. Looking ahead, we are full of confidence in 
China’s future. 

Still, we are aware that China remains the world’s largest developing 
country, and it faces many difficulties and challenges. We need to make 
relentless efforts in the years ahead to deliver a better life to all our people. We 
are absolutely committed to reform and opening up, and we will concentrate on 
the major task of shifting the growth model, focus on running our own affairs 
well and endeavor to advance the drive towards socialist modernization. 

As a Chinese proverb goes, “Neighbors wish each other well, just as loved 
ones do to each other.” China will continue to promote friendship and 
partnership with its neighbors, strengthen friendly ties, intensify mutually 
beneficial cooperation and ensure that its development will bring even greater 
gains to its neighbors. 

China will contribute more to development and prosperity in both Asia and 
the world. Since the beginning of the new century, China’s trade with its 
neighbors has grown from US$100 billion-worth to US$1.3 trillion-worth, 
making China the largest trading partner, the biggest export market and a major 
source of investment for many of these countries. 

China’s interests have never been so closely connected with those of the 
rest of Asia and the world as a whole in both scope and depth. Going forward, 
China will maintain its robust growth momentum. Its domestic demand, 
particularly consumption-driven demand, will continue to grow, and its 
outbound investment will increase substantially. It is projected that in the next 
five years, China’s imports will reach some US$10 trillion-worth, and its 
outbound investment will reach US$500 billion-worth. In addition, over 400 
million outbound trips will be made by Chinese tourists. 

The faster China grows, the more development opportunities it will create 
for the rest of Asia and the world. 

We are firm in our resolve to uphold peace and stability in Asia and the 

world. We Chinese deeply cherish peace, as we know too well the agonies 
inflicted upon us by war and turbulence. China will continue to develop by 
securing a peaceful international environment, and at the same time, it will 
uphold and promote world peace through its own development. China will 
continue to properly handle differences and disputes with relevant countries. On 
the basis of defending its sovereignty, security and territorial integrity, China 
will maintain good relations with its neighbors and overall peace and stability in 
our region. China will continue to play a constructive role in addressing regional 
and global flashpoints, encourage dialogue and talks for peace, and work hard to 
solve all issues properly through dialogue and negotiation. 

China will energetically promote regional cooperation in Asia and around 
the world. It will enhance communication with its neighbors, explore the 
building of a regional financing platform, and advance economic integration 
within the region, thus increasing its competitiveness. China will take an active 
part in Asia’s regional cooperation process and promote regional and sub¬ 
regional cooperation with non-Asian regions and countries. 

China will continue to champion and promote trade and investment 
liberalization and facilitation, step up two-way investment with other countries 
and boost cooperation in new priority areas. China firmly supports Asia’s 
opening up and cooperation with other regions for their common development. 
China is committed to narrowing the North-South gap and supports other 
developing countries in their efforts to enhance their capacity for self¬ 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

Promoting good neighborliness is a time-honored tradition of China. To 
enhance peaceful development and mutually beneficial cooperation in Asia and 
the world is a race that has one starting point after another and knows no 
finishing line. We in China are ready to join hands with friends from across the 
world in a concerted effort to create a bright future for both Asia and the world, 
and to deliver real gains to both the peoples of Asia and those of the rest of the 

Finally, 1 wish the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2013 every 

Notes  37 

[1] Shengxiao, the Chinese zodiac - a 12-year cycle. Each year is related to an animal - rat, ox, tiger, 
rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, ram, monkey, rooster, dog and pig. 

[2] See note 1, p. 175. 


Jointly Maintain and Develop an Open World Economy 

September 5, 2013 

* Speech on the world economic situation at the first-stage meeting of the G20 Leaders Summit. 

Your Excellency President Putin, 

Dear colleagues, 

It is a great pleasure to meet you here in beautiful St. Petersburg, and to 
discuss together measures to promote world economic growth and employment. 
First, I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to President Putin and the 
Russian government for your proactive efforts and considerate arrangements in 
making this summit possible! 

At present, the world economy is gradually recovering, and the situation 
continues to develop in a good direction. At the same time, the negative impact 
of the international financial crisis lingers on, and there is still a long way to go 
for global economic recovery. 

The situation decides our tasks, and our actions determine their 
effectiveness. We should take a long-term view, strive to shape a world economy 
in which all countries enjoy development and innovation, growth linkage and 
integration of interests, and firmly maintain and develop an open world 

- Innovative development is necessary for the sustainable growth of the 
world economy. Growth driven by stimulating policies and large-scale and direct 
government intervention in the economy can only treat the symptoms but not the 
disease, while growth at the cost of high energy consumption and environmental 
pollution is even less sustainable. Countries should improve the quality and 
efficiency of economic growth and avoid simply measuring development by the 
GDP growth rate. They should invigorate markets and enhance economic 
competitiveness through active structural reform. 

- Interactive growth is necessary for the sturdy growth of the world 
economy. A vibrant world economy depends on the joint growth of all countries, 
which should be aware of the commonality of their destinies, and gain a really 
clear understanding of the linkage effect, that is, “benefit to one means benefit to 
all, whereas harm to one means harm to all.” We should cooperate while 
competing, and achieve mutually beneficial results through cooperation. We 
should take into consideration the interests of other countries when pursuing our 
own national interests, and take into consideration the development of other 
countries when seeking our own development. Mutual help between different 
countries in solving salient problems is the objective requirement of world 
economic development. Every country should be able to create a linkage 
between its own development and that of other countries, and to bring to each 
other positive instead of negative spillover effects. 

- Convergence of interests is necessary for the balanced growth of the 
world economy. Balanced growth is not a zero-sum game that transfers growth 
from one country to another, but a growth entailing shared welfare. Countries 
should give full play to their comparative advantages, work together to optimize 
global resource allocation, improve the layout of global industry, build a global 
value chain that shares interests equally, and foster a big global market that 
benefits all parties, so as to achieve mutually beneficial development. 

To shape a world economy of this kind, all G20 members need to build a 
closer economic partnership, and to shoulder their due responsibilities. 

First, they need to adopt responsible macro-economic policies. The major 
economies should take care of their own matters and ensure that their own 
economies are sound. This is our basic responsibility. We should improve the 
macro-economic policy coordination mechanism, and strengthen communication 
and coordination. 

Macro- and micro-economic policies and social policies must be integrated. 
All countries should support economic policies with social ones, and create 
favorable conditions for the implementation of macro and micro-economic 
policies. The decision of the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank 
Governors’ Meeting and G20 Fabor and Employment Ministers’ Meeting to 
strengthen coordination between economic and employment policies is correct, 
and we should stick to it firmly. 

In this regard, China adopts its economic policies not only for the good of 
its own economy, but for the good of the world economy as well. China’s 
economic fundamentals are good. In the first half of this year its GDP grew by 
7.6%. Nonetheless, China also faces such problems as high local government 
debt and excessive production capacity in some industries. These problems are 
controllable, and we are taking measures to address them. 

We have realized that to solve the root problems in our long-term economic 
development we must firmly streamline our economic structure, even if we have 
to slow down the growth rate a bit. Any undertaking needs comprehensive and 
far-sighted thinking. A development model resembling killing a goose to get its 
golden eggs or draining the pond to catch the fish cannot be sustainable. 

China’s economy is highly integrated with the world economy. A China 
that enjoys more stable, higher-quality and more sustainable growth is conducive 
to the long-term economic growth of the world as a whole. China has the 
conditions and ability to achieve sustainable and healthy economic development, 
and produce more positive spillover effects for the world economy. 

Second, we must safeguard and develop an open world economy. “A single 
flower does not make spring while one hundred flowers in full blossom bring 
spring to the garden.” Countries will grow if their economies are open, and 
conversely decline if their economies are closed. We must follow the tide of the 
times, oppose all forms of protectionism, and make good use of international and 
domestic markets and resources. 

We should maintain a free, open and non-discriminatory multilateral 
trading system. We should avoid making exclusive trade standards, rules and 
systems, so as to prevent the segregation of the global market and the 
disintegration of trade systems. We should improve the global investment rules, 
guide the rational flow of global development capital and use development 
resources more effectively. 

Third, we must improve global economic governance, and make it fairer 
and more just. The G20 is an important platform for developed and developing 
countries to engage in consultations on international economic affairs. We 
should build the G20 into an important force for stabilizing the world economy, 
weave an international financial safety net and improve global economic 


We should continue the reform of international financial institutions. The 
relevant countries should further push forward the implementation of the plan 
for reforming the management of the International Monetary Fund and for 
making a new sharing formula that reflects the weight of the economic aggregate 
of the different countries in the world economy, and continue to strengthen 
oversight concerning the international financial market, so that the financial 
system will depend on, serve and promote the development of the real economy 
in a sound way. The relevant countries should build a stable and risk-resistant 
international monetary system, reform the basket of currencies for Special 
Drawing Rights, strengthen the connections between international and regional 
financial cooperation mechanisms, and build a “firewall” against financial risks. 

China supports the strengthening of multilateral cooperation against tax 
evasion, and is keen to contribute its share towards international tax governance. 

I would like to stress that, in order to promote the sustainable and healthy 
development of its economy and society, China will resolutely carry its reform 
forward. We are conducting overall research into comprehensively continuing 
the reform to a deeper level, so as to streamline the structures in the economic, 
political, cultural, social and ecological sectors through overall planning, further 
release and develop social productivity, and give full play to the creativity of the 
whole of our society. 

China will build a stronger market system, streamline the structures in the 
fields of macro-economic regulation and control, taxation, finance, investment, 
administration and other fields, and give full play to the basic role of the market 
in resource allocation. 

China will further the reform of the marketization of interest and exchange 
rates, to increase the flexibility of the Renminbi exchange rate, and gradually 
make the Renminbi capital account convertible. 

China will adhere to the opening-up strategy of mutual benefit, continue to 
streamline the structures of investment and trade, improve relevant laws and 
regulations, create a legal environment of fair operations for foreign companies 
in China, and resolve trade disputes with relevant countries through 


Dear colleagues, 

As long as we work together and build a closer partnership, the G20 will 
enjoy more stable, better and further development, and the people of all 
countries will have more confidence in the world economy and in our future life. 

Thank you! 


Carry Forward the “Shanghai Spirit” and Promote Common Development 

September 13, 2013 

* Speech at the 13th meeting of the Council of Heads of Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation 
Organization in Bis hk ek. 

Your Excellency President Almazbek Atambayev, 

Dear colleagues, 

It gives me great pleasure to attend the Bishkek Summit of the Shanghai 
Cooperation Organization. I would like to thank Kyrgyzstan, the SCO 
Presidency, for your meticulous preparations and thoughtful arrangements for 
the success of this summit. China commends Kyrgyzstan for your enormous and 
effective efforts over the past year for the SCO’s development. 

In light of the latest developments in the international and regional situation 
and in response to the common aspirations of member states for stability, growth 
and better lives for their peoples, this summit has focused on the implementation 
of the Treaty of Long-term Good-neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation. It 
will ratify the Plan of Action of the Treaty and map out the blueprint for the 
development of the SCO in the next five years. These efforts will offer broader 
prospects for the organization. 

Just as the SCO enjoys precious opportunities for development, it also faces 
severe challenges. The “three forces” of terrorism, separatism and extremism all 
pose threats to the security and stability of this region as do drug trafficking and 
transnational organized crime. The international financial crisis has caused 
varying degrees of economic difficulties for countries in this region, leaving 
them in a period of adjustment and recovery. 

Challenges such as these are more than any one country can handle alone. 
We must therefore enhance cooperation and unite to become stronger. And in 

this regard, I would like to suggest that we do the following. 

First, we should carry forward the “Shanghai Spirit.”^ To implement the 
“Shanghai Spirit,” we should build up trust among member states and conduct 
mutually beneficial cooperation based on equality, consultation, mutual 
understanding and mutual accommodation. This conforms to the trend of peace 
and development of the times and accords with the interests and aspirations of 
the people of the member states. 

We should implement the Treaty of Long-term Good-neighborliness, 
Friendship and Cooperation with real actions and promote cooperation 
wholeheartedly in all fields within the SCO framework, so that member states 
will become good neighbors living in harmony, good friends pulling together in 
troubled waters and good partners sharing weal and woe. 

Second, we should jointly safeguard regional security and stability. A 
secure and stable environment is a prerequisite for mutually beneficial 
cooperation, and common development and prosperity. We should implement 
the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism 
and the Program of Cooperation, improve the system of law enforcement and 
security cooperation of the SCO, entrust the regional counter-terrorism structure 
with responsibility for anti-narcotics operations, and on this basis establish a 
center for comprehensive responses to security threats and challenges. 

The relevant authorities within the member states should also open up a 
channel for routine communication, and explore ways to act and work together 
to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism so as to create a sound working 
and living environment for the peoples of this region. 

Afghanistan is an observer of the SCO, and its situation is closely related to 
regional security and stability. The SCO should support it in national 
reconciliation, help it realize peace and stability as soon as possible, and 
safeguard regional security. 

Third, we should focus on practical cooperation. This is the material basis 
and main driver for the SCO’s development. All the six member states and the 
five observers are located along the route of the ancient Silk Road. As such, we 
are all duty-bound to carry forward the Silk Road spirit by taking the following 


Number one, open up new transport and logistics routes. The member states 
could move speedily to sign the Agreement on the Facilitation of International 
Road Transport. Once signed, the agreement would be open for wide observer 
participation on a voluntary basis so that the participating countries could build 
unimpeded transport corridors connecting the Baltic with the Pacific and 
connecting Central Asia with both the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. 

Number two, explore a trade and investment facilitation agreement. 
Extensive trade and investment cooperation with full consideration for the 
interests and concerns of all parties would allow us to thoroughly unlock the 
potential for cooperation among member states and achieve mutual 
complementarity in the interest of our common development and prosperity. 

Number three, step up cooperation in the financial sector. We should 
establish an SCO development bank which would provide funding guarantees 
and serve as a settlement platform for the organization’s infrastructure 
development and collaborative economic and trade projects. In the meantime, 
the SCO should set up a special account to ensure funding for project studies, 
exchanges and training within its framework. We should make full use of the 
inter-bank consortium to intensify exchanges and cooperation between financial 
institutions of the countries in this region. 

Number four, establish an energy club. This would help us coordinate 
energy cooperation within the SCO framework, secure stable supply and 
demand, ensure energy security, and, on top of these, encourage extensive 
cooperation in such areas as energy efficiency and new energy sources. 

Number five, put in place a cooperation mechanism for food security. We 
should enhance cooperation in agricultural production, agrotrade and food safety 
to ensure greater food security. 

Last but not least, we should intensify people-to-people and cultural 
exchanges to build strong public support and a social foundation for the SCO’s 
future development. We should promote cooperation in a wide range of areas 
such as culture, education, film and TV, health, sports and tourism. 

At the Beijing Summit, China announced a ten-year program of 30,000 
government scholarships for the other member states. We are ready to work 
closely with the other member states to maximize the benefit of this program. 

China will also establish a China-SCO base for international judicial 
exchanges, cooperation and training at Shanghai University of Political Science 
and Law. We would like to make it a platform for training judicial professionals 
for the other member states. 

Traditional medicine is a new area of cooperation. China stands ready to 
join hands with the other member states in building medical institutions 
specializing in traditional Chinese medicine to make full use of such resources 
for the benefit of the people of our member states. 

China has taken the lead in establishing an SCO Committee on Good¬ 
neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation in line with a consensus among the 
parties concerned. We hope that all fellow member states and observer countries 
will establish similar organizations for the purpose of enhancing mutual 
understanding and traditional friendship among our peoples. 

The Bishkek Declaration clarifies the stand of member states on the Syrian 
issue. Here 1 would like to reiterate that China pays close attention to the Syrian 
situation, supports the international community’s drive for a cease-fire and peace 
talks, and calls on both sides of the Syrian conflict to work out a political 
solution to the crisis. China supports Russia’s proposal that Syria surrender its 
chemical weapons to international control for their eventual destruction. China is 
ready to enhance communication and coordination with related parties through 
the UN Security Council, and will continue its unremitting efforts in facilitating 
a political settlement. 

Thank you! 

Notes 38

[1] The essence of the “Shanghai Spirit” is: mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, cooperation, 
respect for diverse civilizations and seeking common development. It was proposed by China’s then 
President Jiang Zemin in June 2001 at the founding meeting of the SCO, and was written into the 
Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. 


Work Together for a Better Asia Pacific 

October 7, 2013 

* Speech at the APEC CEO Summit, Bali, Indonesia. 

Distinguished Chairman Wishnu Wardhana, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

It is a great pleasure for me to have the opportunity to join you, 
distinguished representatives of the Asia Pacific business community, in this 
island paradise. 

Bali is not only a world-renowned tourist attraction, but also the birthplace 
of the Bali Process and the Bali Road Map. And now, hosting the APEC 
Economic Leaders’ Meeting, Bali carries the expectations of Asia Pacific and 
the rest of the world. 

The world economy is still struggling towards recovery, and the Asia 
Pacific economy, while enjoying positive growth, is confronted with new 
challenges. People around the world are looking to this year’s APEC meeting to 
give new impetus to regional and global economic growth. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

The world economy is still in the middle of profound readjustment. While 
there are signs of recovery, there are also problems of fragile foundations, 
inadequate momentum and uneven pace. Major developed economies are far 
from resolving their structural problems, making it all the more necessary to 
strengthen macro-economic policy coordination. Emerging market economies 
have slowed down, and now face more external risks and challenges. The WTO 

Doha Round negotiations are fraught with difficulty, and trade and investment 
protectionism is resurfacing in new forms. To achieve a full recovery and 
healthy growth of the world economy will be a long and tortuous process. 

Confronted with these new challenges, both developed and developing 
economies are looking for new drivers of growth. 

Where can we find them? In my opinion, they can only be found through 
reform, readjustment and innovation. The Asia Pacific region has long been an 
important engine of world economic growth. To push for a recovery in the 
sluggish world economy, economies in the Asia Pacific region should have the 
courage to do what has never been done before and build an open growth mode 
featuring innovative development, interactive growth and converging interests. 
Only by so doing can the Asia Pacific economies play a leading role in the 
recovery of the world economy. A Chinese poem runs, “When one doubts 
whether there is a way out from the endless mountains and rivers, one suddenly 
finds a village shaded by soft willows and bright flowers.”^ 

This is exactly what China is doing. China’s economy grew at a rate of 
7.6% in the first half of this year. This is, indeed, somewhat lower than the 
previous growth rate of over 8%, which has caused worries about the prospects 
for the Chinese economy. Some wonder whether there will be a hard landing, 
whether sustainable, healthy growth is still possible, how China will deal with 
this situation, and what impact this will have on the Asia Pacific region. Here I 
wish to share with you some of my observations. 

To begin with, I want to emphasize that based on a comprehensive analysis 
of all factors, I am fully confident about the future of China’s economy. 

I am confident because first of all China’s growth rate is within a 
reasonable and expected range. From the previous double-digit growth rate to 
9.3% in 2011, 7.8% last year and 7.6% in the first six months of this year, the 
change in pace of growth has on the whole been smooth. In fact, the growth rate 
of 7.6% makes the Chinese economy the fastest growing among all major 
economies. The fundamentals of the Chinese economy are good; GDP growth 
and other major economic indicators are within the expected range. So 
everything has been going as expected, and nothing has come as a surprise. 

The slowdown of the Chinese economy is an intended result of our own 
regulatory initiatives. This is because, according to a thorough calculation done 
at the time we set our mid- and long-term development goals to double the 2010 
GDP and per capita income by 2020, it is judged that a 7% annual growth rate 
would suffice. Moreover, we have recognized that to ensure long-term economic 
development China has to press ahead with structural reform, even if this 
requires some sacrifice of pace. In whatever undertaking, one has to look far and 
plan wisely to take care of both short- and long-term needs. Killing the goose to 
get the eggs or draining the pond to catch the fish is no formula for sustainable 

Second, I am confident because the quality and efficiency of China’s 
economic development are improving steadily. China’s economy in the first six 
months of this year has generally made smooth progress. By “smooth” I mean 
our economic growth has been within a reasonable range, and by “progress” I 
mean the shift of our growth mode has picked up pace. China is moving from 
over-reliance on investment and export in the past to increased dependence on 
domestic demand, especially on consumption. The economic figures for the first 
half of this year show an increasingly visible role of structural adjustment in 
boosting growth. Domestic demand has contributed 7.5 percentage points to the 
GDP growth, with 3.4 percentage points coming from consumption. We no 
longer take the GDP growth rate as the sole criterion for success; instead, we are 
focusing more on improving the quality and efficiency of growth. This has 
proved a responsible approach for both China and the rest of the world. 

Third, I am confident because China has a strong domestic driving force for 
growth. This force is increasing and will continue to get stronger. The ongoing 
process of a new type of urbanization will create space for hundreds of millions 
of Chinese to move from villages to cities in pursuit of a better life. The 
improvement of education in China will bring about a modern, professional 
workforce of higher caliber, broader vision and better skills. China’s vigorous 
implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy will more closely 
link science and technology with economic growth, and foster innovation and 
emerging industries. The continued expansion of domestic demand and 
consumer market in China will unlock considerable potential for growth. And, 
above all, China is committed to putting people first and making development 
benefits accessible to more people across the country. All these will translate 

into a strong home-grown force for our economic advance. 

Fourth, I am confident because the Asia Pacific region enjoys sound 
development prospects. Thanks to the concerted efforts of all its economies, the 
Asia Pacific region boasts a high level of free movement of capital, information 
and people, and an increasingly clear division of labor. A substantial Asia 
Pacific market is emerging. The new scientific and industrial revolution that is 
now in the making will add to the existing strength of the region. The Asia 
Pacific economies are also in a much better position to fend off risks, with more 
flexible exchange rate schemes, notably larger foreign exchange reserves and 
various multilateral and bilateral financial arrangements providing institutional 
protection. China has faith in the development prospects of the Asia Pacific 
region. Benefiting from overall economic growth in the region, China has 
achieved its own development. At the same time, China’s development has also 
contributed to regional economic growth. I believe that such interaction will gain 
even stronger momentum, thus creating more opportunities for the development 
of the whole region. 

1 am firmly convinced that the Chinese economy will maintain its sound 
growth. At the same time, we are soberly aware of potential problems and 
challenges from falling demand, production overcapacity, local debts and 
shadow banking, and we are paying close attention to possible impacts from 
external forces. In this connection, we are taking prudent and proper measures to 
forestall any potential problems. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

The Chinese economy has entered a new development stage. Its growth 
mode and structural readjustment are undergoing profound transformation. In 
this process, there will inevitably be one challenge after another. Efforts to meet 
these challenges will be accompanied by the throes of readjustment and other 
troubles in the development process, which will prove to be unavoidable. 

Rainbows mostly appear after wind and rain. As someone aptly put it, “No 
mountain is too high for a man to scale and no road too long for a man to walk.” 
However high the mountain may be or however long the road may seem, we will 

be able to get there as long as we stay the course and keep moving forward. 

