home   date: 10-17-2020   "Sabin" "Salk" > ::  https://hekint.org/2018/01/30/salk-sabin-disease-rivalry-vaccine/  ::

 TRUMP FAKED - having COV-19 - AND, HERE'S HOW - and WHY   - Donald Trump MAY have Cancer [ see MAYO Clinic AND why they use Mabs ]   ::  [ MICHAL MOORE ]

Donald J. Trump has NEVER had the "COV-19 disease". He faked testing positive (for the disease) and. Here's how. :

 1. Donald's Doctor NOTE STATES: "This evening I received confirmation that both President Trump and First Lady Melania Trump have tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus."

 2. NOTE: The report (note) - by his doctor [ SEAN P. CONLEY, DO ] - makes very clear - [that] he [ SEAN P. CONLEY, DO ] did NOT "conduct" the test.  "...I received confirmation..." 

 3. QUESTIONS: 1) FROM Whom did he receive "confirmation"? AND, 2) exactly what was "confirmed"?  
 THIS IS WHY - "WHEN EXACTLY" - Donald Trump was "tested" IS SO IMPORTANT. 
  Because - "who" - was instrumental - to produce the 'FAKED The TEST RESULTS' - will be apparent.  And, a "follow up" - by USA Law Enforcement - including reviews of deposits to bank accounts - unusual spending patterns - will be possible.  Is a "White House" employee - suddenly living "high on the hog"? 

 4. A human being - can "test positive" for the SARS-COV-2 virion - when { https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/spheres.html } - the "virion" entity is on the nasal-pharnyx surface - OR, in the human cells - doing its "cell invasion and take-over" thing. AKA: Transcription, Translation ... LYSIS! Can Donald Trump say Asymptomatic Transmission ?

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224694/   ::  containing cite to: SOURCE: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081172/ 
"...  Conclusion: ...This work provides additional evidence for a median incubation period for COVID-19  of approximately 5 days, similar to SARS. 
Our results support current proposals for the length of quarantine or active monitoring of persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2, although longer monitoring periods might be justified in extreme cases.  ..."


 https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/diagnostic-testing.html < Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

SOURCE: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32253226/  
   TITLE: "An orally bioavailable broad-spectrum antiviral inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cell cultures and multiple coronaviruses in mice"

  AND, here's why he did it : US Election is Coming, Sympathy "votes" AND Money - Which, Current US President Donald Trump needs both. Behind & Losing Badly! 

 A. FACT: Current US President OWES $400+ US Million Dollars - to UNdisclosed Entities - related to hotels, casinos, investments & TRUMP brand facilities "ALL OVER THE WORLD"
      - Related FACTS:  1) US Government cannot give a current  US President a "cash" grant.  2) However, if you are "smart enough" the US Government will give US Citizens "grants" to attend some US Colleges.
     3) Donald Trump owns a DEFUNCT University - but, he is not a "student" - or, capable of being one.
 B. FACT: US Government has advanced Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. $450 million US dollars for ... > SUSAN
 C. Investigative Journalist THEORY: Regeneron gives US President cash (he needs) - from GRANT (they got) - of $450 million US Dollars. AND, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. "pockets" $50 million US Dollars. 
 D. FACT: US President Donald Trump - says "Regeneron" - every time he opens his mouth - when this is NOT the name of the "Mab" he was given - by IV.
 E. Investigative Journalist THEORY:  US President Donald Trump owns Regeneron STOCK - NASDAQ symbol > REGN. The stock is at record levels - rising sharply - with COV-19 pandemic events.
 F.  Investigative Journalist THEORY:  A very "hot shot" Washington D.C. Attorney -- is going to shove "Bayh-DOLE" LAW so far up REGN's arse - they will sell the "inside" story - to recover losses.
 G. FACT:  The "Bayh-DOLE" legal efforts will cause REGN (Regeneron) to price their therapeutic - so ALL of Earth's citizens can afford it. I.E. Objects invented with US taxpayer money - belong to...
 H. FACT:  America will be responsible for saving Earth's people AND Joe Biden AND Kamala Harris - will be our leaders.

 SOURCE: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/07/regeneron-signs-450-million-contract-with-the-us-government-for-its-coronavirus-therapy.html 
  TITLE:  "... Regeneron signs a $450 million contract with the U.S. government for its coronavirus therapy 
... Regeneron Pharmaceuticals said on Tuesday the U.S. government signed a $450 million contract with the drugmaker to make and supply its potential double-antibody cocktail for Covid-19.
The cocktail, "REGN-COV2" , is in separate clinical trials assessing its effectiveness in preventing and treating Covid-19, the company said. Regeneron signed the contract with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) and the Department of Defense. The doses manufactured under the project will be owned by the federal government. ... The contract comes under the government’s “Operation Warp Speed” program, aimed at accelerating access to vaccines and treatments to fight the coronavirus. ... The government will support manufacturing REGN-COV2 for immediate use in the country, if the clinical trials are successful and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration grants emergency use authorization (EUA) or product approval. ... The agreement covers a fixed number of bulk lots that are intended to be completed in the fall of 2020, the company said.
... It  [Regeneron]  expects a range of 70,000 to 300,000 potential treatment doses or 420,000 to 1,300,000 prevention doses to be available from these lots, with initial doses to be ready as early as the end of summer. ... If EUA or product approval is granted, the government has committed to making doses from these lots available to Americans at no cost and would be responsible for their distribution, Regeneron said. ... Separately, the U.S. government [on Tuesday]  awarded a $1.6 billion grant to Novavax, the biggest yet from "Operation Warp Speed", to cover testing, manufacturing and sale of a potential coronavirus vaccine in the country. ..."