If China is to make progress, it must drive all-round reform and opening up 
to a deeper level. To live up to the new expectations of our people, we must, 
with firm confidence in reform and opening up, greater political courage and 
wisdom, and stronger measures to advance reform and opening up, free our 
minds, unleash and develop social productivity, and unlock and enhance the 
creative forces of society. 

China is drawing up a master plan for the continuation of reform in all 
respects. Our general approach is to press ahead with reform in the economic, 
political, cultural, social and ecological fields in a balanced manner, address the 
challenges cropping up in the course of development, remove institutional 
obstacles to sustainable and healthy economic growth, and create a new impetus 
for economic development through reform. 

We will improve our basic economic system, strengthen the market system, 
advance institutional reform in macro regulation, fiscal and tax systems, 
financial sectors and investment, extend the market-oriented reform of interest 
rates and the exchange rate, make the RMB exchange rate more flexible, and 
achieve, over time, the convertibility of the Renminbi under the capital account. 
We will continue to reform the administration system, transform the functions of 
the government, streamline government and delegate powers, in order to have a 
clearly defined relationship between the government and the market and let the 
market play its basic role in allocating resources to a greater degree and in a 
wider scope. We will improve the management of science and technology, 
enhance innovation capability, and build a system for technological innovation 
which is led by enterprises and guided by the market and which integrates the 
efforts of enterprises, universities and research institutes. We will ensure and 
improve standards of living on a priority basis, promote social equity and justice, 
achieve higher quality employment, further the reform of income distribution, 
and improve social security and basic public services. We will step up 
environmental protection and resource conservation to create a good working 
and living environment for our people and respond to global climate change. 

We will follow a more proactive opening-up strategy, improve the open 
economy which is mutually beneficial, diversified, balanced, secure and 
efficient, encourage coastal, inland and border areas to draw on each other’s 

strengths in opening up, develop open areas that take the lead in global economic 
cooperation and competition, and establish pilot open areas that drive regional 
development. We will continue to attach equal importance to export and import, 
and promote balance in foreign trade. We will attract foreign investment and 
encourage companies to “go global” at the same time, and enhance international 
investment cooperation. We will promote investment- and trade-related 
institutional reforms, and improve relevant legislation to create a legal 
environment in which foreign companies in China can operate in a fair manner. 
We will make overall planning for bilateral, multilateral, regional and sub¬ 
regional opening up and cooperation, accelerate the implementation of the FTA 
strategy, and promote communication and exchanges with our neighboring 

We are aware that the reform is a profound revolution that involves 
adjustment of major interests and improvement of systems and institutions in 
various fields. China’s reform is sailing in uncharted waters with tough 
challenges. The problems we face in the current phase of reform are especially 
difficult. It is extremely important that we press ahead without letting up. If we 
hesitate and become indecisive, we will not be able to make breakthroughs, and 
all our previous gains may be lost. 

China is a big country. We cannot afford any drastic mistake on issues of 
fundamental importance, as damage from such mistakes will be beyond remedy. 
Our position is that we must be both bold enough to explore and advance, and 
prudent in carefully planning our actions. We will stick to the right direction and 
press ahead with reform and opening up. We will have the courage to crack the 
“hard nuts,” navigate the uncharted waters and take on the deep-rooted problems 
that have piled up over the years. We must not stop our pursuit of reform and 
opening up - not for one moment. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

The nations of the Asia Pacific region are a big family, and China is one of 
the members. China cannot develop in isolation from the Asia Pacific region 
while the Asia Pacific region cannot prosper without China. Sustainable and 
healthy development of the Chinese economy will bring greater opportunities to 

the development of the region. 

China will firmly uphold regional peace and stability, and help cement the 
foundations for a mutually beneficial situation in the Asia Pacific region. 1 want 
to repeat what 1 noted at the Boao Forum for Asia and other events this year: 
“Peace, like air and sunshine, is hardly noticed when people are enjoying it. But 
none of us can live without it.” Without peace, development is out of the 
question, like water without a source and a tree without roots. We Chinese often 
say, “A family in harmony prospers.” As a member of the Asia Pacific family, 
China is ready to live in amity with other family members, which help each 
other. We hope that all members of the Asia Pacific family will cherish the 
peace and stability we now enjoy, which has not come easily, and will work 
together for a harmonious Asia Pacific of enduring peace and common 

China will work energetically to boost regional development and 
prosperity, and broaden opportunities for mutual benefit in the Asia Pacific 
region. China is the biggest trading partner, largest export market and a major 
source of investment for many Asia Pacific region economies. In 2012 China 
accounted for more than 50% of Asia’s economic growth. By the end of the 
same year China had approved more than 760,000 foreign commercial 
investments, and attracted around US$1.3 trillion in foreign direct investment. 
China has signed 12 free trade agreements with 20 countries and regions, with 
six more under negotiation. Most of China’s free trade partners are APEC 
members. In the coming five years, China will import over US$10 trillion-worth 
of goods, invest over US$500 billion overseas and send over 400 million tourists 
abroad. China’s growing domestic demand, particularly consumption and 
investment demand, will offer foreign investors more opportunities for 

China will commit itself to building a cross-Pacific regional cooperation 
framework that benefits all parties. The vast Pacific is free of natural barriers, 
and we should not erect any man-made ones. We should let APEC lead and 
coordinate our actions, and uphold the approach of openness, inclusiveness and 
mutual benefit. We should enhance coordination on macro-economic policies 
and regional free trade arrangements, promote regional integration, and avoid the 
Spaghetti Bowl effect, so as to build closer partnerships across the Pacific and 
jointly pursue long-term development of Asia Pacific. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

“Boundless is the ocean where we sail with the wind.”^ Like a vast ocean, 
the Asia Pacific region offers enough space for us to make progress together. 
Each and every APEC member has a stake in the future development of this 

China has high hopes for this year’s APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting. 
We stand ready to work with our partners in the region to build a beautiful Asia 
Pacific that leads the world, benefits all parties, and ensures the well-being of 
future generations. With this in mind, I would like to share with you my vision 
for the Asia Pacific region in four aspects. 

First, an Asia Pacific region that seeks common development. The Asia 
Pacific economies have close ties and shared interests. We should draw upon our 
respective strengths, optimize the allocation of economic resources, improve the 
industrial layout, and build an Asia Pacific value chain and a large-scale Asia 
Pacific market where benefits are shared by all. The developed economies 
should provide stronger support and assistance to the developing ones, while the 
latter should for their part work hard to catch up. Only by narrowing the 
development gap can we all rise with the tide of development in this region. 

Second, an Asia Pacific region that stays committed to open development. 
The end of World War 11 was followed by an economic boom of more than 25 
years in 13 economies around the world. One common feature of the economies 
was their opening-up policy. We should follow the trend of the times, uphold a 
multilateral trading system that is free, open and non-discriminatory, and oppose 
all forms of protectionism. We should work together in building an open 
economy and a framework for regional cooperation, and, in an open and 
inclusive spirit, build the Asia Pacific region into a free trade area. 

Third, an Asia Pacific region that promotes innovation-driven development. 
Growth will be unsustainable if it is solely driven by fiscal stimulus measures 
and unconventional monetary policies, and will be too costly if it is based on 
excessive consumption of resources and achieved at the expense of the 

environment. We need innovation in both theory and practice of development. 
We should abandon outdated mindsets, break away from old confines, and 
pursue green, circular and low-carbon development. We should continue to 
improve our capability in innovation so as to foster emerging industries, explore 
new forces for growth, and enhance core competitiveness. 

Fourth, an Asia Pacific region that pursues interactive growth. The Asia 
Pacific economies are interdependent, with shared interests and a common 
destiny. The success or failure of one may ultimately lead to the success or 
failure of all. In this chain of dynamic interactions, one economy’s development 
will have a knock-on effect on other economies. We should strengthen the sense 
of community and of common destiny, contribute to others’ development with 
our own, tap fully into our respective strengths through coordination and 
interaction, pass on positive energy, and achieve sound interactions and 
coordinated development among all the Asia Pacific economies. 

At present, the Asian countries, especially emerging markets and 
developing countries, are in great need of infrastructure. Particularly in the face 
of such severe challenges as mounting downward pressure and financial 
volatility, it is necessary for us to mobilize more funds for infrastructural 
development to maintain sustained and steady economic growth and promote 
economic integration in the region. To this end, we propose to establish an Asian 
infrastructure investment bank to help fund the infrastructural development of 
ASEAN countries and other developing countries in the region. This proposed 
bank would work together with the existing multilateral development banks in 
and outside the region to fuel the sustainable and steady growth of the Asian 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

The business community is a major force for the development of economy 
and trade as well as an integral part of APEC cooperation. China places great 
importance on the role of the business community. We are ready to hear your 
views and suggestions, and facilitate your deeper and more rapid engagement, 
especially that of SMEs and micro businesses, in economic development and 
regional cooperation. 

Last August China’s business community established an APEC China 
Business Council. This provides an institutional guarantee for the business 
sector’s further involvement in formulating economic and trade rules of the Asia 
Pacific region, and demonstrates the readiness of China’s business community to 
undertake more international responsibilities. 

More friends, more opportunities. Many of you present here are old friends 
of the Chinese people who have participated in all China’s reform and opening- 
up endeavors. We will never forget our old friends, and we will be most happy 
to make new ones. China welcomes and encourages businesses from all 
economies, APEC members in particular, to invest and do business in China and 
take an active part in China’s reform and opening up. The more friends we have, 
the more China’s reform and opening up will thrive and prosper. 

1 hope friends from the business community will make full use of APEC as 
a platform to make your voices heard on how to improve trade and investment 
environment in the Asia Pacific region, and, with your strength in market 
information, technology incubation and innovative capability, put forward 
strategic and progressive suggestions for promoting trade and investment 
liberalization and facilitation, deepening regional economic integration and the 
future development of APEC. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

China will host the 2014 APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting and the related 
events. Taking this opportunity and focusing on the future of APEC, we will 
seek to build closer partnerships, further pragmatic cooperation, and enhance the 
leading role of APEC in shaping the long-term development vision of the Asia 
Pacific region. 

1 hope that all of you, friends from the Asia Pacific business community, 
will meet in Beijing then for discussions and witness another important moment 
in the development of the Asia Pacific region. 

Thank you! 

Notes 39

[1] Lu You: Visiting a Mountain Village. Lu You (1125-1210) was a poet of the Southern Song 
Dynasty (1127-1279). 

[2] Shang Yan: Farewell to a Korean Hermit Returning Home. Shang Yan (date unknown) was a 
poet of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). 


New Approach for Asian Security Cooperation 

May 21, 2014 

* Speech at the Fourth Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures 
in Asia. 

Distinguished guests, 

Dear colleagues, 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

I would like to thank Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu, Special 
Representative of the Turkish President, for his address. China has assumed the 
chairmanship of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building 
Measures in Asia (CICA), so please allow me to take this opportunity to express 
heartfelt thanks to all sides, in particular Kazakhstan, the initiator of the CICA, 
and Turkey, the previous chair of the CICA, for your trust and support. 

Now, let me make some observations on behalf of the People’s Republic of 

The summit today has brought together leaders and representatives from 47 
countries and international organizations, including CICA member states, 
observers and invited guests of the Shanghai Summit. Under the theme 
“Enhancing Dialogue, Trust and Coordination for a New Asia of Peace, Stability 
and Cooperation,” we will discuss the important subject of security cooperation, 
explore policies for long-term peace and stability, and jointly promote 
development and prosperity. As such, this summit is of great importance to 
security in Asia and the world at large, and will have far-reaching consequences. 

Asia today is home to 67% of the world’s population, and accounts for one 
third of the global economy. It is a place where diverse civilizations and nations 

meet and interact. Peace and development in Asia are closely connected with the 
future of mankind, and Asia’s stability and revival are a blessing to the peace 
and development of the rest of the world. 

Asia today, though facing risks and challenges, is still the most dynamic 
and promising region in the world. Peace, development and mutually beneficial 
cooperation are the main trend in the region, and countries in the region 
generally prefer policies that address differences and disputes through 
consultation and negotiation. Asia enjoys a rising status in the international 
strategic landscape, and plays an increasingly important role in promoting a 
multi-polar world and democracy in international relations. Such a healthy 
situation in the region has not come easily and ought to be doubly cherished. 

Asia today is engaged in vibrant cooperation in the economic field. 
Cooperation in the security field is making progress despite difficulties, and 
various cooperation mechanisms are becoming more dynamic. Asia has come to 
a crucial stage in security cooperation at which we need to build on past 
achievements and strive for new progress. 

As a Chinese saying goes, “A wise man changes his way as circumstances 
change; a knowledgeable person alters his means as times evolve.”^ We need to 
keep pace with changing circumstances and evolving times. One cannot live in 
the 21st century with the outdated thinking of the era of the Cold War and zero- 
sum game. We believe that it is necessary to advocate common, comprehensive, 
cooperative and sustainable security in Asia. We need to innovate our security 
concept, establish a new regional security cooperation architecture, and jointly 
build a road towards security in Asia that is shared by and of benefit to all. 

Common security means respecting and ensuring the security of each and 
every country. Asia is a region of great diversity. The countries there differ in 
size, wealth and strength. They vary in historical and cultural traditions as well 
as social systems, and have different security interests and aspirations. However, 
we are all part of the same Asian family. With our interests and security so 
closely intertwined, we will sink or swim together, and we are increasingly 
becoming a community of common destiny. 

Security must be universal. We cannot have the security of just one or a few 
countries while leaving the rest insecure, in no way can we accept the so-called 

absolute security of one at the expense of the security of others. Otherwise, just 
as a Kazakh proverb aptly puts it, “One who tries to blow out another’s oil lamp 
will get his beard singed.” 

Security must be equal. Every country has the equal right to participate in 
the security affairs of the region as well as the responsibility for upholding 
regional security. No country should attempt to dominate regional security 
affairs or infringe upon the legitimate rights and interests of other countries. 

Security must be inclusive. We should turn Asia’s diversity and the 
differences among Asian countries into a vital driving force for regional security 
cooperation. We should abide by the basic norms governing international 
relations such as respecting sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity 
and non-interference in internal affairs, respect the social systems and 
development paths chosen by individual countries, and fully respect and 
accommodate the legitimate security concerns of all parties. To buttress and 
entrench a military alliance targeted at a third party is not conducive to common 

Comprehensive security means upholding security in both traditional and 
non-traditional fields. Asia’s security challenges are extremely complicated, and 
include a range of flashpoints and sensitive issues, as well as ethnic and religious 
problems. The challenges brought by terrorism, transnational crime, 
environmental safety, cyber security, energy and resource security, and major 
natural disasters are clearly on the rise. Traditional and non-traditional security 
threats are interwoven. Security is a growing issue in both scope and implication. 

We should take full account of the historical background and reality of 
Asia’s security issues, adopt a multi-pronged and holistic approach, and enhance 
regional security governance in a coordinated way. While tackling the 
immediate security challenges facing the region we should also make plans for 
addressing potential security threats, and avoid a fragmented and palliative 
approach that only treats the symptoms. 

We should have zero tolerance for terrorism, separatism and extremism, 
strengthen international and regional cooperation, and step up the fight against 
these three forces, so as to bring peace and happiness to the people of this 

Cooperative security means promoting the security of both individual 
countries and the region as a whole through dialogue and cooperation. As the 
proverb goes, “Strength does not come from the muscles in the arms, but from 
the unison of the heart.” We should engage in sincere and in-depth dialogue and 
communication to increase strategic mutual trust, reduce mutual misgivings, 
seek common ground while resolving differences, and live in harmony with each 
other. We should bear in mind the common security interests of all countries, 
and start with low-sensitivity areas to build the awareness of meeting security 
challenges through cooperation. We should expand the scope and means of 
cooperation and promote peace and security through cooperation. We should 
stay committed to resolving disputes through peaceful means, stand against the 
arbitrary use or threat of force, oppose the provocation and escalation of tensions 
for self-interest, and eschew the practice of shifting trouble onto neighbors and 
seeking gain at the expense of others. 

In the final analysis, let the people of Asia run the affairs of Asia, solve the 
problems of Asia and uphold the security of Asia. The people of Asia have the 
capability and wisdom to achieve peace and stability in the region through 
enhanced cooperation. 

Asia is open to the world. While enhancing our own cooperation with each 
other, countries in Asia must also firmly commit ourselves to cooperation with 
countries in other continents, other regions and international organizations. We 
welcome all parties to play a positive and constructive role in promoting Asia’s 
security and cooperation, and work together to achieve mutually beneficial 
outcomes for all. 

Sustainable security means that we need to focus on both development and 
security, so that security will be durable. As a Chinese saying goes, “For a tree to 
grow tall, a strong and solid root is essential; for a river to reach far, an 
unimpeded source is necessary.”^ Development is the foundation of security, 
and security the precondition for development. The tree of peace does not grow 
on barren land, and the fruits of development are not harvested amidst the flames 
of war. For most Asian countries, development means the greatest security and 
the master key to regional security issues. 

To build an Asian security stronghold that can stand the test of any gale we 
need to focus on development, zealously improve people’s lives and narrow the 

wealth gap so as to cement the foundation of security. We need to advance the 
process of common development and regional integration, foster sound 
interaction between synchronized progress of regional economic cooperation and 
security cooperation, and promote sustainable security through sustainable 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

The CICA is the largest and most representative regional security forum 
with the largest number of participants. Over the past two decades the CICA has 
undertaken the responsibility to strengthen mutual trust and coordination and 
promote Asia’s security and stability. It has followed the principle of consensus 
through consultation and made an important contribution to increasing 
understanding, seeking common ground and expanding cooperation. 

Today more than ever, the Asian people wish for peace and stability, and 
the need to work together to tackle challenges to security is greater than before. 

China proposes that we make the CICA a security dialogue and cooperation 
platform that covers the whole of Asia and, on that basis, explore the 
establishment of a regional security cooperation architecture. China believes that 
it is advisable to increase the frequency of the CICA foreign ministers’ meetings 
and possibly summits as circumstances change, so as to strengthen the political 
guidance of the CICA and chart a blueprint for its development. 

China proposes that we enhance the capacity and the institutions of the 
CICA, support improving the functions of the CICA secretariat, establish a 
defense consultation mechanism of member states and a task force for 
supervising the implementation of confidence-building measures in various areas 
within the CICA framework, and enhance exchanges and cooperation in counter¬ 
terrorism, business, tourism, environmental protection, and cultural and people- 
to-people exchanges. 

China proposes that we put in place a nongovernmental exchange network 
for various parties through holding CICA nongovernmental forums and other 
means, so as to lay a solid social foundation for spreading the the CICA concept 

of security, increasing the CICA’s influence and promoting regional security 

China proposes that we strengthen the inclusiveness and openness of the 
CICA. We need to step up coordination and cooperation with other relevant 
organizations in the region, and expand dialogue and communication with other 
regions and relevant international organizations. 

China will fulfill its responsibilities as CICA chairman and work with other 
parties to further improve the status and role of the CICA so that together we can 
raise security cooperation to a higher level. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

China is a staunch force for upholding peace in the region and the world as 
a whole and for promoting common development. The Five Principles of 
Peaceful Coexistence initiated by China together with India and Myanmar have 
become basic nonns governing state-to-state relations. China remains committed 
to seeking the peaceful settlement of disputes with other countries over territorial 
sovereignty and maritime rights and interests. China has completely resolved, 
through friendly consultations, land boundary issues with 12 of its 14 
neighboring countries. As an active participant in regional security cooperation, 
China, jointly with other relevant countries, initiated the Shanghai Cooperation 
Organization and proposed the concept of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality 
and coordination. China supports ASEAN, the SAARC and the LAS in playing a 
positive role in regional affairs. China and Russia jointly proposed an Asia 
Pacific peace and security initiative, which has played an important role in 
strengthening and maintaining peace and stability in the Asia Pacific region. 
China works to push forward the Six-Party Talks Concerning the Korean 
Peninsula, and supports peace and reconstruction in Afghanistan, making 
unremitting efforts in solving international and regional flashpoint issues 
through dialogue and negotiation. China joined forces with countries in the 
region and the wider international community to tackle the Asian financial crisis 
and the international financial crisis, making its due contribution to promoting 
regional and global economic growth. 

China is firmly committed to the path of peaceful development and the 
mutually beneficial strategy of opening up. It seeks to develop friendly relations 
and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of 
Peaceful Coexistence. China’s peaceful development begins here in Asia, finds 
its support in Asia and delivers tangible benefits to Asia. 

“Neighbors wish each other well, just as family members do.” China 
always pursues friendship and partnership with its neighbors, seeks to bring 
amity, security and common prosperity, and works hard to ensure that its 
development brings benefits to all the other countries in Asia. China will work 
with other countries to speed up the development of a new economic belt along 
the Silk Road and a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road, and hopes that the Asian 
Infrastructure Investment Bank can be launched at an early date. China will be 
more involved in the regional cooperation process, and play its part to ensure 
that development and security in Asia facilitate each other and are mutually 

As the saying goes, “Readiness to converge with others makes a mountain 
high and a river mighty.”^ As a strong champion of the Asian security concept, 
China also works to put such a security concept into practice. China will take 
solid steps to strengthen security dialogues and cooperation with other parties, 
and jointly explore the formulation of a code of conduct for regional security and 
an Asian security partnership program, making Asian countries good partners 
who trust one another and cooperate on an equal footing. 

China is ready to introduce mechanisms for regular exchange and 
cooperation with countries in the region to jointly combat the three forces of 
terrorism, separatism and extremism. China is ready to discuss with the other 
countries in the region the creation of an Asian forum for security cooperation in 
law enforcement and an Asian security emergency response center, to enhance 
security cooperation in law enforcement and better respond to major security 
emergencies. China calls for exchanges and mutual learning among different 
civilizations and religions through various means, such as conferences for 
dialogues among Asian civilizations, so that we will be able to draw on each 
other’s experiences and achieve common progress. 

Ladies and gentlemen, 

Dear friends, 

The Chinese people, in their pursuit of the Chinese Dream of great national 
renewal, stand ready to support and help all other peoples in Asia to realize their 
own great dreams. Let us work together to realize the Asian dream of lasting 
peace and common development, and make a greater contribution to advancing 
the noble cause of peace and development of mankind. 

Thank you! 

Notes 40

[1] See note 1, p. 175. 

[2] Wei Zheng: Ten Suggestions to the Emperor. Wei Zheng (580-643) was a statesman of the Tang 

[3] Liu Yuxi: Inscription on the Stele by the Sacred Way to the Tomb of Wang Ling, Former Imperial 
Censor of the Tang Dynasty. 


Close Ties with the People 

Strictly Enforce Diligence and Thrift, Oppose Extravagance and 


January 17 and February 22, 2013 

* Separate comments on relevant reports by Xinhua News Agency and the People’s Daily. 

Reports reveal a shocking waste of food. All officials and the public have 
responded strongly to various sources of wasted food, particularly recreational 
activities using public funds. It is hurtful to see such severe problems when we 
all know that many people in our country are still plagued by poverty. 

We must do something to stop such waste as quickly as possible! We must 
disseminate our thoughts and intensify our guidance, promote our splendid 
national tradition of diligence and thrift, and regard frugality as honor and waste 
as disgrace. The strict enforcement of diligence and thrift must become the 
common practice of the whole society. All must oppose extravagance and waste. 

Party, government and military organs at all levels, institutions, people’s 
organizations and state-owned enterprises as well as leaders and officials at all 
levels must set an example in strictly obeying the rules for official receptions, 
and in implementing all measures concerning thrift so as to completely eradicate 
waste in any activity that is paid for with public funds. 

Moreover, operational measures that are targeted and instructive should be 
established, so that thrift is encouraged and waste is punished. 

(Comments by Xi Jinping on “Netizens Urging the Elimination of Waste at 

the Dinner Table, ” a report submitted by Xinhua News Agency, January 17,  2013) 


The Central Committee’s call for strict enforcement of diligence and thrift 
and opposition to extravagance and waste has won widespread acclaim from 
officials and the public. There should now be a follow-up campaign to ensure 
that no one simply goes through the motions or follows the rules as a temporary 
measure, like a passing gust of wind. We must do everything possible, and we 
must see things through from beginning to end. Nothing can be accomplished 
unless we take a serious, pragmatic and consistent approach. 

For some time now we have solicited advice from people of all walks of 
life, much of which has been constructive. We must sort through these ideas and 
put them into practice, sum up the lessons we leam, and draw on experience 
from both at home and abroad. 

Our next major step is to focus on improving the system with regard to 
official receptions, financial budgets and audits, assessment and accountability, 
and supervision. To do this we need to refine an overall mechanism that is 
dynamic, and that provides for rigid institutional constraints, strict systematic 
execution, strong supervision and examination, and severe sanctions, so that all 
misbehavior and violation of the rules and regulations relating to recreational 
activities paid for from public funds is reduced to a minimum. 

(Comments by Xi Jinping on “Analysis and Suggestions from Experts and 
Scholars on Restricting Recreational Activities Using Public Funds, ” and some 
other reports submitted by the People’s Daily, February 22, 2013) 


The Mass Line: Fundamental to the CPC* 

June 18, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the working conference of the Program of Mass Line Education and Practice 
held by the CPC Central Committee. 

The mass line is the life of our Party and the fundamental approach to the 
Party’s work. Launching a program of mass line education and practice is a 
significant decision taken by the Party to supervise its own conduct and enforce 
strict discipline. It is an important measure to respond to public demand, to 
strengthen the Party as a Marxist party that learns, innovates and serves the 
people, and to advance socialism with Chinese characteristics. It has far-reaching 
significance for the Party to maintain its progressive nature and integrity, 
consolidate its governing base and status, and complete the building of a 
moderately prosperous society in all respects. 

First, the program of mass line education and practice is an essential 
requirement for the Party to realize the objectives set by the 18th CPC National 
Congress. The Congress proposed to complete the building of a moderately 
prosperous society in all respects when the CPC celebrates its centenary in 2021, 
and turn China into a modem socialist country that is prosperous, strong, 
democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious when the PRC marks its 
centennial in 2049. After the Congress the CPC Central Committee proposed the 
Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. To realize the Chinese 
Dream and the objectives set by the Congress, all Party members must follow 
the fine tradition of the Party. 

What does this mean? It means respecting the Party’s long-held traditions 
of linking theory with practice, maintaining close ties with the people, engaging 
in criticism and self-criticism, cultivating tenacity in work, pursuing the tmth 
and being pragmatic. All through the Party’s long period of revolution, 
constmction and reform, the Party has always demanded that all its members 
maintain its fine tradition, and this is what has underpinned one victory after 
another for the Party and the people. 

We must be cognizant, especially during this new era of reform and 
opening up, that the Party will be exposed to unprecedented risks and challenges 
as China drives reform and opening up to a deeper level. The task of improving 
the Party’s conduct will never be more important or urgent. Not for one moment 
should we be lax or suspend our efforts in this regard. 

“In the present period of historical change, when problems have piled up 
and a thousand things wait to be done, it is crucial for us to strengthen the 
leadership of the Party and correct its work style,'said Deng Xiaoping at the 
initial launch of reform and opening up. The second generation of the Party 
leadership headed by Deng Xiaoping, the third generation of the Party leadership 
headed by Jiang Zemin, and the CPC Central Committee with Hu Jintao as the 
general secretary all made it one of their top priorities to improve the Party’s 
conduct, and carried out a succession of programs to this end - the Party 
Consolidation^, the “Three Emphases” Education^, the Education to Maintain 
the Pioneering Role of the Party Members^, and the in-depth study of the 
Scientific Outlook on Development^. 

The Party has always emphasized that Party conduct has a direct impact on 
its image, on its prospects of winning or losing public support, and indeed on the 
very survival or extinction of the Party and the state. Maintaining close ties with 
the people is essential to improving the Party’s conduct. Losing contact with the 
people would pose the gravest threat to the Party. 

Since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in 
1978, the Party has reestablished the guiding principles of freeing the mind and 
seeking truth from facts, attaching more importance to the Party’s conduct, and 
maintaining close ties with the people. The whole Party has burnished its image 
and improved its conduct, guaranteeing the smooth progress of reform and 
opening up and the drive for socialist modernization. 

As has been the case throughout the Party’s history, its close ties with the 
people are the embodiment of its nature and purpose, the hallmark that 
distinguishes the CPC from other political parties, and an important factor 
enabling the CPC to grow strong. The fate of the Party’s undertakings relies on 
whether it can maintain its ties with the people. 

Our Party comes from the people, is rooted in the people, and serves the 

people. Without popular support, none of the Party’s achievements or aspirations 
would be possible. We must always keep close ties with the people, so that the 
Party can continue to respond to the challenges of governance, reform and 
opening up, and the market economy, as well as the external environment. Under 
no circumstances will we ever forsake our commitment to sharing weal and woe 
with the people. We will never forget the Party’s purpose of serving the people 
wholeheartedly. We will never forgo the historical materialist viewpoint which 
regards the people as the true heroes. The Party will always serve the public, and 
govern for the benefit of the people. 

In this new era, in order to realize the Chinese Dream and the objectives set 
by the 18th CPC National Congress, we must remain close to the people, rely on 
them, and fully mobilize their initiative, enthusiasm and creativity. We have 
launched the campaign of mass line education and practice with the aim of 
reminding all Party members that their fundamental purpose is to serve the 
people wholeheartedly, unite the people through the Party’s fine tradition, and 
work hard with them to realize the objectives set by the Congress. 

Second, launching the program of mass line education and practice is an 
essential requirement for the Party to maintain its progressive nature and its 
integrity, and consolidate its governing base and status. This is an issue now, and 
it is fundamental to the Party and its future. 

As we have so often repeated, the Party’s pioneering role and its role of 
governance do not remain unchanged once acquired. Even if you had played a 
pioneering role in the past, there is no guarantee that you will always do so; the 
fact that you are playing the role now does not mean that you will be progressive 
forever. Just because you possessed it in the past does not mean that you will 
own it forever. This is the conclusion of our analysis based on dialectical and 
historical materialism. 

How can we maintain the Party’s progressive nature and its integrity, and 
consolidate its governing role and status? The key is to keep to the Party’s mass 
line and maintain close ties with the people. 

As an old Chinese saying goes, “Those who win the people’s hearts win the 
country, and those who lose the people’s hearts lose the country.” Likewise, the 
people’s support is the most solid foundation for the Party’s governance. 

Winning or losing public support is vital to the Party’s survival or extinction. 
The Party must dedicate its soul and mind to the people, share their weal and 
woe, and rely on them to continue to make progress. Only then “steadfastly we 
stand our ground”-^ against “ominous storms that threaten to engulf us.”^ 

We have launched the program of mass line education and practice so that 
the values of honesty, serving the people and remaining down-to-earth can take 
root in the hearts and actions of all Party members. In this way we can 
consolidate the Party’s governing status, increase the Party’s creativity, 
cohesiveness and professional capabilities, maintain its progressive nature and 
its integrity, and consolidate its position through broad, profound and reliable 
public support. 

Third, launching the program of mass line education and practice is 
essential if we are to address the people’s pressing concerns. In general, Party 
organizations, members and officials are practicing the Party’s mass line well at 
present. Party members and officials have set a good example, dedicating 
themselves to reform, development and stability. They have maintained good 
relations with the people and won their approval and support. Most of them have 
done a good job, for which we must give them full credit. 

Nevertheless, we must realize that as the world, the country, and the Party 
undergo profound changes, the perils of mental laxity, mediocrity, isolation from 
the people, passivity and corruption have become increasingly serious. Many 
Party officials are losing touch with the people, and some problems are very 
serious, especially “the four forms of decadence”: formalism, bureaucratism, 
hedonism and extravagance. 

Formalism means doing things for form’s sake - the separation of action 
from knowledge, neglecting what is truly effective, hiding behind piles of 
documents and immersing oneself in meetings, the pursuit of vanity and a resort 
to falsehood. 

Some Party officials stop studying Party theory or learning information 
which they need in performing their duties, while others content themselves with 
the most superficial understanding, which they can use as window-dressing 
instead of applying it in real work. They have no intention of studying, nor have 
they the ability to put what they do know into practice. Some use the 

requirements for documents and meetings simply as a pretext for generating 
further documents and meetings; some love to put on a show and seek the 
limelight; in some places the priority is to highlight leaders’ speeches in 
newspapers and on TV, while neglecting practical work; some have no interest 
in achieving actual results or solving genuine problems - their only aim is to 
ingratiate themselves with their superiors, generate headlines or decorate their 
work reports...one ceremony after another, one summary after another, one 
award after another. We call this Krikun^ style. 

For some officials, a “grassroots survey” is no more than a comfortable ride 
in a car, a hurried glance through the window, an affable wave to the cameras, 
and a casual glance at events outside, rather than a proper investigation into 
shadows, nooks and crannies. Some turn a blind eye to fake reports, data and 
models, or even go out of their way to gloss over the truth with lies. No wonder 
people say that paperwork keeps officials well clear of real life, and a mountain 
of formalism detaches policies from their implementation. 

Bureaucratism means departure from reality, losing touch with the people, 
arrogance, indifference to facts, conceit and inflated egos. Some Party officials 
don’t understand or concern themselves with reality. They are reluctant to go to 
areas experiencing harsh conditions, or help grassroots organizations and people 
solve problems; they prefer to having nothing to do with them lest there should 
be more trouble. Their duties are a game to them - they pass the buck or muddle 
through. Some Party officials, heedless of the people’s wishes and the 
circumstances that apply in their locality, make casual decisions and empty 
promises. They blindly launch expensive projects, walk away when they fail, 
and leave behind an unresolved mess; some curry favor with their superiors, and 
rudely order their subordinates around. People in need of their services find them 
difficult to access, hard to talk to and impossible to get them to act. They even 
demand bribes before doing things that are part of their duties, and abuse their 
power; some follow plans and directions from their superiors without trying to 
understand them properly. Some implement the decisions of superiors to a 
superficial degree, while others awkwardly imitate - doing things according to 
the old way or following others without considering the particular circumstances 
that apply to them. Some are “empire-builders,” high-handed and arbitrary in 
their approach, intolerant of any alternative view. They reject criticism and 
offers of help, and refuse to listen to different voices. 

The main features of hedonism are mental laxity, resting on one’s laurels, 
vanity, coveting pleasure, pursuing ostentation and seeking to keep oneself 
amused. Some Party officials have become demoralized, and their faith has been 
shaken. Their philosophy of life is to indulge themselves in pleasure-seeking - 
“drinking your fill as long as you have wine to drink”^ and “seizing the 
moments of contentment in life and making the most of them.”^ Some have 
abandoned their ideals in favor of material comforts, vulgar amusements, 
revelry, drinking and a life of luxury. Some take on easy tasks and shirk hard 
work because they have no taste for hardship and effort. They lack motivation 
and new goals because they are happy with the status quo, satisfied with their 
limited knowledge and understanding, and content with their past achievements. 
They idle through the day flipping through newspapers, drinking tea and 
chatting, their gaze wandering abstractedly because they have no purpose. 

Extravagance means waste, squandering resources, expensive building 
programs, endless festivals and ceremonies, a luxurious and dissolute lifestyle, 
and abuse of power that can extend to actual corruption. Some Party officials 
spend hundreds of millions of Renminbi on construction of a luxury office 
building that occupies acres of land and contains facilities for feasting, drinking 
and amusement. Some are devotees of festivals and ceremonies, sometimes 
squandering millions of Renminbi or more on a single event. It is the blood and 
sweat of the people they are tossing away! For some who seek comfort and 
pleasure their homes can never be too many nor too grand, their cars can never 
be too luxurious, their banquets can never be too exquisite, and the brands of 
clothes they wear can never be too famous. Their excesses show disdain for the 
rules; they take things for granted and always want more. Some demand 
excessive receptions, stay at expensive hotels, eat all sorts of delicacies, drink 
fine wines and then take bribes. Some hold membership cards and consumption 
cards of great value, and indulge themselves in luxury clubs, high-end sports 
complexes, free travel at home and abroad, and even foreign casinos, where they 
spend money like water. Some even glory in their misconduct, moral corruption 
and dissolute lifestyle, instead of feeling shame. 

I give these examples to warn all Party members. If we allow these 
problems to spread like weeds, the consequences will be disastrous, and the 
tragedy of Farewell My Concubine^1, which Mao Zedong used as a metaphor 
for losing power, may come true. Some of our colleagues have become 

accustomed to such problems, and take them for granted. This is even more 
dangerous. As a saying goes, “Stay in a fish market long enough, and one will 
get used to the stink.”^ 

We should keep in mind the ancient warning that “hedonism and 
extravagance lead to decline and demise,”^ and launch full-scale examinations, 
overhauls and clean-ups to eliminate defects and misconduct from the Party, and 
address the people’s most pressing concerns. 

Notes  41

[1] Deng Xiaoping: “Uphold the Four Cardinal Principles,” Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol. 
II, Eng. ed.. Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1994, pp. 185-186. 

[2] “Party Consolidation” refers to the overhaul of the Party’s working practices and organization. 
The program, which lasted from the winter of 1983 to 1987, aimed to unify the Party members’ mindset, 
rectify the Party’s work practices, reinforce discipline and cleanse its organization. 

[3] The “Three Emphases” Education refers to the education program in Party spirit and work 
practices for Party and government leaders above county level. The program conducted from November 
1998 to December 2000, emphasized theoretical study, political awareness, and being honest and upright. 

[4] Education to Maintain the Pioneering Role of Party Members refers to the Party-wide program 
focused on the important thought of the Three Represents. From January 2005 to June 2006 over 70 million 
Party members and more than 3.5 million grassroots Party organizations participated in the education 

[5] All Party members took part in the program of in-depth study and implementation of the 
Scientific Outlook on Development, during the period from September 2008 to February 2010. The 
program was themed on the Scientific Outlook on Development, with focus on educating Party and 
government leaders above county level. 

[6] Mao Zedong: “Jinggang Mountains,” Mao Zedong Poems, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, 
Beijing, 1998, p. 9. 

[7j Li He: Ode to the Journey ofYanmen Prefect. Li He (790-816) was a leading poet of the Tang 

[8] Krikun, a journalist in Frontline (1942), a drama written by Alexander Korneychuk during the 
Great Patriotic War of the former Soviet Union. He created news by reporting rumors and making up 
stories, and his name is often used to describe fabrication and exaggeration in news reporting. 

[9] Luo Yin: For Myself Luo Yin (833-919) was a writer of the Tang Dynasty. 

[10] Li Bai: Invitation to Wine. 

[11] One of the final episodes in the life of rebellious warlord Xiang Yu during the late Qin Dynasty 
(221-206 BC). Xiang, the self-proclaimed “Overlord of Western Chu” could not tolerate different opinions, 

and his flawed personality finally resulted in his downfall following the siege of Gaixia. Xiang drank his 
final toasts with Concubine Yu, and sang lyrics of heroism and lament. Concubine Yu danced for Xiang one 
last time, took his sword and committed suicide. Xiang broke out of the siege and fled to the banks of the 
Wujiang River, where he committed suicide by slitting his throat with his sword. Farewell My Concubine is 
a metaphor for final downfall resulting from arbitrary conduct and losing touch with the people. 

[12] The Family Teaching of Confucius (Kong Zi Jia Yu). 

[13] New Book of the Tang Dynasty (Xin Tang Shu). 


The Guiding Thoughts and Goals for the Program of Mass Line 

Education and Practice 

June 18, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the working conference of the Program of Mass Line Education and Practice 
held by the CPC Central Committee. 

The Party Central Committee has stipulated the guiding thoughts, goals and 
tasks, basic principles, methods and steps for the Party’s program of mass line 
education and practice. To implement the Central Committee’s requirements, we 
must uphold socialism with Chinese characteristics, and fully implement the 
plans and decisions made at the Party’s 18th National Congress. We must follow 
the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping 
Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents, and the Scientific 
Outlook on Development, and make every effort to implement the plans and 
requirements set forth by the Central Committee since the CPC’s 18th National 

We must maintain and develop the Party’s pioneering role and integrity, 
and effectively strengthen education for all Party members on the Marxist 
viewpoint on the people and the Party’s mass line, focusing on serving the 
people and on being down-to-earth, honest and upright in conduct. We should 
start by implementing the Eight Rules^ of the Party Central Committee, and 
strive to solve the most pressing problems. The key lies in the following: 

First, focusing on goals and tasks. We have learned from previous 
education programs within the Party that well-set goals are central to the success 
of such programs. When we organize these activities we naturally expect them to 
produce results, and the greater the better. We should also be realistic when 
making plans. This education program will last a year, and be conducted in 
quarterly units, so we cannot expect to resolve all problems inside the Party at 
one stroke. 

Many problems will remain to be addressed through regular work. Here we 

must consider one question: Ten wounds partially treated or one completely 
cured - which is better? Based on this consideration, the Party Central 
Committee has decided that promoting Party conduct should be the first priority, 
and our efforts should be concentrated on solving problems relating to the “four 
forms of decadence”: formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance. 

Why should we concentrate on these four problems? Because they run 
contrary to our Party’s very nature and purpose, and because they are the 
problems that the public hates the most. They are of the most pressing concern to 
the people, and they are at the root of the greatest damage to the relations 
between the Party and the people and between officials and the people. All the 
other problems within the Party are related to the “four forms of decadence,” or 
have spun off from them. Once the “four forms of decadence” are resolved, there 
will be a sounder base for treating other problems. 

Following the Party’s 18th National Congress, the Political Bureau of the 
Central Committee made improving Party conduct its priority as a result of the 
same considerations. We should consolidate our previous achievements in 
improving Party conduct, and expand them through studying and practicing the 
Party’s mass line. 

To solve the “four forms of decadence,” we must set an accurate focus, 
locate the “acupoints,” and firmly grasp the vitals, and we must not allow 
ourselves to be distracted. In fighting formalism, we should focus on promoting 
down-to-earth work, and educate and guide Party members and officials on 
improving their approach to theoretical study, meetings and official documents, 
and working practices. They must be prepared to stand firm on cardinal issues of 
right and wrong and hold to their principles without flinching. They must devote 
themselves wholeheartedly to their duties, and spare themselves no effort in 
understanding the true conditions faced by the people, in promoting concrete 
measures, and in achieving solid results through a down-to-earth approach. 

In fighting bureaucratism, we should focus on solving the problems of 
isolation from the people and failure to protect their interests. Again we should 
educate Party members and officials, and guide them in working at the 
grassroots to understand the true conditions faced by the people, in remaining 
committed to democratic centralism, in learning from the people, in answering to 
the people, in serving the people, and in accepting oversight by the people. We 

must be resolute in correcting problems such as perfunctory performance of 
duties, evading and shirking responsibilities, and infringing upon the people’s 

In fighting hedonism we should focus on overcoming indulgence in 
pleasure and privileges. Once more we should educate Party members and 
officials, and guide them in keeping to the “two musts,in being 
wholeheartedly devoted to public service and performing their duties with 
diligence, in upholding political integrity, and in preserving a spirit of high 
principles and hard work. 

In fighting extravagance, we should focus on putting an end to unhealthy 
practices such as self-indulgence, luxury and dissipation. Again we should 
educate Party members and officials, and guide them in practicing thrift and 
standing against waste, in leading a simple life, in being strict with their 
spending, and in doing everything in a no-frills manner. 

To put an end to the “four forms of decadence,” we must start from reality, 
identify the main pressing problems, and concentrate on those problems which 
are most severe or most pressing. We must be precise in identifying our targets, 
and achieve effective results. 

Second, implementing general requirements with diligence. During the 
Rectification Movement in Yan’an^, Mao Zedong proposed an intensive 
campaign to fight against subjectivism, sectarianism, and “eight-legged Party 
essays.”^ He said that it was not easy to cleanse the Party of these defects, and 
that patients must be given a heavy dose of stimulus to wake them up and make 
them sweat before being sent for treatment. Learning from the experience of the 
Yan’an Rectification Movement, the current requirements for studying and 
practicing the Party’s mass line have been clearly defined: “Examine oneself in 
the mirror, straighten one’s clothes and hat, take a bath, and treat one’s disease.” 
It can also be summarized in four phrases: self-purification, self-improvement, 
self-innovation and self-enhancement. However, it is easier to say than to do. 

To “examine oneself in the mirror,” Party members should use the Party 
Constitution as a mirror in which to measure themselves. How do they perform 
in terms of the Party’s discipline, the people’s expectations, and their role 
models, and how can they improve themselves in performance and conduct? 

They should identify their shortcomings in upholding the Party’s principles, 
promoting healthy working practices, and maintaining integrity and self- 
discipline. They should recognize how far they have fallen short of these 
standards, and they should be clear in terms of how they will improve 

A mirror can be used for self-reflection, and it can also be directed towards 
others. On this occasion it is to be used for Party members themselves. In real 
life, some people always feel good about themselves, and seldom look in the 
mirror. Some are only too well aware of their shortcomings, so they are afraid of 
looking in the mirror. Some like to admire themselves in the best possible light, 
and so they put on make-up before looking in the mirror. Some take the view 
that they are perfect; it is others who are disfigured - they only hold up the 
mirror in front of others. None of these is compatible with Communist 
principles. Party members and officials should dare to look in the mirror, and do 
so frequently; in particular they should use the mirror for profound self- 
examination, to reflect upon even the tiniest flaws. In this way they will be able 
to see their shortcomings and rectify them. 