SOURCE: https://money.usnews.com/investing/news/articles/2020-07-07/regeneron-signs-450-million-contract-with-us-government-for-covid-19-therapy
 "...  The agreement, the first by the Trump administration to support a therapy, comes under the government's "Operation Warp Speed" program that is aimed at faster distribution of vaccines and treatments to fight the new coronavirus when trials are successful.  ..." NOTE TERM "THERAPY"  


 - https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-regeneron-pharms/u-s-signs-450-million-contract-with-regeneron-for-covid-19-therapy-idUSKBN2481GK ...
 "...  Earlier in the day, Novavax Inc NVAX.O received a $1.6 billion grant, the biggest award yet from Operation Warp Speed, to cover testing, manufacturing and sale of a potential coronavirus vaccine. ..."

Operation Warp Speed  

 -  https://www.cnn.com/world/live-news/coronavirus-pandemic-07-07-20-intl/h_5ea1d11bcd09fec62c4d9bc32cd07b7f  

 - SOURCE: https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/06/health/regeneron-coronavirus-antibody-drug-bn/index.html  
 "...  The biotechnology company Regeneron announced the late-stage clinical trials of REGN-COV2, its investigational double antibody cocktail for the treatment and prevention of Covid-19, in a news release on Monday. *** Specifically the release noted that a Phase 3 trial of the drug will assess its ability to prevent coronavirus infection among uninfected people who have had close contact to an infected person, such as a patient's housemate. *** The Phase 3 prevention trial is happening at around 100 sites and expected to include 2,000 patients across the United States, according to Regeneron. The drug also has moved into the Phase 2/3 portion of two trials testing its ability to treat hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients with Covid-19, according to Regeneron. These trials will involve 1,850 hospitalized patients and 1,050 non-hospitalized patients, and they are expected to be conducted at 150 sites in the United States, Brazil, Mexico and Chile.  ..."

 - SOURCE: https://investor.regeneron.com/news-releases/news-release-details/regeneron-announces-manufacturing-and-supply-agreement-barda-and 
-  SOURCE: https://investor.regeneron.com/static-files/fd58ba6a-f401-47b0-9d65-cfb01c313ec6
 "...  October 2, 2020
Regeneron Confirms that REGN-COV2 Antibody Cocktail Provided to President Trump Under Compassionate Use Request
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: REGN) today confirmed that, as announced by the White House Press Secretary, Regeneron provided a single 8 gram dose of REGNCOV2, a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies, for use by President Trump. REGN-COV2 is an investigational COVID-19 therapy, which was provided in response to an Individual
Patient Investigational New Drug (IND) application (commonly known as ‘compassionate use’ request) from the President’s physicians  ..."

--  a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies 


 "monoclonal antibodies" "COV-19"  SARS-COV-2 "COST"

 "monoclonal antibodies" ::  https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/health/monoclonal-antibodies-could-fill-the-covid-19-treatment-gap-until-vaccines-arrive-but-at-a-cost/ 
 ::  TITLE: "Monoclonal antibodies could fill the COVID-19 treatment gap until vaccines arrive — but at a cost" 

 "...  Monoclonal antibodies could fill the COVID-19 treatment gap until vaccines arrive — but at a cost
Oct. 2, 2020 at 6:00 am Updated Oct. 2, 2020 at 11:52 am

Jason Netland, a researcher at UW Medicine, holds up a vial of monoclonal antibodies for the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. 

Researchers are studying whether monoclonal antibodies can treat or prevent the disease. (Ken Lambert / The Seattle Times)

Jason Netland, a researcher at UW Medicine, works in a lab that produces monoclonal antibodies, which some scientists believe could one day be used to treat or prevent COVID-19, the illness caused by the coronavirus. 

(Ken Lambert / The Seattle Times)

With her mask off for a portrait, University of Washington immunologist Marion Pepper is leading research on monoclonal antibodies as a fast and effective treatment for COVID-19. 
(Ken Lambert / The Seattle Times)

Plasmids, seen at a UW Medicine lab in Seattle, are DNA used to make antibodies for COVID-19. (Ken Lambert / The Seattle Times)

Scientists are researching monoclonal antibodies in this UW Medicine lab. 

The manufactured antibodies may one day be used to treat COVID-19. (Ken Lambert / The Seattle Times)

University of Washington lead immunologist Marion Pepper, right, and researcher Lauren Rodda look at cell medium, part of the research process to develop monoclonal antibodies that may treat COVID-19. (Ken Lambert / The Seattle Times)

 1 of 6 | Jason Netland, a researcher at UW Medicine, holds up a vial of monoclonal antibodies for the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Researchers are studying whether monoclonal antibodies can treat or prevent the disease. (Ken Lambert / The Seattle Times)

Sandi Doughton By Sandi Doughton 

Seattle Times staff reporter

With a positive test, a monster headache and fever of 101 degrees, Joanne Gieselman said “sure” when offered the chance to participate in a trial of an experimental treatment for COVID-19, the illness caused by the coronavirus. 