To “straighten one’s clothes and hat” means that one should, after 
examining oneself in the mirror, and based on the principles of serving the 
people, being down-to-earth in one’s work, and upholding integrity, dare to face 
one’s weaknesses and shortcomings, strictly observe the Party’s discipline, 
especially its political discipline, start with themselves in facing up to problems, 
and take immediate steps to rectify their conduct. They should take the initiative 
to renew their faith in the Party character, review their obligations as Party 
members, and stiffen their resolve to observe Party discipline and state laws, so 
as to present a positive image as good Communists. It is not enough to 
“straighten one’s clothes and hat” only once, they need to “examine themselves 
three times a day.”^ 

It takes courage to face problems and try to solve them, and this means 
taking the initiative. “Disasters often result from neglecting the smallest things; 
the wise and brave are often trapped by their minor indulgences.”^ Developing 
a habit of regularly “straightening one’s clothes and hat” will help prevent small 
wrongdoings from growing into big ones, and can also effectively protect against 
“falling feathers submerging a boat and an excess load breaking a cart axle.”^ 

To “take a bath,” Party members should follow the spirit of the 
Rectification Movement and engage in criticism and self-criticism among 
themselves. They should conduct in-depth analysis of the reasons for their 
problems, dust off their minds and their actions, and on the basis of what they 
find beneath, address both problems in their way of thinking and in their 
conduct, so as to maintain the political integrity of Communists. 

We are exposed to dust every day, which is why we need to take showers 
regularly. Use some soap, give yourself a scrub with a loofah, and then rinse 
yourself off - you will feel clean and refreshed. Similarly, our minds and actions 
can get dusty too, tainted by political microbes, so we also need to “take a bath” 
to rid ourselves of dust and grime, refresh our body and mind, unclog our pores, 
and get our metabolism working, so that we carry out our duties earnestly and 
uphold personal integrity. Some prefer to cover up the dust in their minds and 
actions, and are loath to “take a bath.” In such cases, our colleagues and our 
Party organizations should provide them with some help. 

To “treat one’s disease” means the Party believes that it should learn from 
past mistakes to avoid future ones, and cure the disease to save the patient. Our 
Party draws distinctions between different cases, and prepares different remedies 
for different diseases. Party members and officials who have problems in 
conduct are educated and warned, those with serious problems are investigated 
and punished, and special programs are organized to crack down on serious 
misconduct and major problems. 

When a person is ill, he must visit the doctor for treatment, perhaps even 
have an operation if the case is serious. If it is an ailment in mind or conduct, it 
should also be treated as soon as possible. A minor illness can develop into a 
serious complication if we conceal the ailment and avoid the doctor, and a 
disease can spread from the skin to internal organs, and eventually become 
incurable. This is exactly what we mean by “curing an illness is easy at the start, 
but saving a terminal patient is hard.”^ 

Party organizations at all levels should take strong measures to help Party 
members and officials who have problems in identifying their diseases, and 
provide remedies according to the symptoms. Those who need to take 
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should take TCM, those who need to take 
Western medicine should take Western medicine, and those who need combined 

treatment of TCM and Western medicine should be given such treatment. Those 
who need operations should have operations performed on them. We must 
effectively ensure that the Party is run with strict discipline. 

Third, engaging in criticism and self-criticism following the spirit of the 
Rectification Movement. Criticism and self-criticism is a good Party tradition, 
and an effective weapon for enhancing the capacity of Party organizations in 
their effort to maintain unity and solidarity inside the Party. Why do we need to 
follow the spirit of the Rectification Movement and engage in criticism and self- 
criticism? Because various problems afflicting the people inside the Party, 
especially the “four forms of decadence,” are chronic and persistent conditions 
that need to be addressed with courage. We must dare to lose face in exposing 
shortcomings and mistakes, dare to take up our hammers and crack the tough 
nuts, dare to engage in battles, and dare to dig down to the roots and touch the 
soul. Currently the keen blade of criticism and self-criticism has become dull 
and rusty in many places, and cannot reach down to the deeper levels of 
problems and deal with them. Like hitting a person with a feather duster, it 
causes no pain. In some places self-criticism has morphed into self-praise, and 
criticism into flattery. In our new program we must work hard on criticism and 

We should ensure that Party branch meetings effectively carry out such 
criticism and self-criticism. Party organizations at all levels should educate Party 
members and officials in the formula of “unity-criticism-unity,” and relieve them 
of the worries of losing face when criticizing one’s self, of suffering from 
retaliation for criticizing one’s superiors, of damaging friendships with 
colleagues by criticizing persons of equivalent rank, and of losing support by 
criticizing subordinates. 

Party members and officials should not only conduct in-depth analysis and 
examination of themselves, but also share genuine criticism of each other to 
touch the mind and soul. Their reddened faces and sweat that so result will bring 
a host of problems into the open, and show the direction towards rectification. 
Both criticism and self-criticism should be conducted with respect for facts, with 
good intentions towards others, and for the public good. There will be no 
burying of heads in the sand. No one will act either superficially or excessively 
during criticism sessions, and personal grudges will be avoided. Good advice is 
jarring to the ear, just as good medicine is bitter to the tongue. In response to 

criticism, you should correct mistakes if you have made any, and guard against 
them if you have not. We should never use “criticism” as a weapon against 
criticism, or fight each other without principle. 

The eyes of the people are sharp. They see very clearly and are only too 
aware of problems with Party members and officials. In conducting our program 
we must be open to the public, and solicit opinions and suggestions from the 
people. We must organize orderly public participation at each stage of the 
process, and allow the people to supervise our actions and air their views. We 
should avoid “talking to ourselves or singing to ourselves,” or working behind 
closed doors where the air circulates only internally. We should avoid isolating 
ourselves from the people. 

Fourth, leading officials taking the lead. We often hear voices crying out 
that long-standing problems cannot be solved because they are rooted in the 
upper levels, although the symptoms appear at the lower levels. The upper level 
is sick, but the lower level receives the medicine. Indeed, many problems of 
isolation from the people are apparent in leading bodies and leading officials. 
This program should concentrate on leading bodies, leading groups and leading 
officials above the county level. 

As the saying goes, one must discipline oneself before disciplining others, 
and it takes good iron to make good products. The Central Committee has 
decided to start the program from the Political Bureau, aiming at setting a good 
example. Leading bodies, leading groups and leading officials above the county 
level must also set good examples. 

Leading officials at all levels are the organizers, promoters and supervisors 
of the program, but they are also participants. They should take part in activities 
as ordinary Party members and strive for greater achievements in studying and 
practicing the Party’s mass line, and also in bettering their ability to analyze and 
solve pressing problems. 

Whether an official can conduct a precise, in-depth and strict self- 
assessment is an important gauge for judging his role as a leader in this program. 
Those who are selfless are fearless. 

Officials should put aside their airs and listen carefully to the opinions of 

their subordinates, of the grassroots organizations, of Party members, and of the 
ordinary people. They should engage in self-examination by setting themselves 
as standards and carefully looking for any pressing problems in improving their 
own conduct. They should look into the conduct of their leading groups, their 
departments and their regions, conduct in-depth analysis of the root causes of 
any problems, and decide on the direction for rectification and any concrete 
measures to be taken. 

In examining problems officials must avoid at all costs dealing with 
problems while avoiding those who are behind the problems, dealing with the 
problems of others while avoiding their own, and dealing with minor problems 
while avoiding serious ones. Backed by confidence and resolve, we will boldly 
engage in criticism and self-criticism, achieve positive results in solving pressing 
problems, and succeed in making upper levels set the example for lower levels. 

Fifth, establishing a long-term mechanism. Maintaining the Party’s close 
ties with the people is a constant topic for study, and problems relating to 
conduct recur and persist. It is impossible to accomplish the whole task at one 
stroke, and we cannot promote Party conduct in temporary phases, like a passing 
gust of wind. Our efforts in this regard must be constant, and we must have long¬ 
term plans. As our first measure we should address pressing problems of keen 
concern to the people, and at the same time we should plan for the future and 
establish a long-term mechanism for encouraging Party members and officials to 
serve the people, be down-to-earth in their work, and uphold integrity in office. 

After many years of experimentation and practice, we have developed a 
systematic framework of regulations for implementing the Party’s mass line and 
maintaining close ties with the people. Most of the regulations are effective and 
are recognized as such by the people, and we should continue to follow them. At 
the same time, the Party Central Committee has new requirements for the future, 
and departments and regions will also participate in creating new and fresh 

We should integrate the requirements of the Central Committee, actual 
needs, and fresh experiences to develop new systems that are appropriate to the 
current situation, to upgrade the existing systems and to abolish those that are 
not. Any newly-developed or improved system must be easy to implement, be 
coherent with the established laws, and function within the existing legal 

framework. Attention must be given to formulating supporting measures to 
match the new systems and make sure that they are precisely targeted and able to 
guide our work effectively. 

Once a system is in place we must all abide by it, and ensure that everyone 
is equal before it and that no exceptions arise in its application. We must be firm 
in protecting its authority, and resolute in responding to those who refuse to be 
bound by it or feign compliance while undermining it. We should let our systems 
act as rigorous constraints for ensuring that Party members and officials 
maintain close ties with and serve the people, and that Party members and 
officials have the individual will to implement the Party’s mass line. 

Notes 42

[1] The Eight Rules were proposed by the Political Bureau of the 18th Central Committee of the CPC 
to cut bureaucracy and maintain close ties with the people. They are summarized as follows: improving 
investigation and research, streamlining conference activities, simplifying the writing of documents and 
briefings, standardizing trips, enhancing security guard work, improving news reports, imposing restrictions 
on publishing of writings, and practicing diligence and frugality. 

[2] The “two musts” refer to “our comrades must remain modest and prudent, neither conceited nor 
rash, in our working practices; and our comrades must remain hardworking despite difficulties in our 
working practices.” They were proposed by Mao Zedong in the Report to the Second Plenary Session of the 
Seventh Central Committee of the CPC. At the time, the CPC was about to win state power nationwide. 
Mao cautioned the whole Party on standing the test of exercising governance and against arrogance and 
complacency, love of pleasure and estrangement from the people that would end the rule of the CPC. 

[3] Yan’an Rectification Movement refers to a Marxist-Leninist education campaign inside the CPC 
from 1942 to 1945. Its main aims were: to fight against objectivism in order to improve theoretical study; to 
fight against sectarianism in order to improve Party conduct; and to fight against “eight-legged Party 
essays” in order to improve writing. 

[4] The “eight-legged essay” was a special writing skill tested in the imperial examinations during 
China’s Ming and Qing dynasties. This type of essay was empty in content, focused exclusively on form 
and mainly involved word play. Each section of the essay had to follow a rigid pattern, and even the number 
of words used was predefined. Examinees just wrote essays by following the rules and according to the 
literal meaning of the topic. The phrase “eight-legged Party essay” refers to empty writing full of 
revolutionary stock phrases and jargon composed by Party members for speeches or other publicity work. 

[5] The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 

[6] Ouyang Xiu: “Preface to the Biography of the Singing Courtier .” Ouyang Xiu (1007-1072) was a 
statesman and writer of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127). 

[7j Sima Qian: Records of the Historian (Shi Ji). 

[8] Fan Ye: The Book of the Eastern Han Dynasty (Hou Han Shu). Fan Ye (398-445) was a historian 
during the Northern and Southern Dynasties (386-589). 


Establish and Promote the Conduct of “Three Stricts and Three 


March 9, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the deliberation session of the Anhui delegation at the Second Session 
of the 12th National People’s Congress. 

Promoting good Party conduct is always high on our agenda. We will fall 
short of our aims if this program tails off and we become lax in the later stages. 
Leading officials at all levels should enforce standards of good conduct on 
themselves and others. Be strict in self-development, the exercise of power and 
self-discipline; be earnest in making plans, opening up new undertakings and 
upholding personal integrity. 

Being strict in self-development means that leading officials should 
strengthen their sense of Party awareness, stand firm in support of the ideals and 
principles of the Party, cultivate integrity, pursue lofty goals, make a point of 
distancing themselves from vulgar interests, and resist unhealthy practices and 
evil influences. 

Being strict in the exercise of power means that leading officials should 
exercise power in the interests of the people, exercise power in accordance with 
rules and regulations, keep power within the confines of systemic checks, and 
neither seek privileges at any time nor abuse power for personal gain. 

Being strict in self-discipline means that leading officials should respect 
discipline and always be ready to apply the rod to themselves, guard against all 
temptations when alone, be prudent, engage in diligent self-examination, abide 
by Party discipline and state laws, and uphold integrity in governance. 

Being earnest in making plans means that leading officials should take facts 
as the basis for work planning, ensure that all ideas, policies and plans are in line 
with actual conditions, objective laws and scientific principle, and avoid being 
overly ambitious and divorced from reality. 

Being earnest in opening up new undertakings means that leading officials 
should be down-to-earth in their approach to their duties, be pragmatic and solid 
in their work, be bold in taking on responsibilities and facing problems, and be 
adept at solving problems. They should strive to create concrete results that will 
stand up to being tested by practice, by the people and by time. 

Being earnest in upholding personal integrity means that leading officials 
should remain loyal to the Party, to the organization, to the people, and to their 
colleagues. They should be honest and truthful, do sound work, be aboveboard, 
and be just and upright. 

We must work to resolve problems with force and tenacity as a hammer 
drives a nail. We must make sure that we start well and end well, and work 
wholeheartedly to produce the best possible results so as to achieve the greatest 
possible success in improving Party conduct. 


Combat Corruption 

Power Must Be “Caged” by the System 

January 22, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the Second Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Commission for 
Discipline Inspection. 

All Party members must act in compliance with the plans made at the 18th 
CPC National Congress, combat and prevent corruption in a more scientific and 
effective way, and resolutely press ahead with the effort to improve Party 
conduct, uphold integrity and root out corruption. In the fight against corruption 
we must adhere to the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought 
of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development, and follow 
the principle of addressing both symptoms and root causes, taking an integrated 
approach, mete out punishment and ensure prevention, with the emphasis on the 

We must strengthen our Party if we are to fulfill the goals and tasks set out 
at its 18th National Congress, including the Two Centenary Goals, and realize 
the Chinese Dream of the great renewal of the Chinese nation. Improving Party 
conduct, upholding integrity and combating corruption are important tasks in the 
course of building the Party. Only if we remain clean and upright in governance 
and exercise power in a fair way can we win public trust and support. 

Over the past 30 years since the reform and opening-up policy was 
introduced, the Party’s second and third central leadership, with Deng Xiaoping 
and Jiang Zemin at their respective cores, and the Party Central Committee with 
Hu Jintao as the general secretary, consistently attached great importance to the 
tasks of improving Party conduct, upholding integrity, and combating 
corruption. They maintained a clear stand against corruption, adopted effective 
measures against it, and made remarkable achievements which have played an 
important role in preserving and developing the Party’s advanced nature and 
purity, and provided a strong guarantee for the Party’s leadership in the reform 
and opening-up effort, and the socialist modernization drive. 

Our Party is by and large sound. Yet, we must be fully aware that some 
areas are still prone to misconduct and corruption, major cases of violation of 
Party discipline and state laws have had serious adverse effects on society, the 
fight against corruption remains a serious challenge, and the people are 
dissatisfied with our work in many areas. Faced with the long-term, complicated 
and arduous tasks of improving Party conduct, upholding integrity and 
combating corruption, we must persevere in our anti-corruption effort and 
always remain vigilant against corruption and degeneracy. The key is to 
repeatedly stress the fight against corruption and make a long-term commitment. 
We must solidify our resolve, ensure that all cases of corruption are investigated 
and prosecuted, and that all instances of graft are rectified, continue to remove 
the breeding grounds for corruption, and further win public trust by making real 
progress in the fight against corruption. 

Our Party is a Marxist party, the organization of which relies on 
revolutionary ideals and strict discipline. This has always been our Party’s fine 
tradition and unique advantage. The more complicated the situation and the 
heavier the tasks facing the Party, the more we need to reinforce discipline and 
the more we need to safeguard unity within the Party. In this way we can ensure 
that the whole Party is unified in terms of determination and synchronized in 
actions and progress. To run the Party with strict discipline, we have to first and 
foremost implement strict political discipline, which in turn starts from 
observing and safeguarding the Party Constitution. The essence of observing the 
Party’s political discipline is to adhere to the Party’s leadership, basic theory, 
basic line, basic program, basic experience and basic requirements, keep in line 
with the Party Central Committee, and conscientiously safeguard its authority. 
All Party members must keep in line with the Party Central Committee 
intellectually and politically as well as in their actions concerning the Party’s 
basic theories, guidelines, principles and policies, and other matters of overall 
importance. Party organizations and officials at all levels must develop a holistic 
view and appropriately handle the relationship between ensuring smooth 
implementation of the central leadership’s orders and policies and conducting 
work with an innovative spirit based on concrete conditions, making sure that all 
plans concerning local work and development are based on the prerequisite of 
implementing the central leadership’s guidelines. We must prevent or, if 
necessary, rectify departmental and local protectionism and parochialism, and 
never allow local policies to trump central policies, the sidelining of government 

decrees or prohibitions, or perfunctory or selective enforcement of or 
accommodations in the enforcement of the central leadership’s policy decisions 
and plans. 

Every Party member, especially leading officials, must enhance his 
understanding of the Party Constitution, observe the Constitution in both words 
and actions, and maintain in all circumstances a firm political belief, political 
stance and political orientation. Party organizations at all levels must take the 
initiative to implement and safeguard the Party’s political discipline, and raise 
Party members’ awareness of observing it. Party discipline inspection 
commissions at all levels must put priority on ensuring compliance with the 
Party’s political discipline, and strengthen supervision and inspection on the 
implementation of political discipline. 

The issue of working style is in no sense a small one. If misconduct is not 
corrected but allowed to run rampant, it will build an invisible wall between our 
Party and the people. As a result, our Party will lose its base, lifeblood and 
strength. Regarding the task of improving our working style, each effort counts, 
but carrying on and furthering the spirit of hard struggle is of fundamental 
importance. The task of improving our working style is arduous. The “eight 
rules” provide us with a starting point and a call for us to improve our work 
practices. They are not the highest standards nor our ultimate goal, but the first 
step to improving our working style as well as the basic requirements for 
Communists. As a saying goes, “He who is good at governing through restriction 
should first restrict himself then others.”^ Officials at all levels must conduct 
themselves in an exemplary fashion, take the lead in improving their conduct, 
and keep their promises. We must practice frugality in all aspects of our work, 
and resolutely oppose waste, extravagance and hedonism. We should vigorously 
carry out the fine traditions of thrift and hard work of the Chinese nation, and 
advocate the ideas of taking pride in thrift and shame in waste so that a healthy 
atmosphere of practicing thrift and opposing waste will become predominant. 

All localities and departments must fully implement the relevant regulations 
on improving Party conduct, and implement these regulations in every aspect 
and in every link of our work. The people’s satisfaction is the standard for 
measuring progress in changing our way of work. We must extensively solicit 
public opinions and suggestions, steadily accept public assessment and 

supervision by the whole of society, and make improvements in areas 
concerning which people have expressed dissatisfaction. The Central 
Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Party, the Ministry of Supervision 
and Party discipline inspection commissions and supervision departments at all 
levels must strengthen inspection and supervision to ensure that Party discipline 
is implemented, accountability is maintained, and performance is ensured. We 
should fight corruption with strong determination, “leave marks when we tread 
on stones or grasp iron,” persevere in our anti-corruption effort till we achieve 
final success rather than start off full of sound and fury and then taper off in a 
whimper. We must let the whole Party and the people oversee power, and 
demonstrate to the people continuous and real results and changes of Party 
conduct and the combat of corruption. 

The resolute determination in punishing and wiping out corruption 
demonstrates the strength of our Party, and is a common aspiration of all Party 
members and the public as well. The Party has shown a firm determination and 
an unequivocal attitude in strictly investigating and prosecuting serious cases of 
violation of Party discipline involving Party members and officials, including 
some high-ranking ones. This is a clear signal to the whole Party and the whole 
of society that anyone who violates Party discipline and state laws, whoever he 
is and whatever position he holds, will be fully investigated and severely 
punished. This is not empty talk. We must not let up one iota in terms of 
governing the Party with strict discipline. 

We should continue to catch “tigers” as well as “flies”^ when dealing with 
cases of leading officials in violation of Party discipline and state laws as well as 
misconduct and corruption problems that directly affect the people’s livelihood. 
All are equal before the law and Party discipline; whoever is involved in a 
corruption case must be thoroughly and impartially investigated. 

We should continue to build a complete system of combating corruption 
through both punishment and prevention, strengthen education on combating 
corruption and upholding integrity, and promote the culture of clean 
government. We must improve the system of checking and overseeing the 
exercise of power, reinforce state legislation against corruption, improve intra¬ 
party rules, regulations and institutions concerning the fight against corruption 
and upholding integrity, carry forward reforms in areas prone to corruption, and 

ensure that government agencies exercise their power in accordance with 
authorization and procedures. We must enhance checks and supervision over the 
exercise of power, make sure that power is “caged” by the system, and form a 
punishment mechanism to deter corruption, a warning mechanism to prevent 
corruption and a guarantee mechanism to curb corruption. Leading officials at all 
levels must bear firmly in mind the fact that nobody is above the law and that all 
officials must exercise state power to serve the people, be responsible to the 
people and be supervised by the people. We must strengthen the monitoring of 
“the first men in command,” implement democratic centralism, increase 
transparency in administration, and ensure that leading officials do not act in a 
high-handed manner or seek personal gain. 

In combating corruption and upholding integrity we must also oppose ideas 
and practices smacking of privilege. Members of the CPC are at all times 
ordinary members of the working people. Party members are only entitled to 
some personal benefits and job-related functions and powers prescribed by laws 
and policies, and must not seek any personal gain or privilege over and above 
those. The issue of privilege is not only a major concern in our efforts to 
improve Party conduct and build a clean government, but also a crucial problem 
that affects the Party’s and the state’s capacity to preserve their vitality and 
vigor. We must adopt effective measures to resolutely oppose and curb ideas and 
instances of seeking privilege. 

We must mobilize the whole Party to improve Party conduct, uphold 
integrity and combat corruption. Within the scope of their functions and duties, 
Party committees at all levels should bear total leadership responsibility for 
improving Party conduct and building a clean government. We must continue to 
implement and improve the leadership system and working mechanism for 
combating corruption, give full play to the role of Party discipline inspection 
commissions, supervision departments, and judiciary and auditing agencies, and 
work with them in a concerted effort to better improve Party conduct, uphold 
integrity and combat corruption. We must ensure support for Party discipline 
inspection commissions and supervision agencies in performing their duties, and 
show concern and care for people working at these commissions and agencies. 
We should pay special attention to protecting those who are fully aware of Party 
spirit and are courageous enough to stick to principle, and create conditions 
favorable for them to do their jobs. Party discipline inspection commissions and 

supervision agencies at all levels must also step up their efforts to build a 
contingent of honest officials, and improve their capacity to carry out their 
functions and duties, so that they can ensure better inspection and supervision. 

Notes 43

[1] Referring to high-ranking offenders as well as petty ones. - Tr. 

[2] Xun Yue: History as a Mirror (Shen Jian). Xun Yue (148-209) was a philosopher and historian 
of the Eastern Han Dynasty. 


Historical Wisdom Helps Us Combat Corruption and Uphold Integrity 

April 19, 2013 

* Main points of the speech at the fifth group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC 
Central Committee which Xi presided over. 