The 63-year old Redmond woman wasn’t sick enough to need hospitalization — yet — but her age and some pulmonary scarring from childhood raised her anxiety and risk levels.

“I do know people who died of this,” she said. “I was afraid this wicked virus could cause a very adverse reaction if it went into my lungs.”

So Gieselman spent an hour in a bed at EvergreenHealth’s Redmond emergency department - in late August - hooked up to an IV drip that contained either a placebo or an infusion of monoclonal antibodies 
 — a promising therapy with the potential to both prevent infection and treat disease.

While the “warp speed” dash to develop a vaccine against the coronavirus gets most of the world’s attention, 
  monoclonals are the focus of another scientific race that could help bring the pandemic under control. 

  Many experts hope antibody drugs will serve as a bridge until vaccines are widely available — which is not likely to be before next spring or summer.

“If they are successful, monoclonal antibodies are really going to revolutionize treatment for COVID-19,” said Dr. Larry Corey, former director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and co-leader of a national network coordinating clinical trials on vaccines and antibodies.

The drugs are designed to mimic the body’s natural immune response on an industrial scale by delivering doses of mass-produced antibodies. 

Multiple trials are underway across the country and in Washington state, including the one Gieselman volunteered for. With government support, pharmaceutical companies are gearing up to begin manufacturing even before the final results are in.

Preliminary data released Sept. 16 shows lower viral levels and reduced hospitalization rates in patients who got a monoclonal antibody developed by Eli Lilly and Vancouver, B.C.-based AbCellera — and reportedly isolated from the blood of one of the first people in the Seattle area to recover from the virus. That’s also the antibody being studied at EvergreenHealth.

If the trials pan out, researchers say the drugs could offer instant protection for vulnerable groups like health care workers and nursing home residents. Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)  could also provide a desperately needed treatment option, including for people who don’t respond well to vaccines because of age or compromised immune systems and those who choose not to get vaccinated 
 — which a new survey suggests could be nearly half of all Americans.

Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates calls the drugs a “wild card” that could dramatically cut the death rate. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is funding a project to catalog and compare hundreds of unique antibodies from labs around the globe. The foundation has also reached an agreement to reserve manufacturing capacity to produce the complex and costly drugs for low-income countries.

“I think of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies as being really complementary to each other,” said Dr. Shelly Karuna, of “The Hutch,” who was part of a stampede of scientists who quickly pivoted to searching for and evaluating antibodies against the new virus.

Vaccines work by teaching the immune system to produce antibodies that attack a pathogen — a process that can take weeks and require multiple shots. Monoclonal antibodies skip the instruction step and deliver a ready-made immune arsenal composed of identical, manufactured antibodies selected for maximum potency against the novel coronavirus. Protection is temporary — lasting perhaps a few weeks to a few months — but instantaneous.

“You could sweep in and treat everybody in a nursing home,” Corey said.

In fact, nursing homes and assisted living centers are the setting for one of Lilly’s double-blind, controlled trials. When a resident or staff member tests positive for the virus, researchers rush in with mobile labs and administer the antibodies — or placebo — to other residents and staff to see if the treatment can fend off infection and prevent the disease from spreading.

EvergreenHealth’s Kirkland hospital was initially at the epicenter of the U.S. outbreak with the first recorded patient death and a deluge of cases from nearby Life Care Center nursing home. Now that hospitalizations have become less common in Washington, the health system was eager to take part in a separate Lilly trial to see if monoclonal antibody treatment can reduce viral loads and the severity of disease in newly infected people with mild to moderate symptoms — like Gieselman, who got her infusion two days after her initial diagnosis.

“These are folks who are just coming in,” said Anhaita Jamula, director of research for the network that includes clinics, hospitals and urgent care centers across King and Snohomish counties. “They are feeling sick, but they are not sick enough to get admitted to the hospital.”

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Currently, there’s no medication to help patients like that, Jamula pointed out. The two drugs approved for COVID-19 — the antiviral remdesivir and the steroid dexamethasone — have so far only been shown to make a difference for hospitalized patients.

Harborview Medical Center and Providence Regional Medical Center Everett are both participating in trails of a two-antibody cocktail developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, a New York biotech company. The Harborview experiment is focused on people who have been exposed to a family member with the virus but who aren’t yet infected themselves, Karuna explained.

The Everett hospital is involved in three antibody studies, including the same preventive trial as the Harborview site. “That’s the study I’m really excited about,” said Dr. George Diaz, chief of infectious disease for the Everett facility. “We are trying to interrupt disease transmission in the community.”

Monoclonal antibodies could be more effective than another experimental treatment called convalescent plasma, Diaz said. The latter is simply a transfusion of blood plasma from a person who recovered from the disease — so each treatment requires a separate donor. And while plasma contains a hodgepodge of antibodies and other molecules, monoclonal antibody drugs contain standard dosages proven in the lab to neutralize the virus.