We should not only draw on historical experiences, but also learn from 
them. We are confronted with a complex and volatile international situation and 
an arduous task of promoting reform, development and stability. To fulfill the 
Two Centenary Goals and realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the 
Chinese nation we must ensure that the Party supervises its own conduct and 
runs itself with strict discipline. We must draw upon the fine culture of clean 
government in Chinese history, steadily improve the Party’s leadership and 
governance skills, and become better able to combat corruption, prevent 
degeneracy and ward off risks. We must also ensure that the Party is always the 
firm leadership core guiding the cause of Chinese socialism. 

To improve Party conduct, uphold integrity and combat corruption, we need 
to continue the successful practices the Party has long accumulated, learn from 
other countries’ beneficial experiences and draw upon the valuable legacy of 
Chinese history. China’s history of combating corruption and its ancient anti¬ 
corruption culture offer enlightenment, as do the failures and successes of the 
past. This historical wisdom can help us do a better job in combating corruption 
and upholding integrity today. 

Through a thorough review of history in China and elsewhere, our Party has 
realized that improving Party conduct, upholding integrity and combating 
corruption are vital for the survival of the Party and the state. The key is to 
remain firmly reliant on the people, maintain close ties with them, and never 
become isolated from them. To achieve this, we must do everything in our 
power to address corruption and other negative phenomena, see to it that the 
Party always identifies itself with the people, and shares their concerns and 
ultimately their destiny. 

The CPC Central Committee has called upon us to improve our working 
practices by opposing formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance. 
This serves as a focus for combating corruption and upholding integrity, as well 
as a starting point for consolidating popular support for the Party’s governance. 
All Party members must understand the political importance of this issue, stay 
alert, strictly adhere to the “two musts,” improve our working practices, and 
crack down on corruption with a strong determination. We must leave our mark, 
like leaving our mark when we tread on stones or grasp steel, and continue to 
win popular trust with new victories in the fight against corruption. 

We must raise public awareness of the need to combat corruption and 
uphold integrity, promote a culture of clean government, and combine the rule of 
law with the rule of virtue. Starting by improving moral and intellectual 
standards will be of fundamental importance because moral purity is essential 
for Marxist parties to stay pure, and moral integrity is a fundamental trait for 
officials to remain clean, honest and upright. We should encourage and guide 
Party members and officials to adhere to their convictions and ideals, be 
intellectually firm as Communists, become morally stronger to pursue clean 
government, and build up their psychological defenses against corruption and 
degeneracy. We should improve Party members and officials intellectually and 
theoretically, strengthen education in and fostering of the Party spirit and bolster 
ethics. We should guide them in studying and applying Marxism-Leninism, Mao 
Zedong Thought, and the system of theories of socialism with Chinese 
characteristics, in developing a solid worldview and a healthy outlook on power 
and career, and in being model practitioners of the socialist maxims of honor and 
disgrace^. Theoretical study and improvement will ensure that Party members 
and officials are fully committed to their work, and high moral standards will 
help them to stay clear-minded in exercising state power. In this way, we can 
also help Party members and officials increase their awareness of the Party’s 
purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, and always preserve the noble 
character and political integrity of Communists. 

Institutions are of fundamental, overall and long-lasting importance, and are 
closely related to the stability of the country. The solution to the problem of 
corruption is to improve the system that checks and oversees the exercise of 
power, grant oversight powers to the people, and make the exercise of power 
more transparent and institutionalized. We should prevent and fight corruption 

more properly and effectively, establish a complete system for preventing and 
combating corruption, and work harder to ensure the stringent enforcement of 
anti-corruption laws and discipline. We should analyze typical cases thoroughly, 
strengthen reform in areas prone to corruption, improve our institutions and 
systems to reduce loopholes to an absolute minimum, and eliminate any 
breeding grounds for corruption through further reform. 

We must tirelessly combat corruption, and always remain vigilant against it. 
We should keep it in mind that “Many worms will disintegrate wood, and a big 
enough crack will lead to the collapse of a wall.”^ We must be tough in 
cracking down on corruption, and ensure that all cases of corruption are 
investigated and that all corrupt officials are punished, catching “tigers” as well 
as “flies” - senior officials as well as junior ones guilty of corruption. In this 
way, we will effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of the people 
and see to it that our officials remain honest and upright, that the government 
remains clean, and that political integrity is upheld. 

Notes 44

[1] On March 4, 2006, Hu Jintao attended a group meeting of the Fourth Session of the Tenth 
National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and held discussions with 
committee members of the China Democratic League and China Association for Promoting Democracy. At 
the meeting, he put forth the socialist maxims of honor and disgrace, which consist of the following eight 
maxims: Loving the motherland is honorable and harming it is disgraceful; serving the people is honorable 
and ignoring them is disgraceful; respect for science is honorable and ignorance is disgraceful; working 
hard is honorable and being lazy is disgraceful; working with and helping others is honorable and profiting 
at their expense is disgraceful; being honest and trustworthy is honorable and sacrificing principles for 
profit is disgraceful; being law-abiding and disciplined is honorable and violating the law and discipline is 
disgraceful; living a simple life is honorable and living extravagantly is disgraceful. 

[2] The Book of Lord Shang (Bhang Jun Shu). This book is a representative Legalist work by Shang 
Yang and his followers. It is also an important basis for research into the legal philosophy of the Shang 
Yang School. Shang Yang (c. 390-338 BC) was a statesman, thinker and major representative of the 
Legalists in the middle period of the Warring States. He initiated a series of reforms in the State of Qin. 
These reforms, known as the Reforms of Lord Shang, introduced a new feudal system in the State of Qin 
and made the state prosperous and strong within a short period of time. 

Improve Party Conduct, Uphold Integrity and Combat 


January 14, 2014 

* Main points of the speech at the Third Plenary Session of the Central Commission for Discipline 
Inspection of the 18th CPC Central Committee. 

We should adhere to the principle that the Party should supervise its own 
conduct and run itself with strict discipline, and strengthen the Party’s leadership 
in improving Party conduct, upholding integrity, and combating corruption. We 
should improve our institutions to better fight against corruption. We must also 
redouble our efforts in political and intellectual education, reinforce stricter Party 
discipline, continue to remove formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and 
extravagance, be severe in cracking down on corruption, and respond to the 
demands of the people. 

In 2013 the CPC Central Committee made it a priority to improve Party 
conduct, uphold integrity and combat corruption. In compliance with the 
decisions and plans made by the Central Committee, the Central Commission for 
Discipline Inspection has fought firmly against corruption by strengthening 
Party discipline, especially by reinforcing political discipline, enhancing 
oversight of enforcement, and improving investigation into and prosecution of 
corruption cases. Through the concerted efforts of Party committees, 
governments, discipline inspection commissions and supervisory agencies at all 
levels, progress has been made in improving Party conduct, ensuring clean 
government and combating corruption. The campaign started with the Political 
Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, emphasizing the exemplary role of the 
Political Bureau. We started to eliminate malpractices and promote integrity by 
solving pressing problems, and we have made remarkable progress. In resolutely 
dealing with cases of corruption, we have caught “tigers” as well as “flies,” and 
thus maintained a tough stance against corrupt officials. We have promoted 
procedure-based exercise of power, strengthened oversight and inspection, and 
opened up the channels for public complaint and oversight. All of this has been 
well received by both officials and the general public. 

While affirming our achievements, we must also be aware that there are 
still breeding grounds for corruption. The fight against corruption remains a 
serious and complex challenge. Instances of misconduct and corruption have had 
an adverse effect on society, and they must be immediately addressed. The 
whole Party must realize that the fight against corruption is a long-term, 
complex, and arduous task. We must be firm in our determination and 
demonstrate great courage in carrying this campaign through to the end. Just as 
we would take a heavy dose of medicine to treat a serious disease, we must 
apply stringent laws to address disorder. 

Establishing a sound system of combating corruption through both 
punishment and prevention represents our national strategy. In 2013 the Central 
Committee issued the “Work Plan for Establishing a Complete System of 
Combating Corruption Through Both Punishment and Prevention (2013-2017).” 
This is the document that guides our strategy. Party committees at all levels must 
thoroughly implement the demands of this document, which is an important 
political task throughout our efforts to promote reform, development and 

In terms of maintaining the intimate relationship between the Party and the 
people, we cannot expect to treat this as a one-off campaign and then rest on our 
laurels. It must be a continuous and relentless effort. Fortunately, we have 
already got off to a good start, and we can take it forward from here in steps. If 
we want to develop a healthy Party culture we must first and foremost have firm 
beliefs, and bear in mind the Party’s nature, fundamental goals and requirements 
of officials. As officials under the leadership of the Party, we must separate 
public and personal interests and put public interests above personal interests. 
Only if we always act for the public good can we be honest and upright in our 
conduct, and remain clean and prudent in exercising power. Problems of 
misconduct often involve the handling of private and public interests, and misuse 
of public funds and state power. Public funds must be used for public purposes, 
and not one cent should be spent on seeking personal gain. State power must be 
exercised for the people, and it must never be used as a tool for private benefit. 
Officials must always bear this in mind, make a clear distinction between public 
and private interests, devote themselves to serving the public, and impose strict 

To fight resolutely against corruption, and prevent the Party from 

succumbing to decay and degeneration through overlong access to power are 
two major political tasks that we must work hard on. We must remain resolute in 
wiping out corruption and show zero tolerance for it. Once a corrupt official is 
identified, we must conduct a thorough investigation. The important thing is to 
take measures to prevent and curb corruption in its earliest stage of development, 
addressing problems of corruption as soon as they are found, in the same way as 
we treat a disease promptly when it is diagnosed. Any delay in dealing with 
corruption may lead to more serious problems, and must not be allowed. Every 
official must bear the following in mind: “Do not try dipping into the public 
coffers because a thieving hand is bound to get caught,and “Contemplating 
good and pursuing it, as if you could not reach it; contemplating evil, and 
shrinking from it, as you would from thrusting a hand into boiling water. 
Officials must be in awe of Party discipline and state laws rather than trust to 
luck in the hope of escaping punishment for corruption. 

We must improve Party conduct, uphold integrity and combat corruption 
through further reform. We must reform the Party’s discipline inspection system, 
improve the system and mechanisms for combating corruption, double the 
effectiveness of oversight over and restraint on power, and ensure the 
independence and authority of discipline inspection commissions at all levels. 
We must improve checks on power, distribute power in a scientific way, and 
form an effective framework for the exercise of power. We must strengthen 
oversight with focus on officials, giving particular attention to those first in 
command and how they exercise their power, and intensify mutual oversight 
within leadership. We must increase transparency, publicize the procedures 
through which power is exercised in accordance with the law, and let the people 
oversee the exercise of power so as to ensure that it is properly used. In 
combating corruption, Party committees should be duty-bound, while discipline 
inspection commissions should take on supervisory responsibilities. They all 
should strengthen the accountability system to prevent our institutions from 
becoming a facade. All Party committees, Party discipline inspection 
commissions, and other relevant departments must fulfill their responsibilities. 
In adopting reform measures, we should keep in mind the task of combating 
corruption through both punishment and prevention, synchronize reform 
measures with the fight against corruption at all stages from preparation to 
deployment and implementation, so as to close all possible loopholes and ensure 
the smooth progress of reform. 

Our compliance with Party discipline should be unconditional. We must 
turn our words into actions, and make sure that Party discipline is fully 
implemented and any violation is investigated. We must not allow our findings 
to become a dusty document resting on the top shelf. Party organizations at all 
levels must increase awareness of the need to abide by the Party’s political 
principles, and discipline inspection commissions at all levels must see their 
priority as safeguarding the Party’s political discipline so as to ensure that all 
Party members align themselves with the CPC Central Committee intellectually 
and politically as well as in their actions. 

The Party draws its strength from its organization and is constantly 
invigorated by it. In order to reinforce the Party’s organizational discipline, we 
must enhance our Party spirit, which is a matter of taking a finn stance. We 
Communists, especially leading officials, must be broad-minded and aim high. 
We must always bear in mind the interests of the Party, the people and the 
country, conscientiously uphold the Party spirit, and stick to our principles. All 
Party members must always remember that we are first and foremost CPC 
members and our primary duties are to work for it, remain loyal to it, and at all 
times identify ourselves with it. All Party members must always remember that 
we are part of the organization, and never neglect our duties and responsibilities 
to the organization. We must trust, rely on, and obey the organization, readily 
accept organizational arrangements and disciplinary restraints, and safeguard the 
unity of the Party. 

Democratic centralism and the system of intra-Party organization activities 
are important institutions of the Party and must be fully implemented. Leading 
bodies and officials at all levels must rigorously follow the reporting system. We 
must reinforce organizational management of Party members, and guide all 
Party members and officials in developing a correct attitude towards the Party 
organization, matching our deeds to our words, speaking the truth, and 
embracing the Party organization’s education and oversight. Party organizations 
at all levels must fully observe organizational discipline, make no exceptions in 
this regard, and have the moral fiber to denounce and rectify violations of Party 
discipline to preserve it as a high-tension line of deterrence. 

Policies and plans made by the Party Central Committee should be 
implemented not only by the Party’s organization departments, publicity 
departments, united front departments, and judicial, procuratorial and public 

security bodies, but also by Party organizations in people’s congresses, 
governments, CPPCC committees, people’s courts, and people’s procuratorates 
at all levels, as well as by Party organizations in public institutions and people’s 
organizations. All such Party organizations must fulfill their duty in this regard. 
Party organizations in general must be accountable to Party committees, report 
their work to Party committees, and perform their work to the full extent of their 
functions and duties under the leadership of Party committees. 

Notes 45

[1] Chen Yi: “Keep Your Hands in Your Own Pockets,” Selected Poems of Chen Yi, Chinese ed., 
People’s Literature Publishing House, Beijing, 1977, p.155. Chen Yi (1901-1972) was a Chinese proletarian 
revolutionary, military commander and political leader, one of the founders and leaders of the People’s 
Liberation Army and one of the marshals of the People’s Republic of China. 

[2] The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 


The CPC Leadership 

Follow a Good Blueprint 

February 28, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the second meeting of the Second Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central 

Confronted with the arduous and heavy tasks of promoting reform, 
development and stability, leading groups and leading officials at all levels must 
act in line with the requirements of the Party Central Committee, bear in mind 
that “empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish,” and 
work energetically and productively to accomplish concrete deeds that can stand 
the test of practice, and survive the scrutiny of the people and history. On our 
immensely large platform of reform, opening up and modernization drive, all of 
us are desirous of doing something, even big things, to prove ourselves 
trustworthy to the Party and the people. Yet, we should also understand that, 
while doing that, we must maintain proper continuity in governance. An official 
in charge of a certain area and for a certain duration should act boldly and 
effectively in work, but he should also ensure consistency and continuity in the 
work. The 18th CPC National Congress laid down the goal for completing the 
building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and furthering the 
reform and opening up, made an overall arrangement for promoting socialism 
with Chinese characteristics in the new conditions, and put forth clear 
requirements to make Party building more scientific in an all-round way. 

Now it is time for the whole Party and people of the whole country to make 
concerted and relentless efforts to implement the spirit of the 18th CPC National 
Congress. Likewise, we must also remain committed to implementing the 
guidelines, principles and policies formulated since the Third Plenary Session of 
the 11th Party Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought 
of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development, and all the 
major strategic arrangements made by the Central Committee, which are to be 
implemented in real earnest. The same is true in treating work at local and 
departmental levels. We have already got in our hands a good blueprint. What 
we should do is to follow it through to the end and make it a success. In this 

regard, we need to have a “nail” spirit. When we use a hammer to drive in a nail, 
a single knock often may not be enough; we must keep knocking until it is well 
in place. Then we can proceed to knock the next one, and continue driving in 
nails till the job is completely done. If we knock here and there without focusing 
on the nail, we may end up squandering our efforts altogether. There is no use in 
saying, “I won’t get the credit for success.” If a blueprint is good, factually 
based, scientifically sound and well-received by the people we should keep 
working on it, one administration after another, and the outcome of our work 
will be real and appreciated and remembered by the people. 

Of course, as practice evolves continuously, our thoughts and work should 
keep up with the changing times, and when we are absolutely sure, we can make 
adjustments and improvements in good time. Nevertheless, we must not allow a 
complete unraveling of policies just because a new leadership takes office, nor 
must we permit a separate agenda with empty fancy slogans flying all over the 
place just to show so-called achievements. Under most circumstances, a new 
look or new atmosphere in work are not related to formulating new plans or 
designing new slogans. Rather, they come about naturally when earnest, down- 
to-earth efforts are made to turn scientifically sound goals in the good blueprint 
into reality by taking stock of new conditions, adopting new ideas and 
employing new measures. Our officials should have a clear understanding of job 
performance, thinking more about working to lay a solid foundation which is 
conducive to long-term development and less about competing pointlessly with 
others, still less about building wasteful, showcase projects to prop up their own 
image. Let our officials be true and practical, dedicated to work and bold to 
shoulder their responsibilities, so as to live up to the expectations of history and 
the people. 


Study for a Brighter Future 

March 1, 2013 

* Main part of the speech at the celebration assembly of the 80th anniversary of the Central Party 
School and the opening ceremony of its 2013 spring semester. 

Our Party has always worked to ensure that all its members, especially 
leading officials, acquire further knowledge. This has proved to be useful for 
developing the cause of the Party and the people. At every major turning point, 
when faced with new circumstances and tasks, the Party has called upon its 
members to study harder. Each time, it has brought about big changes and 
developments for the cause of the Party and the people. At the very beginning of 
reform and opening up in 1978, the Party Central Committee stressed that 
achieving the Four Modernizations - modernization of agriculture, industry, 
national defense, and science and technology - is a great and profound 
revolution. We will have to move forward in this revolution by continuously 
solving new problems. Therefore, all Party members must study and then study 
some more. Compared with the past, we have more to study today, not less, 
because of the new circumstances and tasks confronting us. 

At present, the entire Party must clearly understand and properly handle the 
new situations and problems arising from the development of the country. This 
is an important challenge. Some of the problems we face today are old - either 
problems that we have long failed to solve properly, or old problems with new 
manifestations, but most of our problems are new. The reason why new and 
unfamiliar problems keep surfacing is because of the changes in the world, in 
our country, and in our Party. The best possible way to understand and address 
the problems, whether they are new or old, long-standing or old ones in new 
form, is to enhance our capabilities through study. In the process of study, we 
should not only put what we know into practice, but also acquire new practical 
problem-solving skills. 

The various goals and tasks set by the 18th Party National Congress, 
including adapting ourselves to a complex and volatile international situation, 

safeguarding overall reform, development and stability and doing good work in 
all areas, impose new demands on Party members’ capabilities. Throughout its 
history of revolution, construction and reform our Party has encountered 
numerous difficulties, and what has been achieved in our cause has come from 
painstaking explorations and hard work. There is simply no possibility that we 
can advance our cause and achieve our goals without ever encountering any 
impediment. It can be anticipated that various difficulties, risks and challenges 
will continue to surface on our way forward. The key lies in our ability to 
resolve, manage and conquer them. 

Generally speaking, in some areas our abilities already meet the demands of 
the development of the Party and the country, but in others they are inadequate. 
As the circumstances and challenges we face continue to change, we become 
less capable of responding to their demands. If we do not improve our 
professional level at every opportunity, over time we will lose the ability to 
fulfill the arduous tasks of leadership in reform and opening up, and socialist 

During the Yan’an period, our Party became aware of its dread of 
incompetence. The Party Central Committee pointed out clearly that our people 
suffered a dread. It was not an economic or political dread, but a dread of 
incompetence. The limited bank of abilities accumulated over the years had been 
depleted with each passing day, and the coffers were empty. 

Are we faced with the same problem today? My answer is yes. Many 
people have the aspiration to do their work well and are full of enthusiasm, but 
they are lacking in the abilities required to achieve this in changing 
circumstances. In response to new circumstances and problems, they cling to old 
patterns of thinking and old practices. The problem stems from ignorance of 
general trends and new approaches, as well as inadequate knowledge and 
abilities. They rush headlong into their work and act blindly. As a result, 
although they are conscientious in their work, and spare themselves no effort, 
they either take the wrong approach or act in a way that defeats their purpose, or 
even “head south while their chariot is pointing north.” In such cases, it is often 
the case that our people have no alternative when the tried and trusted methods 
fail, or they dare not adopt sterner measures when soft ones prove inadequate. 

In my opinion, this will continue to be the case for a long time to come. 

Therefore, all members, especially those in positions of leadership at all levels, 
must have a sense of crisis and constantly improve their professional 
competence. Only by doing this can we achieve the Two Centenary Goals, and 
make the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation come true. 

Nobody is born with knowledge. We all have to acquire it through study 
and practice. In modern times knowledge is becoming outdated at an ever- 
increasing pace, with a whole range of new knowhow, new information and new 
states of affairs cascading over us. Academics have noted that up to the 18th 
century the body of human knowledge doubled within a period of around 90 
years. Since the 1990s there has been an exponential acceleration in this process 
- the body of human knowledge is now estimated to double every three to five 
years. The amount of knowledge produced by human society over the past 50 
years exceeds the aggregate generated over the previous 3,000 years. It is also 
believed that in the age of agro-farming, a few years of study sufficed for one’s 
lifetime, in the age of industrial economy, one had to study for at least ten years 
to obtain all the knowledge necessary for one’s life, and in this age of knowledge 
economy, one has to keep up with the times through life-long study. 

If we fail to improve our knowledge in a wide variety of areas, if we do not 
take the initiative to learn about science and culture, if we are unwilling to 
conscientiously update our knowledge and improve our knowledge structure, 
develop the broadest possible perspective and broaden our horizons, we will not 
improve our professional competence. As a consequence we will not be able to 
grasp the initiative and prevail. Ultimately, the future will pass us by. Therefore, 
all Party members, especially leading officials at all levels, must have a sense of 
urgency and study more. 

It is precisely from this strategic perspective that the 18th Party National 
Congress highlighted the important task of building the Party into a learning, 
service-oriented, and innovative Marxist governing party. Studying should be 
placed first because it is a prerequisite fund of knowledge with which we will be 
able to better serve the people and stay innovative. Since we are all leading 
officials who shoulder duties and responsibilities entrusted to us by the Party and 
the people, we have to constantly raise our professional level, enrich our 
knowledge, dedicate ourselves to our work, and improve all aspects of our 
performance. Whether or not leading officials improve themselves through study 
is not only a personal matter, but a big issue concerning the development of the 

cause of the Party and the country. An ancient scholar expressed it thus, “One 
may or may not study for the purpose of becoming an official, but officials must 
be learned to fulfill their duties.”^ 

We must study in order to improve our ability to work in a more scientific 
way, with greater foresight and initiative, and to keep up with the times, follow 
the law of development, and be innovative in our leadership and policy-making. 
We must study in order to avoid bewilderment resulting from inadequate 
knowledge, blindness resulting from insensibility, and chaos resulting from 
ignorance. We must also study in order to overcome professional deficiencies, 
the dread of incompetence and outdated capabilities. Otherwise, we are no better 
than “the blind man on a blind horse who is in danger of falling into a deep pool 
at nighf’f^ - an imprudent and inadvisable course of action, however 
courageous. This could lead us to failure in work, losing our way and falling 
behind the times. 