As the only companies with ongoing, late-stage trials, Lilly and Regeneron are the clear front-runners in the monoclonal antibody race. But that doesn’t mean their products are the best, said Marion Pepper, an immunologist at the University of Washington who’s spent the past six months laboriously mining blood samples from 15 volunteers who had COVID-19 to understand the immune response and identify the most powerful antibodies.

“We have the tools and the techniques to find these needles in a haystack,” she said. 

... The median cost for a year of treatment ranges from $15,000 to more than $140,000, according to the report by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and the British philanthropy Wellcome. ..."


Pepper and her colleagues have zeroed in on several promising candidates, focusing on more mature antibody-producing cells that develop a month or more after infection and produce antibodies more precisely tailored to disable the spike protein the novel coronavirus uses to infect human cells.

“There are other antibodies that are way further ahead than ours, but we think ours might have better quality,” Pepper said. “We have a whole panel of antibodies that we know are capable of neutralizing the virus in lab culture assays, and now we’re trying to figure out what to do with them.”

She’s talking with multiple companies about how to proceed. A mix of antibodies that target different parts of the virus could be even more powerful than single monoclonals and harder for the virus to escape from even if it mutates, Pepper said.

More than 50 monoclonal antibody therapies are in development against the coronavirus, according to a recent report from two leading nonprofits, which also warned that without steps to reduce or share the costs, the drugs could be out of reach for people in the world’s poorest countries.

Seven out of the top 10 best-selling drugs globally are monoclonal antibodies — including Humira for rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease and Keytruda for melanoma and other types of cancer — and they’re all expensive.

The median cost for a year of treatment ranges from $15,000 to more than $140,000, according to the report by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and the British philanthropy Wellcome.

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The Gates-funded Coronavirus Immunotherapy Consortium is building a library of COVID-19 monoclonals and comparing them side by side on a wide range of metrics. Companies and research labs have offered up 100 antibodies so far, and another 100 are expected, said director Erica Saphire, of the La Jolla Institute for Immunology.

“It’s going to be the largest, deepest, broadest database of how antibodies perform against the [novel] coronavirus,” Saphire said. The Gates Foundation is looking for the most potent candidates and combinations, along with those that can be easily and more cheaply produced. They’re also interested in drugs that can be formulated for delivery via injection or pill, rather than infusion.

“Their mandate to me was to look among all the different antibodies going forward and figure out which … can be used to save lives in low-income countries,” Saphire said.

It’s not clear how soon monoclonal antibody treatments could be available. Lilly and Regeneron hope to have results within the next few months, and the federal Operation Warp Speed initiative has vowed to support advance manufacture so if the trials are successful, “hundreds of thousands of doses” will be ready for deployment by this fall and winter.

Gieselman’s not sure if she will ever know what was in the dose she received — drug or placebo — let alone whether the infusion might have prevented a more severe illness. Her fever started dropping about four days after her diagnosis, but then she was slammed by several days of crushing fatigue. Nearly a month later, her only lingering symptom is a diminished sense of smell.

Her husband, who almost certainly picked up the virus from her, had a much rougher time, with more respiratory distress. 

Because he was out of town when he got sick, he couldn’t participate in the trial.

“That makes me wonder whether I did get the antibodies,” Gieselman said.

Either way, she’s glad she was able to contribute to the research effort.

“That’s why I was willing to be a part of this,” she said. “I thought it’s possible it could help me, but it’s also going to help others.”

(For information on the Harborview trial, call 206-773-7129; for the Providence Everett trials, call 844-552-2734. Information on the EvergreenHealth trial is available by calling 425-650-0019, or going to evergreenhealth.com/blaze-study.)

This story has been updated to correct the last name of Dr. Shelly Karuna of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Sandi Doughton: 206-464-2491 or sdoughton@seattletimes.com; on Twitter: @SandiDoughton.

SOURCE: https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/health/monoclonal-antibodies-could-fill-the-covid-19-treatment-gap-until-vaccines-arrive-but-at-a-cost/ 


 "monoclonal antibodies" ::  https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/health/monoclonal-antibodies-could-fill-the-covid-19-treatment-gap-until-vaccines-arrive-but-at-a-cost/ 

SOURCE: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/in-depth/monoclonal-antibody/art-20047808#:~:text=Monoclonal%20antibodies%20are%20laboratory%2Dproduced,cancer%20cells%20than%20healthy%20cells.  
 "...  Monoclonal antibody drugs for cancer: How they work

... Monoclonal antibody drugs for cancer: How they work

If you're considering monoclonal antibody therapy as part of your cancer treatment, learn about these drugs and carefully weigh the benefits against the potential side effects.

By Mayo Clinic Staff
Monoclonal antibody drugs are cancer treatments that enlist natural immune system functions to fight cancer. These drugs may be used in combination with other cancer treatments.
... If you and your doctor are considering using a monoclonal antibody drug as part of your cancer treatment, find out what to expect from this therapy. Together you and your doctor can decide whether a monoclonal antibody treatment may be right for you.

How does the immune system fight cancer?
The immune system is composed of a complex team of players that detect and destroy disease-causing agents, such as bacteria and viruses. Similarly, this system may eliminate damaged or abnormal cells, such as cancer cells.
... One factor in the immune system is the work of antibodies. An antibody attaches itself to a specific molecule (antigen) on the surface of a problematic cell. When an antibody binds to the antigen, it serves as a flag to attract disease-fighting molecules or as a trigger that promotes cell destruction by other immune system processes.

Cancer cells may outpace the immune system, avoid detection, or block immune system activity.

What is a monoclonal antibody?
Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced molecules engineered to serve as substitute antibodies that can restore, enhance or mimic the immune system's attack on cancer cells. They are designed to bind to antigens that are generally more numerous on the surface of cancer cells than healthy cells.

How do monoclonal antibody drugs work?
Monoclonal antibodies are designed to function in different ways. A particular drug may actually function by more than one means. The role of the drug in helping the immune system may include the following:

Flagging cancer cells. Some immune system cells depend on antibodies to locate the target of an attack. Cancer cells that are coated in monoclonal antibodies may be more easily detected and targeted for destruction.
Triggering cell-membrane destruction. Some monoclonal antibodies can trigger an immune system response that can destroy the outer wall (membrane) of a cancer cell.
Blocking cell growth. Some monoclonal antibodies block the connection between a cancer cell and proteins that promote cell growth — an activity that is necessary for tumor growth and survival.
Preventing blood vessel growth. In order for a cancerous tumor to grow and survive, it needs a blood supply. Some monoclonal antibody drugs block protein-cell interactions necessary for the development of new blood vessels.
Blocking immune system inhibitors. Certain proteins that bind to immune system cells are regulators that prevent overactivity of the system. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to these immune system cells give the cancer-fighting cells an opportunity to work with less inhibition.
Directly attacking cancer cells. Certain monoclonal antibodies may attack the cell more directly, even though they were designed for another purpose. When some of these antibodies attach to a cell, a series of events inside the cell may cause it to self-destruct.
Delivering radiation treatment. Because of a monoclonal antibody's ability to connect with a cancer cell, the antibody can be engineered as a delivery vehicle for other treatments. When a monoclonal antibody is attached to a small radioactive particle, it transports the radiation treatment directly to cancer cells and may minimize the effect of radiation on healthy cells. This variation of standard radiation therapy for cancer is called radioimmunotherapy.
Delivering chemotherapy. Similarly, some monoclonal antibodies are attached to a chemotherapeutic drug in order to deliver the treatment directly to the cancer cells while avoiding healthy cells.
Binding cancer and immune cells. Some drugs combine two monoclonal antibodies, one that attaches to a cancer cell and one that attaches to a specific immune system cell. This connection may promote immune system attacks on the cancer cells.

What cancers may be treated with monoclonal antibody drugs?
Monoclonal antibody treatments have been developed for some but not all cancers, and certain types of cancer cells are more vulnerable than others to monoclonal antibody interventions. Nonetheless, treatments have been approved for a number of cancers, including the following: Brain cancer, Breast cancer, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Colorectal cancer, Head and neck cancers, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Lung cancer, Melanoma
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Prostate cancer, Stomach cancer

How are monoclonal antibody drugs used in cancer treatment? Monoclonal antibodies are administered through a vein (intravenously). How often you undergo monoclonal antibody treatment depends on your cancer and the drug you're receiving. Some monoclonal antibody drugs may be used in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or hormone therapy.

Some monoclonal antibody drugs are a part of standard treatment plans. Others are still experimental and used when other treatments have not been successful.

What types of side effects do monoclonal antibody drugs cause? In general, monoclonal antibody treatment carries fewer side effects than do traditional chemotherapy treatments.

However, monoclonal antibody treatment for cancer may cause side effects, some of which, though rare, can be very serious. 
 Talk to your doctor about what side effects are associated with the particular drug you're receiving.

Common side effects : In general, the more common side effects caused by monoclonal antibody drugs include:
 Allergic reactions, such as hives or itching - Flu-like signs and symptoms, including chills, fatigue, fever, and muscle aches and pains
Nausea, vomiting, Diarrhea, Skin rashes, Low blood pressure, Serious side effects, Serious, but rare, side effects of monoclonal antibody therapy may include:
 - Infusion reactions. Severe allergy-like reactions can occur and, in very few cases, lead to death. You may receive medicine to block an allergic reaction before you begin monoclonal antibody treatment. Infusion reactions usually occur while treatment is being administered or soon after, so your health care team will watch you closely for a reaction.
Low blood cell counts. Monoclonal antibodies that deliver radioactive particles or chemotherapy drugs may be associated with low blood cell counts that can be severe and persistent.
Heart problems. Certain monoclonal antibodies increase the risk of high blood pressure, congestive heart failure and heart attacks.
Lung problems. Some monoclonal antibodies are associated with a higher risk of inflammatory lung disease.
Skin problems. Sores and rashes on your skin can lead to serious infections in some cases. Serious sores can also occur on the tissue that lines your cheeks and gums (mucosa).
Bleeding. Monoclonal antibody drugs designed to stop cancer from forming new blood vessels have an increased risk of severe internal bleeding.
What should you consider when deciding on monoclonal antibody drug treatment?
Discuss your cancer treatment options with your doctor. Together you can weigh the benefits and risks of each treatment and decide whether a monoclonal antibody treatment is right for you.