The cause of building Chinese socialism is a great and unprecedented 
undertaking. Therefore, our approach to study should be comprehensive, 
systematic and exploratory. We should have focus in our study and widen the 
scope of our knowledge. We should learn both from books and through practice. 
We should learn from ordinary people, from experts and scholars, and draw 
upon beneficial experiences of foreign countries as well. We should nourish 
ourselves with both theoretical and practical knowledge. 

First of all, we should study Marxist theory. This is a special requirement 
that will help us to work well, and also a necessary requirement that will equip 
leading officials to excel in leadership. Mao Zedong once stated, “Our Party’s 
fighting capacity will be much greater.. .if there are one hundred or two hundred 
comrades with a grasp of Marxism-Leninism which is systematic and not 
fragmentary, genuine and not hollow.”^ 

This task still confronts our Party today. We must acquire a true grasp of 
Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the 
important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on 
Development. And we must especially have a good understanding of the Marxist 
stand, viewpoint and method that permeate all these ideas. This can enable us to 
remain sharp-eyed and clear-minded and gain a profound understanding of the 

laws of the development of human society, the laws of building socialism, and 
the laws of governance by the CPC. This can help us stay firm in our ideals and 
convictions, and adhere to the correct guiding thoughts and hold to the correct 
orientation in any complex situation. This can also enable us to lead the people 
along the correct road and make progress in building Chinese socialism. 

Leading officials must study the Party’s guidelines, principles and policies, 
and the country’s laws and regulations. An understanding of these is a basic 
preparation we must make for our work, and it is also a political attainment we 
must have. Without this body of knowledge, how can we make policy decisions 
and solve problems? And we may even end up with mistakes in our work. 

Leading officials at all levels should study the history of both the Party and 
the country and remain patriotic and dedicated to them. We should study the 
development of the Party and the country, draw upon their historical 
experiences, and understand major events and figures in the history of the Party 
and the country. History is the best textbook, so studying it will teach us to 
understand the country and the Party, and open the gates to a bright future. 

Leading officials should study economics, politics, history, culture, science 
and technology, and knowledge of social, military and foreign affairs related to 
their work. They should become more knowledgeable and more professionally 
competent. They should learn what they need in their work and study what they 
do not know, and acquire knowledge that is conducive to good leadership and 
high performance. In doing so, they will become experts as well as better leaders 
in their fields. 

Leading officials should also study history and culture, especially 
traditional Chinese culture, to develop wisdom and become more refined. 
Traditional Chinese culture is both extensive and profound, and to acquire the 
essence of various thoughts is beneficial to the formation of a correct worldview, 
outlook on life and sense of values. 

Our ancient scholars commented that our aspirations should be as follows: 
in politics, “being the first to worry about the affairs of the state and the last to 
enjoy oneself”^; as patriots, “not daring to ignore the country’s peril no matter 
how humble one’s position”^ and “doing everything possible to save the 
country in its peril without regard to personal fortune or misfortune”^; on 

integrity, “never being corrupted by riches and honors, never departing from 
principle despite poverty or humble origin, and never submitting to force or 
threat”^; on selfless dedication, “dying with a loyal heart shining in the pages of 
history”^ and “giving all, till the heart beats its last.”^ These maxims reflect 
the fine traditions and spirit of the Chinese nation, and we should all keep them 
alive and have them further developed. 

Leading officials should also study literature. They should refine their tastes 
and develop uplifting interests through appreciation of works of literature and 
art. Many revolutionaries of the older generation had a profound literary 
background and were well versed in poetry. 

In short, history helps us understand the failures and successes of the past, 
and learn lessons from the rise and fall of states. Poetry stimulates us, sends our 
dreams skywards and makes us witty. Integrity improves our judgment and helps 
us cultivate a sense of honor and disgrace. We should not only study Chinese 
history and culture, but also open our eyes to the rest of the world and learn 
about the histories and cultures of other peoples. We should give preference to 
what is uplifting in these histories and cultures and reject what is base - 
obtaining enlightenment and employing it for our own use. 

Leading officials must direct their studies correctly. If they deviate from the 
guiding principle of Marxism, they will be studying without a clear aim and may 
go astray. They might easily become confused when the situation becomes 
complex, and might fall victim to defective thinking. Depart from the correct 
orientation, they might not only fail to acquire sound knowledge, but also find 
themselves deceived and misled by tempting fallacies and ideas that are 
unrealistic, ridiculous or absurd. 

The purpose of study lies in practice. The ultimate goal of leading officials 
who dedicate greater effort to their studies lies in honing their capability in work 
and in solving problems. A Chinese saying goes like this, “Empty talk harms the 
country, while hard work makes it flourish.” This demands real efforts in both 
study and work. We all should bear in mind the historical lessons of Zhao 
KuoJdLI 0 f the Warring States Period (475-221 BC), who fought all his battles on 
paper, or the scholars of the Western and Eastern Jin dynasties (265-420) who 
became ineffective due to spending too much time in useless debates. 

Reading and application are both ways of learning, and the latter is more 
important. Leading officials should adopt the Marxist approach by combining 
theory with practice. In the course of their studies there should always be 
questions in mind. We should respect the people as our mentors, learn from 
work, and work on the basis of learning, making use of what we have learned 
and applying it to real-life situations. Study and practice should always promote 
each other. We should disdain empty talk and never be a “Krikun.” 

A genuine interest in the subject is the best teacher. This concept is 
reflected in a Chinese saying, “Regarding knowledge, those who are devoted to 
it learn better than those who are aware of it, and those who enjoy it the most are 
the best students.”^ Leading officials should pursue study as a quest, a hobby, 
and an element of a healthy lifestyle, which will make them happy and eager to 
learn. With a keen interest in study we will be enthusiastic volunteers rather than 
reluctant conscripts, and study will be a lifelong habit instead of a temporary 

Study and deliberation complement each other, as do study and practice. As 
another Chinese saying goes, “Reading without thinking makes one muddled; 
thinking without reading makes one flighty.”^ If you have problems in mind 
and want to find solutions, you should start studying and study conscientiously. 
You must “learn extensively, inquire earnestly, think profoundly, discriminate 
clearly and practice sincerely.”^ 

We should be adept at making time for study. I often hear officials say that 
they would love to study more, but they “just don’t have time because of their 
busy work schedules.” This sounds superficially plausible, but it can never be an 
excuse for slackening in study. In stressing the need to improve our work, the 
Party Central Committee has suggested that we spend more time thinking and 
studying, and cut down on meaningless banquets and formalities. 

These days, there is a general public grievance that some officials do more 
partying than studying. “Those in the dark are in no position to light the way for 
others.”^ This will have an adverse effect on our work, and will ultimately 
hinder our overall development. If we bury our heads in our work to the 
detriment of our studies, we run the risk of mental sclerosis and vulgarization. 
When engaged in study we should be focused and avoid distractions. Our 

approach should be persistent, and not that of the dilettante. We must gain a true 
grasp of what we are studying, rather than reading superficially without 
understanding. Leading officials must place a high priority on learning and study 
assiduously. As long as we apply ourselves, even half an hour of reading a day, 
just a few pages, will add up over time. 

In summary, study makes progress. To a large extent we Chinese 
Communists have relied on learning for our achievements, and we will surely 
continue to do so in the future. If our officials, our Party, our country and our 
people are to make progress, we must be advocates of learning. We must study, 
study, then study some more, and we must practice, practice, then practice some 

Notes 46

[1] Xun Zi. 

[2] Liu Yiqing: New Accounts of Tales of the World (Shi Shuo Xin Yu). Liu Yiqing (403-444) was a 
man of letters of the State of Song during the Southern Dynasty (420-589). New Accounts of Tales of the 
World is a literary collection of words and stories of scholar-bureaucrats from the late Han Dynasty (206 
BC-AD 220) to the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420). 

[3] Mao Zedong: “The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War,” Selected Works 
of Mao Zedong, Vol. II, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1975, p. 209. 

[4] See note 3, p. 68. 

[5] Lu You: Feelings After Illness. 

[6] Lin Zexu: Farewell to My Family on My Way to Exile. Lin Zexu (1785-1850) was a patriot and 
statesman of the Qing Dynasty who advocated resistance to Western invasion and a ban on the non- 
medicinal consumption of opium during the Opium War. 

[7] The Mencius (Meng Zi). 

[8] Wen Tianxiang: Passing Lingdingyang. Wen Tianxiang (1236-1283) was a minister and writer of 
the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279). 

[9] Zhuge Liang: Second Petition on Taking the Field (Hou Chu Shi Biao). 

[10] Zhao Kuo (7-260 BC), a high-ranking military officer of the State of Zhao during the Warring 
States Period, was an armchair strategist without any real experience of battle. In 260 BC, he fell into a trap 
set by Bai Qi, a general of the State of Qin, and found his army surrounded by the enemy in Changping. 
Zhao Kuo failed to break through the encirclement and was killed. More than 400,000 Zhao soldiers were 
captured and buried alive. 

|T11 The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). 

£12] See note 37, p. 199. 

[13] See note 40, p. 199. 

[14] The Mencius (MengZi). 


“Governing a Big Country Is as Delicate as Frying a Small Fish” 

March 19, 2013 

* Part of the answers to a joint interview by the press of the BRICS countries. 

When I meet foreign leaders, one question they often ask in amazement is 
this: How can one govern such a large country as China? Indeed, it is not easy to 
govern a country with 1.3 billion people. Just getting to know the situation there 
can be a really difficult task. As I often say, it takes a good deal of effort to know 
China, and just visiting a place or two is not really enough. China has 9.6 million 
square kilometers of land, 56 ethnic groups and a total of 1.3 billion people. 
Thus, when trying to learn about China, one needs to guard against drawing 
conclusions based on partial information. 

An ancient Chinese proverb says, “Prime ministers must have served as 
local officials, and great generals must have risen from the ranks.Our 
mechanism for selecting officials in China also requires work experience at local 
levels. For instance, I once worked in a rural area as a Party secretary at a 
production brigade. Later I served in various posts at county, municipal, 
provincial and central levels. Extensive experience gained from working at local 
levels can help officials develop a sound attitude towards the people, know what 
the country is really like and what the people really need, be better versed in 
various jobs and professions, and become more competent and effective for 
meeting future requirements for good work performance. 

There is a tremendous amount of work to do in meeting the people’s daily 
needs, ensuring the smooth running of society and the normal functioning of the 
state apparatus, and building and managing 

the governing party. As the people have given me this job, I must always 
keep them in the highest place in my heart, bearing in mind their deep trust and 
the heavy responsibilities they have placed on me. In such a big, populous and 
complicated country as ours, we the leaders must have an in-depth knowledge of 
the national conditions, and learn what the people think and what they want. We 

must act self-consciously and with the utmost care “as if we were treading on 
thin ice, and standing on the edge of an abyss.We must cultivate an attitude 
of “governing a big country is as delicate as frying a small fish,”^ never 
slackening our efforts or being negligent in the slightest, and always devoting 
ourselves to work and the public interest. The people are where we draw our 
strength. As long as we stand with our people through thick and thin, there will 
be no difficulty that can’t be overcome and no task that can’t be accomplished. 

As for my workload, you can well imagine that working in such a job can 
hardly leave me any free time. There are so many things crying out to be done. 
Of course, I try to prioritize my work. “Many hands make light work.” We have 
within the central leadership an effective mechanism featuring both division of 
labor and coordination. So we go about our respective duties while working in 
concert to get the job done properly. 

Though very busy, most of the time 1 manage to “snatch a little leisure here 
and there.Whenever 1 have time, 1 spend it with my family. 

1 have quite a few hobbies, and my most favorite one is reading, which has 
become my way of life. 1 am also a sports fan. 1 like swimming and hiking, and 
when 1 was young 1 enjoyed playing football and volleyball. 1 wish to 
congratulate Brazil for hosting the FIFA World Cup again. What makes sports 
competitions, especially football matches, fascinating is their unpredictability. 
During the last World Cup we had Paul the Octopus. I wonder if there will be 
another octopus next year to predict match results. The Brazilian team has the 
home-ground advantage, and I wish them good luck. 

Notes 47

[I] Han Fei Zi. Han Fei (c. 280-233 BC) was the major representative of the Legalist school in the 
late Warring States Period. His works were collected in the book Han Fei Zi. 

12] The Book of Songs (Shi Jing). 

[3] Lao Zi (Dao De Jing). 

[4] Li She: Written on the Wall of the Monks ’ Quarters in Helin Temple. Li She (dates unknown) was 
a poet of the Tang Dynasty. 


Train and Select Good Officials

June 28, 2013 

* Part of the speech at the National Conference on Organizational Work. 

At present, all Party members and people of all ethnic groups in China are 
making concerted efforts to complete the building of a moderately prosperous 
society in all respects and realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. 

Confronted with the present complex and unpredictable international situation 
and arduous domestic tasks of continuing reform and development and 
maintaining stability, we must “be prepared to carry out a great undertaking with 
many new historic features.” - This is quoted from the political report to the 
18th National Congress of the CPC. With its profound connotations, the idea of 
“new historic features” represents an important conclusion that has been made 
after thoroughly reviewing and analyzing the development trends both at home 
and abroad. 

To carry out a great undertaking with many new historic features, and to 
accomplish the goals and tasks set forth at the 18th CPC National Congress, the 
emphasis should be laid on our Party and our officials. This means we must 
ensure that the Party is always the core of leadership during the historic process 
of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, and we must build a large 
contingent of high-caliber officials. 

Our Party has always attached great importance to the selection and 
appointment of upright and talented people, and has always regarded the 
selection and appointment of officials as an issue of crucial and fundamental 
significance to the cause of the Party and the people. Employing suitable 
officials represents the key to governance. As our ancestors said, “Exaltation of 
the virtuous is fundamental to governance,”^ and “Employing capable officials 
represents the top priority of governance.”^ 

In recent years, Party committees and organization departments at all levels 
have implemented the Party policy on personnel management, and have done a good job of selecting and appointing officials. However, there are still some 
problems which, if not properly resolved, will demoralize both the Party 
members and the general public. 

At present, there are three questions that are of great concern: what a good 
official is, how to become a good official, and how to use the right officials for 
the right job. Good answers and appropriate solutions to the three questions will 
be a proof of good management of personnel. 

First, what is a good official? This should be a question with a clear and 
ready answer, for there are clear requirements specified in the Party 
Constitution. However, some people are confused when they see misconduct in 
the selection and appointment of officials, when unqualified officials are 
selected at some localities, and when unqualified officials are still promoted, 
even against regulations. This shows that we need to improve our work in the 
organization departments. If our selection of officials leads only to confusion 
over the criteria for good officials, it is obvious that those selected will be only 
bad examples for the public. We must think more about this issue! 

Generally speaking, good officials should be of moral integrity and 
professional competence. However, there were different criteria in different 
historical periods. During the revolutionary war period, good officials needed to 
be loyal to the Party, brave and skillful in battle, and unafraid to sacrifice their 
lives. During the socialist construction period, good officials needed to be 
politically and professionally competent. In the early years of the reform and 
opening up, good officials had to uphold the guideline, principles and policies 
set forth at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, have 
professional knowledge and be determined to carry out reforms. At the current 
stage, we require that good officials be politically reliable, professionally 
competent and morally upright, and are trusted by the people. 

In summary, good officials must be firm in their ideals and convictions, 
willing to serve the people, diligent in work, ready to take on responsibilities, 
honest and upright. 

To be firm in their ideals and convictions means that Party officials must 
cherish the lofty ideal of communism, sincerely believe in Marxism, strive 
ceaselessly for socialism with Chinese characteristics, and unswervingly uphold 

the basic theories, guideline, program, experience and requirements of the Party. 

To be willing to serve the people means that Party officials must act as 
servants of the people, be loyal to the people, and serve them wholeheartedly. 

To be diligent in work means that Party officials must be dedicated to their 
work in a down-to-earth, realistic and pragmatic manner, and take solid and 
tangible measures to make achievements that can prove their worth in practice, 
survive the scrutiny of the people and stand the test of time. 

To be ready to take on responsibilities means that Party officials must 
adhere to principles with a responsible attitude, and have the courage to take 
resolute actions in the face of major issues of principle, to tackle difficulties 
head-on in the face of conflicts, to step forward in the face of crises, to admit 
their share of mistakes and to resolutely fight against misconduct. 

To be honest and upright means that Party officials must adopt a cautious 
attitude towards the exercise of power by holding it in respect and keeping it 
under control in a bid to sustain their political life, and make constant efforts to 
maintain their political integrity against corruption. 

These requirements might be easy to understand, but they are not so easy to 

They are also important requirements that 1 have stressed on various 
occasions for some time now. Here I would like to lay special emphasis on two 
aspects: ideals and convictions, and readiness to take on responsibilities, which 
are relatively outstanding issues facing our officials at the current stage. 

To be firm in their ideals and convictions is the supreme criterion for good 
officials. No matter how competent an official is, he cannot be regarded as the 
sort of good official that we need if he is not firm in his ideals and convictions, 
does not believe in Marxism nor socialism with Chinese characteristics, is 
unqualified politically, and cannot weather political storms. Only those who are 
firm in their ideals and convictions will adopt an unequivocal approach towards 
major issues of principle, build “diamond-hard bodies” to withstand any 
corrosion, remain dauntless when facing political storms, firmly resist all kinds 
of temptations, and act in a reliable and trustworthy manner at any critical moment. 

Ideals and convictions refer to people’s aspirations. As one of our ancestors 
said, “Aspirations can reach any place however far it is, even over mountains 
and seas; and it can break through any defense however tough it is, even as 
strong as the best armor and shield.”^ This shows how strong and invincible 
people can be if they only have lofty aspirations. During China’s revolution 
development and reform, innumerable Party members laid down their lives for 
the cause of the Party and the people. What supported them was the moral 
strength gained from the utmost importance they attached to their revolutionary 

It should be fully admitted that most of our officials are firm in their ideals 
and convictions, and are politically reliable. Nevertheless, there are some Party 
officials who fail to meet these qualifications. Some are skeptical about 
communism, considering it a fantasy that will never come true; some do not 
believe in Marxism-Leninism but in ghosts and gods, and seek spiritual solace in 
feudal superstitions, showing intense interest in fortune-telling, worship of 
Buddha and “god’s advice” for solving their problems; some have little sense of 
principle, justice, and right and wrong, and perform their duties in a muddle- 
headed manner; some even yearn for Western social systems and values, losing 
their confidence in the future of socialism; and others adopt an equivocal attitude 
towards political provocations against the leadership of the CPC, the path of 
socialism with Chinese characteristics and other matters of principle, passively 
avoid relevant arguments without the courage to express their opinions, or even 
deliberately deliver ambiguous messages. Isn’t it a monstrous absurdity that 
Party officials, especially high-ranking ones, take no position in the face of 
major issues of principle, political incidents and sensitive issues? 

Some say that officials need to “cherish their reputation.” This depends on 
what kind of “reputation” they are cherishing. Is it a “reputation” which will be 
applauded by people with ulterior motives, or is it a reputation for acting in the 
interests of the Party and the people? A Party member should only cherish the 
latter reputation, and it would be calamitous if he were bent on gaining the 

Why are formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance prevalent 
nowadays? Why are some officials becoming corrupt or even committing 

betrayal and defecting to the enemy, ending up as criminals? In the final 
analysis, it is because they are not firm in their ideals or convictions. I have often 
said that ideals and convictions are the moral “marrow” of Communists. To be 
firm in our ideals and convictions will “harden our bones,” while an absence of 
ideals and convictions or wavering in our ideals and convictions will lead to fatal 
moral weakness. 

Facts have repeatedly proved that the most dangerous moment is when one 
wavers in or begins to show doubt about one’s ideals and convictions. I have 
long been wondering if we were confronted with a complex situation such as a 
“color revolution,” would all our officials act resolutely to safeguard the 
leadership of the Party and the socialist system? I believe most Party members 
and officials are capable of doing so. 

During the revolutionary war, whether an official was firm in his ideals and 
convictions was judged by whether he could risk his life for the cause of the 
Party and the people, and whether he could charge ahead as soon as the bugle 
sounded. This was a most direct test. There are still tests of life and death at our 
current stage of peaceful development, but there is a much smaller number of 
them. As a result, it is really difficult to test whether an official is firm in his 
ideals and convictions. Even X-rays, CT scans and MRIs won’t help. 

Nevertheless, there are still ways to test our officials. We need to find out 
whether they have the political determination in the face of major political 
challenges, bear in mind the fundamental purpose of the Party, perform their 
duties in an extremely responsible manner, are the first to bear hardships and the 
last to enjoy comforts, are ready to take on responsibilities in the face of urgent, 
difficult and dangerous tasks, and resist the temptations of power, money and 
sex. Such a test cannot be accomplished overnight based on a few tasks that an 
official fulfills or a few pledges that he makes; it is a process that depends on the 
official’s behavior over a long period, even throughout his life. 

It is essential that Party officials uphold principles and readily take on 
responsibilities. “Avoiding responsibilities is the greatest disgrace for an 
official.” The responsibilities an official takes on demonstrate his breadth of 
vision, courage and competence. The greater responsibilities one takes on, the 
greater undertaking one can accomplish. 

With the “nice guy” mentality currently prevailing among some officials, it 
has become commonplace that many officials dare not criticize errors or take on 
responsibilities, or are unwilling to do so. Some officials keep on good terms 
with everybody at the expense of principles, for they are afraid of offending 
people and losing votes, holding a belief in the vulgar philosophy of “more 
flowers and fewer thorns.” They mind nothing but their own business and will 
do nothing unless their personal interests are affected, being satisfied with 
muddling along and accomplishing nothing at all. Some officials are not 
fulfilling their duties properly. They sidestep difficult problems and matters of 
public concern, argue and pass the buck, and tackle their responsibilities in a 
perfunctory manner, with their delay turning small problems into big ones and 
big problems into dreadful troubles. Some officials are smooth characters who 
handle matters in an overly “clever” manner, pick easy jobs and posts while 
shirking hard ones, think of nothing but self-preservation in the face of 
challenges, rush to claim credit for success, and evade responsibility when any 
problem crops up. What is more frightening is that some of these officials are 
popular, even getting on well in official circles, gaining more than others while 
contributing less. How can the cause of the Party and the people proceed if there 
are a lot of “nice guys,” people of “smooth character,” those “who always pass 
the buck to others” or act like “weeds atop the wall”? These problems are 
extremely dangerous, and major efforts must be made to solve them. 

Ultimately, selflessness leads to fearlessness and the courage to take on 
responsibilities. “Selflessness gives us peace of mind.” Good officials must 
attach the utmost importance to their responsibilities, put the principles and 
cause of the Party and the interests of the people first, take an unequivocal and 
tough stance when addressing problems, perform their duties in an 
uncomplaining and diligent manner, and see their efforts through to the final 
result. “Sturdy grass withstands high winds; true gold stands the test of fire.” For 
the cause of the Party and the people, our officials should be bold enough to 
think, to carry out initiatives and to take the consequences, serving as the “sturdy 
grass” and “true gold” of our times. 