Questions to ask your doctor include:
 -- Has my tumor been tested to see if a monoclonal antibody treatment might be of benefit? Simple tests on tumor samples can often tell if the currently available monoclonal antibody treatments might help your specific cancer.
Has the monoclonal antibody drug shown a clear benefit? Ask your doctor about evidence of the treatment's effect in studies. 

Did it slow cancer growth? Did it result in reduced tumor sizes? Is this a first line of treatment or a treatment we try when others don't work?
What are the likely side effects of monoclonal antibody treatment? With your doctor, you can determine whether the potential side effects of treatment are worth the likely benefit.
How much will monoclonal antibody treatment cost? Monoclonal antibody drugs can cost thousands of dollars for each treatment. Ask your care team to help you determine if the treatment is covered by your insurance.
Is monoclonal antibody treatment available in a clinical trial? Clinical trials, which are studies of new treatments and new ways to use existing treatments, may be available to you. In a clinical trial, the cost of the monoclonal antibody drug may be paid for as a part of the study. Also, you may be able to try new monoclonal antibody drugs. Talk to your doctor about what clinical trials may be open to you.  ..."

[ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoclonal_antibody ] 
"...  Cost: Mabs are more expensive to manufacture than small molecules due to the complex processes involved and the general size of the molecules, this is all in addition to the enormous research and development costs involved in bringing a new chemical entity to patients. They are priced to enable manufacturers to recoup the typically large investment costs, and where there are no price controls, such as the United States, prices can be higher if they provide great value. Seven University of Pittsburgh researchers concluded, "The annual price of mAb therapies is about $100,000 higher in oncology and hematology than in other disease states," comparing them on a per patient basis, to those for cardiovascular or metabolic disorders, immunology, infectious diseases, allergy, and ophthalmology.[47] ..."

SOURCE: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29461857/ : TITLE: "Pricing of monoclonal antibody therapies: higher if used for cancer? 

... Abstract
... Objectives: The rising prices of specialty drugs have prompted a debate about how medications are priced. With the average price of cancer drugs doubling in the last decade, the unsustainability of drug prices is especially concerning in oncology and hematology. The objective of this study was to compare the prices of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved in the last 20 years by the FDA across disease states.

... Study design: We identified all indications approved by the FDA for mAbs from 1997 to 2016 and calculated the annual price of 1-year treatment for each mAb-indication combination as the product of the US average wholesale price per milligram and the recommended dose.

... Methods: We compared the annual price of treatment with each mAb across disease states using generalized linear models with gamma distribution and log link, controlling for route of administration, chemical structure, source, and time since FDA approval.

... Results: The average annual price of a mAb was $96,731, exceeding $100,000 for 34 mAb-indication combinations. Oncology and hematology mAbs represented 40% of the mAb-indication combinations approved, yet they accounted for more than 85% of those priced $100,000 or higher. After adjusting for factors that can affect production costs, the annual price of oncology or hematology mAbs was $149,622 higher than those used in cardiovascular or metabolic disorders; $98,981 higher than in immunology; $128,856 higher than in infectious diseases or allergy; and $106,830 higher than in ophthalmology (all P <.001).

... Conclusions: The annual price of mAb therapies is about $100,000 higher in oncology and hematology than in other disease states...." 


What treatment did President Donal Trumpreceive for COVID-19 ?

 SOURCE: https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/trump-gets-special-covid-19-drugs-under-compassionate-use-ethical-ncna1242344
 "...  Soon after President Donald Trump tested positive for the coronavirus, he received a special experimental treatment of monoclonal antibodies from drug manufacturer Regeneron that almost no one else in the world has access to outside ongoing clinical trials.   ..."

How was Trump diagnosed?


 SOURCE: https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/donald-trump/read-letter-white-house-physician-dr-sean-conley-about-trump-n1241771
 "... ct. 2, 2020, 1:25 AM EDT / Updated Oct. 2, 2020, 2:20 AM EDT
By NBC News
Here's the letter from the White House physician about President Donald Trump's positive coronavirus test:



SUBJECT: President Donald J. Trump & First Lady Melania Trump’s COVID-19 Tests

I release the following information with the permission of President Donald J. Trump and First Lady Melania Trump.

This evening I received confirmation that both President Trump and First Lady Melania Trump have tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

The President and First Lady are both well at this time, and they plan to remain at home within the White House during their convalescence.

The White House medical team and I will maintain a vigilant watch, and I appreciate the support provided by some of our country’s greatest medical professionals and institutions.

Rest assured I expect the President to continue carrying out his duties without disruption while recovering, and I will keep you updated on any future developments.


 Dexamethozone :: Is dexamethasone effective for treating COVID-19?

A recent report on a clinical trial showed that the corticosteroid drug dexamethasone decreased the risk of dying in very ill hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The report was released prior to publication of the study in a medical journal, which means the research results have not gone through the usual careful review.

Many doctors, including those in the United States, have been treating very ill COVID-19 patients with corticosteroids since the pandemic began. It makes biologic sense for those patients who have developed a hyper-immune response (a cytokine storm) to the viral infection. In these cases, it is the immune system's overreaction that is damaging the lungs and other organs, and too often leading to death.