Of course, being ready to take on responsibilities is for the cause of the 
Party and the people, not for personal fame. Being arrogant and overbearing is 
not being courageous to take on responsibilities. During the Spring and Autumn 
Period, there was a senior official named Zheng Kaofu, who served several dukes of the State of Song.
He had a reputation for being highly self-disciplined. 
He had a motto engraved on a ding in his family ancestral temple, which read, 
“Head down when 1 was promoted the first time, back hunched when promoted 
the second time, and waist bent when promoted the third time. No one insults me 
if 1 keep close to the wall when walking along the street. What I need only is this 
vessel to cook porridge in.”-^ 1 am deeply impressed by this story. Our officials 
are officials of the Party, and their power is granted by the Party and the people. 
Thus, they should make ever-bolder efforts and show ever-greater determination 
in their work, and conduct themselves in a modest and prudent manner free from 
arrogance and rashness. 

Second, how can one become a good official? Good officials do not emerge 
spontaneously. To become a good official, both personal effort and training by 
Party organizations are necessary. For officials, their personal effort is essential, 
because this is the decisive internal factor in their personal development. 

The commitment to the Party’s cause, theoretical consciousness and moral 
standards of an official are not enhanced automatically alongside a longer Party 
standing or a higher post. Rather, the enhancement requires lifelong endeavors. 
To become a good official, one needs to constantly remold one’s subjective 
world, and strengthen one’s commitment to the Party and moral refinement. One 
needs to stringently comply with the Party Constitution and the requirements for 
Party members, “being strict with oneself and lenient with others.”^ Party 
members must always behave in a proper manner, scrutinize themselves, keep 
alert to “resist the myriad temptations of the dazzling world,” and be honest and 
hardworking, clean and upright. 

Learning is the ladder of progress. Officials need to be good at learning and 
thinking, conscientiously study Marxist theories, especially the theoretical 
system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, focus on the standpoints, 
viewpoints and methods of these theories, and improve their capacity for 
strategic, innovative, dialectical, and bottom-line thinking, so that they are able 
to correctly judge contemporary situations, and remain clear-headed and 
determined politically. They also need to enrich their knowledge of various 
subjects, improve their structure of learning, and accumulate experiences, so as 
to lay a solid foundation for the performance of their duties. 

In addition to learning, good officials also need to focus on practice. 

“Hearing is not as good as seeing, and seeing is not as good as experiencing.”^ 
Knowledge and experience are like the two wings of an eagle, which can fly 
high and far only if it wants to see the outside world and braves storms. The 
harsher the conditions and the more the difficulties, the more an official will be 
tempered. Officials should go to the grassroots to see the real situation and 
communicate with the people, and then they will be able to refine themselves 
and improve their abilities in their part of the work for reform and opening up, 
stability and serving the people. 

Good officials need to be trained by Party organizations. We need to focus 
more on the training of officials along with the changes of the circumstances and 
the development of the cause of the Party and the people. In this training, we 
must pay more attention to education on commitment to the Party, virtue and 
morality, awareness about the Party’s ultimate goal, and sense of serving the 
people. We also need to strengthen the training of officials in practical 
circumstances to facilitate their progress. Training in practical circumstances is 
not a way to get “gilded,” nor is it a routine process before promotion. If this is 
the case, officials won’t devote themselves wholeheartedly to the training and 
won’t keep in close touch with the people. The training will only be a show. 

Moreover, we need to enhance supervision of officials’ conduct on a 
regular basis. The exercise of power without supervision will definitely lead to 
corruption. This is an axiomatic law. It is not an easy process to train an official, 
so necessary measures should be adopted to better manage and supervise 
officials to keep them on the alert “as if they were treading on thin ice or 
standing on the edge of an abyss.” Heart-to-heart talks with officials are needed, 
so that their shortcomings are pointed out in time, and their enthusiasm is 
encouraged. This is a good tradition that we need to carry on. 

Third, how can we ensure officials’ good performance? To employ good 
officials after they are adequately trained is the key. What is the purpose of 
training if we don’t employ good officials or don’t let them play their role? 
Employment of a competent person will attract more competent people, and all 
the others will take them as examples. The kind of officials we employ is a 
political weathervane which determines the conduct of our officials and even the 
conduct of the whole Party. 

It must be noted that some localities and departments are not adopting a correct approach to appointing officials. Some opportunistic officials with 
doubtful integrity and insufficient professional competence get promoted 
frequently, while those who devote themselves to work and do not build social 
connections for promotion do not have such chances. This has given rise to 
strong discontent among officials and the general public. Party committees and 
organization departments at all levels need to adhere to the principle that the 
Party should supervise the performance of officials and the correct approach to 
official appointment, select officials on the basis of both moral integrity and 
professional competence with priority given to the former, try to select and 
appoint virtuous and competent people in a timely manner, and place them in 
suitable posts according to their abilities. Only in this way can good and 
competent officials be selected and employed. 

To employ officials, the most important thing is to know them. If we do not 
know them thoroughly and accurately enough we may employ them in an 
inappropriate way. “Having no idea of a person’s weakness and strength, the 
weak part of the strength or the strong part of the weakness, we have no ground 
for appointing or even training that person.”^ We cannot judge an official by 
impression or personal feeling. We must have a good system and methods to 
evaluate officials, with reflections through various channels, at various levels 
and from various perspectives. 

We need to keep a close watch on officials and observe their approach to 
major issues, their concern for the people, their moral conduct, their attitude 
towards fame and fortune, their realm of thought, their ways of handling matters 
and results, and their work competence. The evaluation and observation of 
officials are done in day-to-day work, but the best time is at major events and 
critical moments. “To understand good music only after singing a thousand 
songs; to find a fine sword only after appreciating a thousand swords.”^ The 
performance of an official is reflected in his work, and his reputation is gained 
from the public. So we need to go to the grassroots to hear opinions from the 
people, and judge an official’s moral conduct in “big events” as well as in “small matters.” 

To employ good officials, we must observe their performance and moral 
conduct on an overall, long-term and logical basis. Those who are competent, 
have distinctive personalities, are ready to take on responsibilities, and dare to offend some people for the sake of upholding principles may receive different 
comments. Party organizations must give them a correct evaluation. It is also 
difficult to accurately assess the performance of officials. We need to improve 
the methods and means of assessment. In the performance appraisal of officials, 
we should pay equal attention to economic growth and the original economic 
basis, and to both tangible and intangible achievements, and integrate indicators 
and achievements with regard to the improvement of the people’s livelihood, 
social progress and the ecological environment. We must no longer judge the 
performance of officials merely by GDP growth rates. Some officials tend to 
make abrupt decisions, start projects without second thoughts, and finally leave a 
mess behind, but they still get promoted without being held accountable. We 
cannot let it happen any more. I have said that we need to implement 
responsibility systems to address such issues, and hold the relevant officials 
accountable throughout their lifetime. The organization department of the Party 
Central Committee should see to this immediately. 

To employ good officials we need to take a scientific approach and appoint 
the right person, at the right time and for the right position.

Currently, some localities tend to appoint officials according to seniority or for seeking balance 
rather than in accordance with their merits, suitability or professional abilities. 
As a result, the appointed officials find it difficult to perform their duties, thus  leaving problems unsolved and work unaccomplished. 

What kind of official to appoint and what position is suitable for him should 
be part of the consideration of the requirement of the work. We shouldn’t 
appoint an official simply because there is a post, or take it as a means of reward. 

“A good horse can run along dangerous paths but cannot plow the fields like an ox;
a strong cart can carry heavy loads but cannot cross rivers like a boat.”


 [ THE American: "choosing the right tool" ; “If all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail” - Abraham Maslow  :  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow   ... http://en.qstheory.cn/2021-03/24/c_607654.htm < link ]

We  should have a good sense of acquiring talented people through different channels 
and by different methods, treat them as treasures, and let them fully display their 
abilities. Only by so doing will large numbers of good officials emerge to 
contribute their wisdom and knowledge. 

There is a phenomenon that we must notice. To judge an official on his 
work performance in a locality or a unit, people have their own comments, 
practice has its proof, and leaders are clear in mind, but the final appointment is 
often not according to the actual needs, and usually disappoints people.

The reason is the selfishness of some leading officials, “relationship-ism” or some “hidden rules” that people dodge behind.

Influenced by these unhealthy factors,  officials are no longer appointed on their merits but by favoritism or by seeking 
personal gain.

Officials and the public abhor this practice very much, so we 
should make resolute efforts to change it and make it a clean process. 

Notes 48

[1] See note 8, p. 68. 

[2] Sima Guang: Historical Events Retold as a Mirror for Government (Zi Zhi Tong Jian). Sima 
Guang (1019-1086) was a minister and historian in the Northern Song Dynasty. This monumental work was 
China’s first comprehensive history in the form of a chronicle. 

[3] Jin Ying: A Collection of Maxims (Ge Yan Lian Bi). 

[4] Zuo’s Chronicles (Zuo Zhuan). 

[5] Collection of Ancient Texts (Shang Shu). 

[6] Liu Xiang: Garden of Stories (Shuo Yuan). 

[7] Wei Yuan: Collected Works of Wei Yuan (Wei Yuan Ji). 

[8] Liu Xie: Carving a Dragon with a Literaiy Mind (Wen Xin Diao Long). Liu Xie (c. 465-c. 532) 
was a literary critic of the State of Liang during the Southern Dynasties. Carving a Dragon with a Literary 
Mind is a work on literary theory in ancient China. 


Man of the People 

Profile of Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC 

It was a pleasant early morning on December 8, 2012 in a verdant park 
known as Lianhuashan (Lotus Flower Mountain) in Shenzhen, in south China’s 
Guangdong Province. The park was not cordoned off to the public. There was no 
red carpet, nor were there people waving welcoming banners. None of the early 
risers, doing their usual morning exercises, were expecting to encounter a 
notable figure. 

A middle-aged man in a dark suit and an open-necked white shirt laid a 
wreath at a statue of the late Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. Then he circulated 
among the crowd, engaging in casual conversation. 

The visitor was Xi Jinping, elected general secretary of the CPC Central 
Committee only 24 days previously. 

During his visit to Guangdong, Xi called on the entire Party and all of the 
people of China to continue supporting the path of reform and opening up, and 
focus on pursuing reform in a more systematic, integrated and coordinated way. 
He vowed that there would be no slowdown in reform and opening up. 

In his first visit outside Beijing as the top CPC leader, Xi went to 
Guangdong - the wellspring of China’s reform and opening up, following the 
route Deng had taken 20 years earlier, when the country found itself at a 

Media reports characterized Xi as a leader who has brought about a fresh 
breeze through the country’s political life, committed to reform and opening up, 
and determined to lead the nation in realizing the Chinese Dream. 

Xi, who was elected to his new role at the First Plenary Session of the 18th 
CPC Central Committee on November 15, 2012, is the first top Party leader to 
have been born after 1949, the year the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was 


He now leads the 91-year-old CPC, the world’s largest political party with 
more than 82 million members, as it rules over China, the world’s second-largest 

The whole country and the world beyond are watching Xi with interest and 

- How will he lead the CPC to better serve the people? 

- How will he lead China’s 1.3 billion people to “build a moderately 
prosperous society in all respects” by the 100th anniversary of the founding of 
the CPC in 2021 ? Furthermore, how will he lead the people to achieve the goal 
of building an affluent, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious 
modern socialist country by the time the PRC marks its centennial in 2049? 

- How will he lead the country to make its due contribution to world peace 
and development? 

As he met the press on November 15, right after the closing of the first 
plenum, Xi summed up the CPC’s mission as comprising three responsibilities - 
to the nation, to the people and to the Party. 

Advocate of the Chinese Dream 

“The people aspire to a decent life - that is what we are fighting for,” 
remarked Xi to the press in his first public speech as CPC general secretary. 

Shortly after taking office, Xi and the other six members of the Standing 
Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee visited the 
exhibition “The Road to Rejuvenation” at the National Museum of China. The 
display illustrated the huge challenges China has surmounted on the road to 
national revival since 1840. 

“Nowadays, everyone is talking about the Chinese Dream,” he noted. “In 
my view, realizing the great renewal of the Chinese nation is the greatest dream 
in modern history.” 

To achieve this goal, Xi has clarified his position on various aspects of the 
country’s development: 

- On economic development, Xi opposes blind focus on growth, and 
upholds the principle of scientific development, which seeks sustainability in 
terms of both resources and the environment. 

- On political development, he stresses the idea that all power belongs to 
the people, and calls for active and steady political reform while keeping to the 
path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. He also stresses the rule of law 
and exercising state power in accordance with the Constitution. 

- On cultural development, he aspires to develop human talent and foster a 
Chinese national spirit, especially as typified by the words of the national 
anthem: “We will use our flesh and blood to build our new Great Wall.” 

- On social development, he stresses that we must be fully aware of the fact 
that we are in the primary stage of socialism. We should make continuous efforts 
to ensure and improve the people’s standard of living through economic 
development. He also supports building a harmonious society and realizing a 
good life for the people based on hard work, while taking into consideration the 
country’s actual circumstances. He calls for joint efforts from all sectors in 
building a harmonious society. 

- On ecological progress, he emphasizes a national strategy of resource 
conservation, environmental protection and a sustainable pattern of 

From the Loess Plateau in northwest to the southeast coast of China, from 
distant localities to the central leadership, Xi has had a well-rounded political 
career and has developed a deep understanding of the conditions of his country 
and its people. Xi worked for decades in several localities, including Shanghai 
and the provinces of Shaanxi, Hebei, Fujian and Zhejiang as a Party or 
government official, as well as a period spent serving in the army, before he 
came to Beijing to chair the routine work of the CPC Secretariat. 

He was fully aware of the importance of strengthening the Party and 
regularly emphasized that the Party must discipline itself according to strict 

standards. Under him, a number of intra-Party rules and regulations were 
enacted. He has repeatedly stressed that the Party must supervise its own 
conduct and run itself with strict discipline. At the first study session of the new 
Political Bureau, he said, “Worms can only grow in something rotten.”^ “A 
large number of facts have proved that corruption is now raging; if it is not 
curbed our Party and country will surely be doomed. We must keep on high 

Xi pays great attention to investigation, holding that, “investigation should 
be carried out throughout the decision-making process.” He has also stressed that 
all officials should go to the grassroots communities and find out what the 
people think and want, and solve the problems the people are most concerned 

Beginning in 2008, he served as the head of the leading group in charge of 
the nationwide study and implementation of the Scientific Outlook on 
Development within the Party. This 18-month program helped build consensus 
behind the Scientific Outlook on Development on the part of the whole Party 
and the country at large, and make the concept a driving force for economic and 
social development. 

He also led a group of people in drafting the 17th CPC Central Committee’s 
report to the 18th CPC National Congress as well as the amendment to the CPC 
Constitution, both of which were adopted at the congress and have become 
important guidelines for China’s future. 

Xi has had a connection with the armed forces since his early days. After 
graduating from university, he worked at the General Office of the Central 
Military Commission (CMC) of the CPC for three years, a job that gave him a 
deep affection for the armed forces. 

In the following years he served concurrently as Party chief for military 
subareas in addition to holding his Party and government titles. In the course of 
this, he became familiar with grassroots military affairs. 

He became CMC vice chairman in 2010 and was named CMC chairman at 
the First Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in November 
2012 . 

Xi is also familiar with issues related to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. 
His 17-year service in Fujian gave him a deep understanding of Taiwan and 
enterprises from Taiwan. The first Taiwan chamber of commerce on the 
mainland was established in Xiamen when he worked in Fujian. He solved many 
problems for people from Taiwan, and has subsequently been seen as a “good 
friend” by many of them. 

As a member of the central leadership, Xi was in charge of Hong Kong and 
Macao affairs. He helped work out a number of important policies on the long¬ 
term stability and prosperity of the two special administrative regions. 

In 2008 and 2009, when Hong Kong and Macao were seriously hit by the 
international financial crisis, Xi visited both regions to show his support. He 
encouraged the local people, saying, “There are always more means than 
difficulties as long as we have a firm resolve.” In 2012, when he talked to 
deputies to the NPC and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference 
(CPPCC) from Hong Kong and Macao at the annual “two sessions,”^ he quoted 
a line from a classic: “If brothers are of the same mind, their edge can cut 
through metal”^ to call on the people of Hong Kong and Macao to stick 
together to strive for a better life. 

In 2008 Xi was tasked with heading the preparations for Beijing’s much- 
anticipated 2008 Olympic Games and the subsequent Paralympics, playing a key 
role in China’s hosting of these great events. 

Regarding the People as Parents 

Xi has expressed his deep regard for the people on many occasions: “The 
importance of the people in the minds of officials determines the importance of 
officials in the minds of the people.” His love for the people stems from his 
unique upbringing. 

Though son of Xi Zhongxun, a Communist revolutionary and former vice 
premier, Xi Jinping’s youth was not spent in comfort. 

Beginning in 1962, when his father was wronged and disgraced, Xi 
experienced tough times. During the Cultural Revolution he suffered public 
humiliation and hunger, experienced homelessness and was even held in custody 

on one occasion. 

At the age of 16 he volunteered to live and work in a small village named 
Liangjiahe in Yanchuan County in northwest China’s Shaanxi Province as an 
“educated youth.” 

That area, part of the Loess Plateau, was where the Communist 
revolutionaries, including his father, had risen to found the PRC. 

Life there was tough for an urban youth. In the beginning, fleas troubled 
him so badly he could hardly sleep. In the Shaanxi countryside, he had to do all 
sorts of hard labor - carrying manure, hauling a coal cart, farming, and building 
dykes. He was able to walk for 5 km on a mountainous path with two dangling 
baskets filled with almost one hundred kg of wheat on a shoulder-pole. Locals 
called him “a tough boy.” 

As time passed, the tough work became easier. Xi grew into a capable and 
hard-working young man in the eyes of the villagers. Through gaining their trust, 
he was elected village Party chief. 

He led the farmers to reinforce the river bank in the slack season of winter 
in a bid to prevent erosion, organized a small cooperative of blacksmiths in the 
village to make farming tools, and built a methane tank for gathering cooking 
gas, the first in landlocked Shaanxi. 

On one occasion he was awarded a motorized tricycle after being named a 
“model educated youth.” However, he exchanged the tricycle for a walking 
tractor, a flour milling machine, a wheat winnowing machine and a water pump 
to benefit the villagers. 

Although he did not attend school, Xi never stopped reading. He brought a 
case of books to the village and, as recalled by villagers of Liangjiahe, he was 
always “reading books as thick as bricks while herding sheep on mountain 
slopes or under a kerosene lamp at night.” 

He formed close ties with the villagers during his seven years in the 
province. After being recommended for enrollment at Tsinghua University in 
1975 all the villagers lined up to bid him farewell, and a dozen young men 

walked more than 30 km to accompany him to the county seat for his trip back to 

Xi has never forgotten the villagers of his Shaanxi home. Even after he left, 
he helped the village get access to electric power, build a bridge, and renovate a 
primary school. When he was Party chief of Fuzhou City he returned to the 
village, calling on people door to door. He gave some money to senior villagers, 
and provided schoolchildren with new schoolbags, school supplies and alarm 
clocks. When a farmer friend got sick, Xi, then a senior provincial official of 
Fujian, brought him to Fujian at Xi’s own expense for better medical treatment. 

Years of toiling alongside the villagers allowed him to get to know the 
countryside and farmers well. Xi has said that the two groups of people who 
gave him the greatest help in his life were revolutionary veterans and the folk 
from the Shaanxi village where he once lived. 

He arrived at the village as a slightly lost teenager and left as a 22-year-old 
man determined to do something for the people. 

Xi’s affection for the common people influenced him in a number of critical 
decisions. In the 1980s, when many of his contemporaries opted to do business 
or went to study abroad, Xi gave up a comfortable office job in Beijing and went 
to work as the deputy secretary of the Party committee of a small and poverty- 
stricken county of Zhengding in north China’s Hebei Province. In 1981 the 
annual per capita income of this county was less than RMB150. At first local 
people doubted this young man’s ability. Xi lived in his office, and had meals at 
the canteen. He was often seen chatting with people while having a simple meal 
under a tree. Frequently he rode a bicycle to villages to find out how the farmers 
fared. Thus he won the local people’s trust. 

In 1988 he became Party secretary of Ningde Prefecture in southeast 
China’s Fujian Province, one of the poorest parts of the country at that time. 

The needs of the people weighed heavy on Xi’s heart, and visits to 
grassroots units were a regular part of his schedule. 

During his tenure at Ningde he often traveled for days on mountain roads to 
reach the farthest corners of the prefecture. The roads were so rough that he had 

to take breaks on the way to ease the pain in his back. He once walked for nearly 
five hours on a rugged mountain road to get to a village called Xiadang, which 
was not accessible by highway. There he received a warm welcome from the 
villagers, who said that Xi was the highest-ranking official who had ever come 
to the village. 

He also helped thousands of farmers in Ningde renovate dilapidated 
thatched huts, and built houses for fishermen who used to live on boats. 

When working as Party secretary of Fuzhou, capital of Fujian Province, he 
took the lead in the country in establishing a system for officials to meet 
petitioners face to face. He introduced the same system in other places where he 
served later. 

At one point he and other senior officials in Fuzhou met with more than 700 
petitioners in two days, and solved many of their problems on the spot or set a 
time limit to find solutions. 

Before Chinese New Year in 2005, while working in east China’s Zhejiang 
Province, he visited a coal mine named Changguang, went down nearly 1,000 m 
underground, then walked more than 1,500 m along a narrow and inclined shaft 
to visit miners and see their working conditions. 

Xi attaches great importance to communication with the people via news 
media. He contributed many articles to a popular column of Zhejiang Daily, 
using the pen name Zhe Xin. In his 232 articles, he discussed everyday problems 
of interest to ordinary people. His writings were very popular and people praised 
him as “using plain words to discuss big problems.” 

A mild person, Xi is very tough in disciplining officials and preventing 
them from acting against the interests of the public. In an investigation into 
illegal housing construction by officials in Ningde, he grew angry and pounded 
the table as he asked, “Will we offend a few hundred officials, or will we fail 
millions of people?” A number of officials in Zhejiang were punished for 
irregular conduct during his tenure. 

Xi is a man of compassion. On each Chinese New Year he sends greetings 
to his teachers. He provided the only car of the Zhengding Party Committee for 

the use by war veterans, and built a clinic and a club especially for them. When 
in Fuzhou, he supported children from poor families to go to school with money 
from his own pocket. 

His work style earned him the nickname “Secretary of the People.” 

“Officials should love the people in the way they love their parents, work 
for their benefit and lead them to prosperity,” he once said. 

Leader with Foresight 

Xi regularly shows a strong sense of responsibility towards the future of the 
nation and has declared his determination to press forward with reform and 
opening up. 

Throughout his political career his foresight and resolve have been 
apparent, as well as his willingness to sacrifice personal gain and transient fame 
for a greater cause. 

When working in Xiamen, a coastal city in Fujian and one of the special 
development zones in China, he took charge of drafting the Socio-Economic 
Development Strategy of Xiamen 1985-2000, which laid a solid foundation for 
the city’s urban planning and future economic development. He was put in 
charge of financial reform, and served as head of an administrative body of the 
special development zone. Under his leadership, a number of policies and 
measures to advance the reform and opening up of Xiamen were enacted. Xi was 
active in enabling Xiamen to be listed as a “city specifically designated in the 
state plan,” which was approved and benefited the city long after he had left the 

When working in Zhengding, Hebei Province, he saw a potential business 
opportunity when he learned that the crew of A Dream of Red Mansions, a 
popular classic novel-turned-TV drama, was looking for a filming location. 

He proposed building in Zhengding a large residential compound, known as 
the “Rong Mansion,” that featured in the novel. The compound, which was used 
for TV shooting, later became a tourist attraction. Tourist income from the Rong 
Mansion exceeded RMB10 million the year it was completed, more than paying 

back the initial investment. The site has been used as the set for more than 170 
movies and TV dramas, with up to 1.3 million tourists every year. 

In Fuzhou, after intense deliberation, he and his colleagues devised the 
Fuzhou Three-, Eight-, and Twenty-year Development Strategy. All the main 
targets set by the strategy were achieved on time, and a number of enterprises 
that were set up or brought to Fuzhou when Xi served there remain industry 
leaders today, playing a significant role in the city’s development over the past 
two decades. 

Working as Fujian governor, he was the first in the country to launch a 
campaign to crack down on food wastage and ensure food security. 

In 1999 he took the lead in putting forward the idea of improving IT 
infrastructure and introducing information technology to help the public. In 2010 
Fujian became the first province in China where all hospitals were linked by 
computer networks, and digital medical cards were issued to everyone for 
medical care. 

In 2002 Fujian launched the reform of the collective forest property right 
system, the first of its kind in the country. 

Also, during Xi’s tenure, Fujian was among the first provinces in China to 
adopt special policies to restore the ecological balance and protect the 
environment. This has made Fujian the province with the best water and air 
quality, as well as the best ecology and environment in the country. 

In 2002 Xi was transferred to Zhejiang Province, one of the most 
economically developed provinces in China. There Xi made extensive fact¬ 
finding trips and in 2003 formulated and put into practice the strategy of 
“making full use of eight advantages and implementing eight major 
measures,”^ laying a solid foundation for the province’s future development. 

He initiated local industrial restructuring, transforming the province’s 
extensive and inefficient growth pattern, and encouraged leading enterprises 
from outside the province to invest in Zhejiang. 

In addition, he proposed a development mode that would give equal weight 

to both manufacturing and commerce, a mode particularly suited to the local 
conditions in Zhejiang. He also supported local companies’ efforts to expand 
overseas, as well as start-ups by ordinary citizens. 

At the same time he encouraged cooperation between Zhejiang and 
neighboring Shanghai and Jiangsu Province, in order to tap their potential and 
build an integrated economic powerhouse. 

In 2004, under Xi’s leadership, Zhejiang made an attempt to improve 
community-level democracy. Villages set up special committees to supervise the 
village Party committees and administrative committees on public affairs, a 
move that was welcomed by the public. 

Village supervision committees, which sprang from the Zhejiang model, 
were later introduced in an amendment to the Organic Law of Villagers’ 
Committees in 2010 by the NPC Standing Committee, the top Chinese 

Xi called on the people of Zhejiang to rely on themselves in developing the 
local economy. He was fully aware that the people of Zhejiang were business- 
minded, and had a proud tradition of running businesses. Given that Zhejiang 
lacked natural resources, people had to work harder and find opportunities in 
other places such as Shanghai and Jiangsu. A number of measures taken under 
Xi’s leadership enormously promoted the socio-economic development not only 
in Zhejiang but also the whole area of the Yangtze River Delta^. 

Shanghai was Xi’s last local post before he was promoted to the central 
leadership. Despite a relatively short term in the country’s financial hub, he left 
his mark by promoting the economic integration of the Yangtze River Delta and 
enhancing Shanghai’s leading role in the region. 

Xi added “enlightened, sagacious, open-minded and modest” to the official 
wording of the Shanghai City Motto, which previously had simply read 
“inclusive and sublime.” This was intended to capture the essence of the city. 
Media in Shanghai noted that these modifications helped better present Shanghai 
to the rest of the world. The changes also attracted attention from further afield. 

Only by Hard Work Can We Get to the Fore 

“Empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish,” Xi 
remarked during his visit to “The Road to Rejuvenation” exhibition in Beijing on 
the 15th day after being elected as the CPC’s new helmsman. 

To put “hard work” in place, Xi presided over a meeting of the Political 
Bureau of the CPC Central Committee that adopted “Eight Rules” to improve 
the Party’s conduct and its ties with the people. The rules include more contact 
with the public, traveling light with a small entourage, using fewer traffic 
controls, shortening meetings and speeches, and practicing economy. The new 
rules have elicited a positive response both at home and abroad. 

“Only by hard work can we get to the fore,” he once commented. He 
demands concrete efforts to tackle issues that affect people most. He believes 
that without hard work the best blueprint will be of no use. 

When he served in Zhengding County, Xi said that developing its human 
resources was the key to poverty reduction and local economic development. He 
invited professionals to the county and drew up recruitment advertisements for 
talented people from across the country. 

On a winter’s day in 1983 he traveled to Shijiazhuang, the provincial seat of 
Hebei, to invite an expert in medicinal cosmetics to work in Zhengding. Without 
a full address for the expert, he went from door to door asking for help, and 
finally found him that evening by shouting his name in the street near his home. 
Xi and the expert talked until midnight, and the man finally accepted the offer. 
He later created more than RMB300,000 in revenues for the county in his first 

That same year Xi decided to publish a document listing nine ways to 
recruit talented people, something that was rare at the time and became a front¬ 
page story in the Hebei Daily. He wrote more than 100 letters to experts and 
scholars, as well as to colleges and research institutions, and paid visits to 
dozens of experts. Within two years, Zhengding attracted 683 professionals and 
hired 53 well-known experts as economic counselors. 

Together with his colleague Lii Yulan, then deputy Party secretary of 
Zhengding, and in the face of strong opposition, Xi told superior authorities 
about the excessive burden faced by the county due to compulsory grain 

purchases. The issue was eventually resolved and the heavy burden on the local 
people was lifted. 

In Ningde, Xi was also pragmatic and realistic. He pooled resources to 
encourage cultivation of the large yellow croaker, a local specialty, and thereby 
greatly increased the income of local fishermen. 

He also ordered Party and government offices to be easily accessible to the 
people. When serving in Fuzhou, he advocated the principle of “special 
procedures for special issues, and do things right away” to make government 
agencies more efficient. This principle attracted numerous companies from 
Taiwan, and helped boost the local economy. In 1992 he took the lead in the 
country to apply the management mode of foreign-funded enterprises to 12 large 
and medium-sized state-owned enterprises as a pilot project. He also proposed 
the compilation of two handbooks on government work, helping local residents 
and overseas businesspeople in their work and daily life. 

In 2000 Xi launched an initiative throughout Fujian to make government 
agencies more efficient. He proposed changes in government functions and 
procedures to reduce the amount of documentation that required government 
approval. By the end of 2001 606 items had been eliminated - more than 40% of 
the total. 

In 2001 Fujian became the first province in China to formulate and 
implement a policy aimed at making government affairs public. Detailed 
implementation rules were made to require all counties, cities and districts in the 
province to make their administrative work transparent. A warning system was 
established to tighten oversight over all government agencies. In addition, a 
performance complaint center was set up so that people could voice their 
criticisms and suggestions. 

In August 2002 Xi published an article in a major national newspaper on 
the “Jinjiang experience,” which advocated market-orientated development, 
stressed the role of local advantages, called for improvement of government 
services, and emphasized the importance of the private economy in the 
development of the county. Also in 2002, he published another article 
publicizing Nanping City’s experience of sending officials and technicians to 
work in villages. This practice was later extended from Nanping throughout the 

province, enhancing ties between officials and farmers, and helping officials to 
become more oriented towards grassroots results. 

In Zhejiang Xi stressed provincial development in the fields of public 
security, the environment, culture, the rule of law and the marine economy. 

To achieve these goals he carried out individual case studies and attended to 
general planning. In order to understand how individual localities were affected 
by provincial policies he paid five visits to a mountain village called Xiajiang in 
underdeveloped Chun’an County in southwest Zhejiang in less than two years. 
Located deep in the mountains, the village is some 60 km from the county seat. 
During each visit Xi chatted with villagers at their homes and in the fields. On 
one occasion he inspected construction of a methane tank. He said that thirty 
years earlier, when he had lived in a village, he had been an expert in building 
methane tanks. Xi encouraged villagers to manage the tanks properly and make 
the village a role model in making use of methane. 

He paid special attention to the marine economy. In December 2002 he put 
forward the objective of building Zhejiang into a province with a strong marine 
economy, and followed up his general proposal with specific plans and measures 
to realize this objective. The marine economy in Zhejiang has since developed 
quickly, with an annual growth of 19.3%. By 2005 it accounted for nearly 8% of 
the GDP of Zhejiang. 

Xi pushed for the integration of the Ningbo and Zhoushan harbors. In 2006 
the joint Ningbo-Zhoushan harbor recorded a cargo throughput of 420 million 
tons, ranking second in China and among the world’s top three. 

He also pressed on with the construction of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge, an 
iconic sea-crossing in China, and at one time the world’s longest sea bridge. 

In 2003 Xi proposed that rural communities should be managed more like 
urban communities, and every effort should be made to narrow the urban-rural 
gap in quality of life. 

Zhejiang realized its development targets one after another during Xi’s 
tenure. The province had the highest rating in ecology and the environment 
among all provincial-level regions in 2005. In 2006 almost 95% of the public 

were satisfied with the province’s public security, making Zhejiang one of the 
safest provinces in the country. 

During his service in Zhejiang, the province’s GDP exceeded RMB1 
trillion in 2004, and its annual per capita GDP exceeded US$3,000 in 2005 and 
stood at nearly US$4,000 in 2006. The province ranked fourth in sustainable 
development in 2006, after Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin. 

Furthermore, all the counties and townships in the province that had been 
officially classified as “poverty-stricken” were raised out of poverty during that 

In 2007 Xi was appointed secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal 

In the first month after his appointment Xi began research projects into 
standards of living, development, the Shanghai World Expo, and the fight 
against corruption. Despite difficulties and obstacles in the metropolis, Xi 
convened the Ninth Shanghai Municipal Congress of the CPC, greatly 
invigorating local officials, rebuilding Shanghai’s image, and setting forth a 
blueprint for Shanghai for the next five years. 

Xi always believes that a county Party chief should visit all the villages in 
the county, a city Party chief all the districts and townships in the city, and a 
provincial Party chief all the counties and cities in the province. 

He visited all the villages in Zhengding. In Ningde, he visited nine counties 
during the first three months, and traveled to most of the remaining townships 
later on. After being transferred to Zhejiang in 2002, he visited all 90 counties in 
just over a year. During his tenure in Shanghai, he visited all 19 districts and 
counties in seven months. After he came to work with the central leadership, he 
visited all the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly 
under the central government on the mainland. 

Man with a World Vision 

During a recent meeting with foreign experts working in China, Xi said that 
China, as a responsible country, will not only manage its own affairs, but also 

properly handle its relations with the rest of the world, so as to foster a more 
favorable external environment and make a greater contribution to world peace 
and development. 

“China needs to know more about the rest of the world, and the rest of the 
world also needs to know more about China,” Xi said. Whether working at the 
local level or with the central leadership, Xi has always valued international 
exchanges and making foreign friends. He takes every opportunity to meet 
foreign guests visiting China. 

Before Xi came to work with the central leadership he had visited over 60 
countries, and met a great number of foreign visitors. In the past five years he 
has traveled to more than 40 countries and regions across five continents and has 
had extensive contacts with people of all walks of life. He explains frankly and 
honestly to foreign friends how the Chinese people view their own country and 
the outside world, and is willing to listen to them as well. In the eyes of many 
foreign dignitaries, Xi is a confident, pragmatic, sagacious and good-humored 

He often tells foreign visitors that the global community is becoming 
increasingly integrated, and shares a common destiny. China’s continuous rapid 
development depends on world peace and development. It also provides 
opportunities for other countries to develop, so together we can achieve mutually 
beneficial results and share benefits through mutual respect and pragmatic 

At the World Peace Forum organized by Tsinghua University in July 2012, 
Xi noted that a country must let others develop while seeking its own 
development; must let others feel secure while seeking its own security; must let 
others live better while aspiring to live better itself. In a meeting with Lee Kuan 
Ycw^J in Singapore, Xi said that not every strong country would seek 
hegemony. China would stick to the path of peaceful development, a mutually 
beneficial strategy and opening up, and the pledge of never seeking hegemony. 
China would pass its commitment from generation to generation. 

Xi’s foreign visits have sent out a signal that countries should work together 
to establish a more equal and balanced global partnership, so as to safeguard the 
common interests of all of humanity and make the earth a better place. 

During his five-day visit to the US in 2012, Xi attended 27 events and 
engaged in exchanges with President Obama and other US politicians, and the 
public alike. “As long as both sides grasp the thread of common interests, China 
and the US can explore a path of new partnership in which major powers live in 
harmony, engage in positive interaction, and achieve mutually beneficial 
cooperation.” His remarks elicited positive feedback from many in the US. 

In a recent meeting with former US President Jimmy Carter, Xi called for 
more “positive energy” for the China-US partnership. 

During his visit to Russia, Xi stressed the importance of developing 
bilateral relations between the two countries. China’s strategic partnership of 
coordination with Russia has become the closest, most dynamic and most 
profound between major powers, and developing positive relations with Russia 
is always a priority for China’s foreign affairs. Xi attended the second meeting 
of the dialogue mechanism between the Chinese and Russian ruling parties and 
had extensive and in-depth discussions with leaders of various parties in Russia, 
further strengthening Sino-Russian relations. 

Xi highly values relations with developing countries. He once said that we 
would take consolidating and developing relations with developing countries as 
the aim and basis of China’s foreign policy. 

In South Africa, Xi attended the fourth plenary session of the China-South 
Africa Binational Commission, looking forward, together with the South African 
side, to a bright future for bilateral cooperation. 

In a speech delivered at a seminar marking the 10th anniversary of the 
establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), Xi 
underscored China’s friendship with Africa, highlighting that “a friend in need is 
a friend indeed.” 

In Saudi Arabia, he stated that a more prosperous and open China would 
bring great development opportunities to the Middle East and the Gulf countries. 

In Chile, speaking of the relationship over the next decade, he proposed that 
China and Latin America should be good partners in the fields of politics, 
economics, culture and international affairs. 

Xi has been pragmatic and efficient on the international stage. In one single 
day, while attending the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the unification 
of Italy, Xi exchanged ideas with leaders from more than 20 countries and 
international organizations. During his visit to Germany and four other European 
countries, Xi attended five signing ceremonies for economic and trade 
agreements and six economic and trade forums, and signed 93 cooperation 
agreements involving a total of US$7.4 billion. 

Xi has also emphasized the role of cultural exchanges in the building of a 
harmonious world. Addressing attendants at the Frankfurt Book Fair in 2009, he 
remarked that through exchanges between different cultures, people from 
different countries had come to know Confucius from China, Goethe from 
Germany and Shakespeare from Britain. Promoting international cultural 
exchanges created important momentum for human progress and peaceful 
development, he said. 

During his visit to Russia, he stood side by side with Vladimir Putin in the 
Kremlin as they launched the “Year of the Chinese Fanguage” in Russia. He said 
in his address: “Culture is enriched, hearts are joined together, and friendship is 
deepened through exchanges.” 

Xi has a talent for drawing wisdom from Chinese culture and presenting 
ideas clearly in a straightforward and humorous way. During his US visit, he 
borrowed a line from the theme song of the popular Chinese TV drama Monkey 
King to diffuse the gravity of the bilateral issue. “The road is right under our 
feet,” he said, when describing the “unprecedented” relations between China and 
the US, presenting the image of a confident and forward-looking Chinese leader. 

When facing questions about human rights in China, he is forthright: 
“There is no best, only better.” He takes the view that every country’s situation 
is different, and every path is different. “Whether the shoe fits or not, only the 
wearer knows.” 

Amity between peoples is the key to sound relations between states. Xi has 
said the level of state-to-state friendship depends on relations between their 
peoples. He once light-heartedly remarked to foreign ministry officials on a 
diplomatic trip that life lay in motion, and diplomacy lay in activity. In other 
words, diplomats should travel widely and make more bosom friends. 

During his visit to Laos, Xi arranged a special meeting with the late Lao 
leader Quinim Pholsena’s children, who had lived and studied in Beijing. He 
joined them in recalling their days at Beijing’s Bayi School. He said that 
Pholsena’s second son bore the nickname “Chubby Boy.” This made everybody 

During his US visit, Xi traveled to Iowa to join a dozen old acquaintances 
for tea and a chat at a house in an Iowa farm community. Most of the people at 
the gathering were friends Xi had made during a 1985 visit to Iowa as a member 
of an agricultural research delegation. 

In Russia, he visited a children’s center to see Chinese students there who 
had been affected by the devastating Wenchuan earthquake of 2008, and 
expressed his gratitude to the staff. 

He kicked off a game of Gaelic football in Dublin’s Croke Park when 
visiting Ireland and watched an NBA game in the US. The media welcomed 
such activities as evidence of his cordial image. 

“He succeeded in demonstrating not only his personal charisma and 
bearing, but also the image and charm of China,” an overseas media outlet 

Son of a Revolutionary Family; a Good Husband 

Xi Jinping’s father Xi Zhongxun was a Party and state leader. At the age of 
21 the senior Xi served as chairman of the government of the Shaanxi-Gansu 
Border Region, a CPC revolutionary base in the 1930s, and was called by Mao 
Zedong a “leader of the people.” 

Xi Zhongxun began to suffer political persecution in 1962, which continued 
for 16 years. However, he never gave in to adversity but tried his best to help 
clear the names of others who had been persecuted. Once the Cultural 
Revolution had come to an end, he served as first secretary of the CPC 
Guangdong Provincial Committee, at the forefront of China’s reform and 
opening-up drive, making an important contribution to the establishment of the 
special economic zones in the province and their rapid development. 

Xi’s mother Qi Xin, nearly 90 years of age, is also a veteran revolutionary 
and Party member. A dutiful son, Xi often strolls and chats with his mother, 
holding her by the hand, and regularly makes time to dine with her. 

The Xi family has a tradition of being strict with children and living a 
simple life. Xi Zhongxun believed that if a senior Party official wanted to 
discipline others, he should begin first with himself and his family. Xi Jinping 
and his younger brother used to wear clothes and shoes handed down from their 
elder sisters. After Xi Jinping became a leading official, his mother called a 
family meeting to ban the siblings from engaging in any business in the areas 
where Xi Jinping worked. 

Xi Jinping has carried on his family’s tradition and has been strict with his 
own family. Wherever he worked, he told his family not to do business there or 
do anything in his name, otherwise he “would be ruthless.” Whether in Fujian, 
Zhejiang or Shanghai, he pledged at official meetings that no one was allowed to 
seek personal benefit through making use of his name, and welcomed 
supervision in this regard. 

Xi married Peng Liyuan, a renowned folk song singer and popular soprano 
singer of opera. In 1980 Peng caused quite a stir when attending a national art 
performance in Beijing, representing Shandong Province. 

She was the first person in China to obtain a master’s degree in national 
vocal music. She is a representative of contemporary national vocal music and 
one of the founders of the school of national vocal music. 

Her most famous works include On the Fields of Hope, People from My 
Village, We Are Yellow River and Mount Taishan and Rivers and Mountains. 
She has won many top awards in national vocal music competitions such as 
China’s Golden Disk Award and the State Audio-Vedio Award. 

She has played leading roles in Chinese national operas such as The White- 
haired Girl, Grief at Dawn, The Party’s Daughter and Ode to Heroine Mulan, 
among others. She has also won the highest theatrical award in China, the Plum 
Blossom Prize, and the highest performance art award, the Wenhua Prize. 

Peng attributes her accomplishments to the people and said that she should 

contribute all her talent to the people. Over more than three decades, she has 
given hundreds of free performances for people from all walks of life across the 
country. These included performances in impoverished mountain areas, coastal 
areas, oilfields, mines and barracks, as well as in deserts and on the snowy 
plateau. She also performed in Wenchuan after the devastating earthquake of 
2008, in Beijing’s Xiaotangshan after the SARS outbreak in 2003, and in flood- 
hit Jiujiang in Jiangxi Province in 1998. 

To better introduce Chinese national vocal music and national opera to the 
outside world, Peng was the first to play a solo concert in Singapore in 1993. 
She has also represented China in performances in more than 50 countries and 
regions, becoming a world-renowned cultural ambassador for China. 

She produced and played the leading role in the opera Ode to Heroine 
Mulan, which was performed at New York City’s Lincoln Center for the 
Performing Arts and at the Vienna State Opera House in Austria. 

Peng is currently shifting her focus from performance to education, aiming 
to train new singers and produce new masterpieces. 

Peng is very much devoted to work for the public good. She is a WHO 
Goodwill Ambassador for Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, a national AIDS 
prevention advocate, and an ambassador both for the prevention of juvenile 
delinquency and for tobacco control. At a recent World AIDS Day activity, 
raising awareness about AIDS, she was called “Mama Peng” by AIDS orphans. 

Xi and Peng fell in love in 1986, and married the same year. Although they 
were often separated by work commitments, they have understood and supported 
each other and continuously shown their devotion to each other. 

As a member of the People’s Liberation Army, Peng was often tasked with 
staging performances in remote areas. These tours sometimes kept her on the 
road for two to three months at a time. Always concerned about his wife, Xi 
would phone her before bedtime almost every night, no matter how late it was. 

On Chinese New Year’s Eve, Peng would often perform at the Spring 
Festival Gala presented by China Central Television. Xi would make dumplings 
while watching the show and wait for her return to have the family feast. 

In the eyes of Peng, Xi is a good husband and a good father. She always 
shows care and consideration for him. Peng takes every opportunity to be 
together with her husband, cooking dishes of different styles for him. 

To Peng, Xi is both a unique and a very ordinary person. He favors home¬ 
made cooking in the Shaanxi and Shandong cuisines, and also enjoys a drink 
during parties or with friends. He likes swimming, mountaineering, and 
watching basketball, football and boxing matches. Sometimes he stays up late 
watching sports on television. 

The couple have a daughter, Xi Mingze. Mingze in Chinese connotes 
“living an honest life and being a useful person to society,” which is their 
expectation for her and also a symbol of their simple family style. 

Notes 49

[1] See note 24, p. 22. 

[2] The “two sessions” refer to the annual sessions of the National People’s Congress and the 
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. 

[3] See note 5, p. 265. 

[4] In July 2003 the fourth plenary (enlarged) session of the 11th CPC Zhejiang Provincial 
Committee proposed to make full use of the province’s eight advantages for development and implement 
eight measures for its future growth. 

[5] The Yangtze River Delta is one of China’s major economic regions, mainly covering Shanghai 
and the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. 

[6j Lee Kuan Yew was founder and first premier (1965-1990) of the Republic of Singapore.