Dexamethasone and other corticosteroids (prednisone, methylprednisolone) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs. They are readily available and inexpensive.

Aug 24, 2020

Treatments for COVID-19 - Harvard Healthwww.health.harvard.edu › diseases-and-conditions › treat...
Search for: Is dexamethasone effective for treating COVID-19?

Responsibilities RESEARCH, DESIGN, DEVELOP-USA Military- MilSPEC- RFP - for SARS-COV-2-Virion-detector-that-can-mount-on- HONDA-Asimo-ROBOT; AND, solicit previous-foreign-Math-and-Engineering-EXperts/friends-to-assist-Earth-citizens-with-Environmental-Science-challenges-while being brilliant & bored. Must KEEP husband - of 38+ years happy - and well fed.

 ULA-Sherloc <PW 


 "Sherloc" "SARS-COV-2" "NASA" : Perseverance rover

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Launch_Alliance  ::  https://www.ulalaunch.com/  


SARS-COV-2 "detector" -- https://www.fraunhofer.org/en/news/press/Parsons-SARS-CoV2-Detector.html 


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SOURCE Parsons Corporation > https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsons_Corporation  

 smoke alarm  carbon monoxide detector

 seeking "creative" "Electrical" "Engineer" to develop RNA probe "identify" "virion"

  "Stipend" Bank of America 

 Soulja Boy  > https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crank_That_(Soulja_Boy)  

>  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FfWNS_YakKw  <  Ms Mojo

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-rSdt0aFuw < The Evolution of Dance - 1950 to 2019 - By Ricardo Walker's Crew 

 whole lotta shakin goin on



Keanu Reeves Age Appropriate
 - https://www.freepressjournal.in/entertainment/why-keanu-reeves-dating-an-age-appropriate-girlfriend-is-a-big-deal

Alexandra Grant


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TARRYTOWN, N.Y., July 7, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: REGN) today announced that, as part of Operation Warp Speed, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Department of Defense Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense have awarded Regeneron a $450 million contract to manufacture and supply REGN-COV2. REGN-COV2 is Regeneron's investigational double antibody cocktail that is currently in two Phase 2/3 clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 and in a Phase 3 trial for the prevention of COVID-19 infection.

Regeneron began scaling up manufacturing of REGN-COV2 at business risk in spring of 2020. This agreement supports continued manufacturing so that the product could be made available immediately in the United States if clinical trials are successful and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) grants Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) or product approval. The agreement covers a fixed number of bulk lots that are intended to be completed in the fall of 2020, as well as fill/finish and storage activities. The ongoing REGN-COV2 clinical program is evaluating multiple dosages and will help establish the exact number of potential treatment doses (estimated range of 70,000 to 300,000) or prevention doses (estimated range of 420,000 to 1,300,000) available from these lots in total. Initial doses may be ready as early as end of summer. If EUA or product approval is granted, the government has committed to making doses from these lots available to the American people at no cost and would be responsible for their distribution.

"Regeneron's thirty years of investment in our innovative VelociSuite® antibody discovery and development technologies and our large-scale manufacturing facilities, coupled with the expertise and passion of our people, has enabled us to move the REGN-COV2 program forward at remarkable speed," said Leonard S. Schleifer, M.D., Ph.D., Co-Founder, President and Chief Executive Officer of Regeneron. "We made the decision early on to begin large-scale manufacturing at our own risk in order to ensure that product would be available immediately if our clinical trials prove successful and an Emergency Use Authorization is granted. This manufacturing and supply agreement with BARDA and the Department of Defense could help REGN-COV2 reach many people quickly, hopefully helping to change the course of this deadly and still-raging pandemic."

Regeneron continues to work to maximize manufacturing capacity of REGN-COV2 within Regeneron and with potential partners. 

Regeneron scientists evaluated thousands of fully-human antibodies produced by the company's proprietary VelocImmune® mice,  
  which have been genetically-modified to have a human immune system, as well as antibodies identified from humans who have recovered from COVID-19.

- https://www.juve-patent.com/news-and-stories/cases/supreme-court-clarifies-sufficiency-in-kymab-and-regeneron-judgment/  

- https://sciencebusiness.technewslit.com/?p=27783  

- https://www.regeneron.com/technology  

 - https://sciencebusiness.technewslit.com/?p=27790

 They selected the two most potent, non-competing and virus-neutralizing antibodies to create REGN-COV2 and have scaled up this dual-antibody cocktail with the company's in-house VelociMab® and manufacturing capabilities. REGN-COV2's two antibodies bind non-competitively to the critical receptor binding domain of the virus's spike protein, which diminishes the ability of mutant viruses to escape treatment and protects against spike variants that have arisen in the human population, as detailed in recent Science publications. More recent research also demonstrates coverage against the now prevalent D614G variant.

Regeneron used the same 'rapid response' capabilities and cocktail approach to develop REGN-EB3, a novel triple antibody treatment for Ebola that is now under regulatory review by the FDA. REGN-COV2's development and manufacturing has been funded in part with federal funds from the BARDA under OT number: HHSO100201700020C.

About Regeneron
Regeneron (NASDAQ: REGN) is a leading biotechnology company that invents life-transforming medicines for people with serious diseases. Founded and led for over 30 years by physician-scientists, our unique ability to repeatedly and consistently translate science into medicine has led to seven FDA-approved treatments and numerous product candidates in development, all of which were homegrown in our laboratories. Our medicines and pipeline are designed to help patients with eye diseases, allergic and inflammatory diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, pain, infectious diseases and rare diseases.

Regeneron is accelerating and improving the traditional drug development process through our proprietary VelociSuite technologies, such as VelocImmune, which uses unique genetically-humanized mice to produce optimized fully-human antibodies and bispecific antibodies, and through ambitious research initiatives such as the Regeneron Genetics Center, which is conducting one of the largest genetics sequencing efforts in the world.

For additional information about the company, please visit www.regeneron.com or follow @Regeneron on Twitter.

Forward-Looking Statements and Use of Digital Media
This press release includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties relating to future events and the future performance of Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Regeneron" or the "Company"), and actual events or results may differ materially from these forward-looking statements. Words such as "anticipate," "expect," "intend," "plan," "believe," "seek," "estimate," variations of such words, and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.  These statements concern, and these risks and uncertainties include, among others, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that has caused the COVID-19 pandemic) on Regeneron's business and its employees, collaborators, and suppliers, other third parties on which Regeneron relies, Regeneron's and its collaborators' ability to continue to conduct research and clinical programs (including those discussed in this press release), Regeneron's ability to manage its supply chain, net product sales of products marketed by Regeneron and/or its collaborators (collectively, "Regeneron's Products"), and the global economy; the nature, timing, and possible success and therapeutic applications of Regeneron's Products and product candidates and research and clinical programs now underway or planned, including without limitation REGN-COV2 (Regeneron's investigational dual antibody cocktail for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19) and REGN-EB3 (Regeneron's novel triple antibody treatment for Ebola); the likelihood, timing, and scope of possible regulatory approval and commercial launch of Regeneron's product candidates (such as REGN-COV2 and REGN-EB3) and new indications for Regeneron's Products; unforeseen safety issues resulting from the administration of Regeneron's Products and product candidates (such as REGN-COV2 and REGN-EB3) in patients, including serious complications or side effects in connection with the use of Regeneron's Products and product candidates in clinical trials; whether Regeneron will be able to meet any drug product manufacturing milestones set forth in the manufacturing and supply agreement with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the Joint Project Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense with the U.S. Department of Defense (collectively, the "U.S. Government") discussed in this press release (the "Manufacturing and Supply Agreement"), the amount of payments (if any) Regeneron may receive pursuant to the Manufacturing and Supply Agreement, and whether the Manufacturing and Supply Agreement is terminated by the U.S. Government or otherwise prior to completion; determinations by regulatory and administrative governmental authorities which may delay or restrict Regeneron's ability to continue to develop or commercialize Regeneron's Products and product candidates, including without limitation REGN-COV2 and REGN-EB3; ongoing regulatory obligations and oversight impacting Regeneron's Products, research and clinical programs, and business, including those relating to patient privacy; uncertainty of market acceptance and commercial success of Regeneron's Products and product candidates and the impact of studies (whether conducted by Regeneron or others and whether mandated or voluntary) on the commercial success of Regeneron's Products and product candidates; the availability and extent of reimbursement of Regeneron's Products from third-party payers, including private payer healthcare and insurance programs, health maintenance organizations, pharmacy benefit management companies, and government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid; coverage and reimbursement determinations by such payers and new policies and procedures adopted by such payers; competing drugs and product candidates that may be superior to Regeneron's Products and product candidates; the extent to which the results from the research and development programs conducted by Regeneron or its collaborators may be replicated in other studies and lead to therapeutic applications; the ability of Regeneron to manufacture and manage supply chains for multiple products and product candidates; the ability of Regeneron's collaborators, suppliers, or other third parties (as applicable) to perform manufacturing, filling, finishing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and other steps related to Regeneron's Products and product candidates; unanticipated expenses; the costs of developing, producing, and selling products; the ability of Regeneron to meet any of its financial projections or guidance and changes to the assumptions underlying those projections or guidance; the potential for any license or collaboration agreement, including Regeneron's agreements with Sanofi, Bayer, and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (or their respective affiliated companies, as applicable), to be cancelled or terminated without any further product success; and risks associated with intellectual property of other parties and pending or future litigation relating thereto (including without limitation the patent litigation and other related proceedings relating to Dupixent® (dupilumab) and Praluent® (alirocumab)), other litigation and other proceedings and government investigations relating to the Company and/or its operations, the ultimate outcome of any such proceedings and investigations, and the impact any of the foregoing may have on Regeneron's business, prospects, operating results, and financial condition.  A more complete description of these and other material risks can be found in Regeneron's filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, including its Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and its Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020.  Any forward-looking statements are made based on management's current beliefs and judgment, and the reader is cautioned not to rely on any forward-looking statements made by Regeneron.  Regeneron does not undertake any obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statement, including without limitation any financial projection or guidance, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

Regeneron uses its media and investor relations website and social media outlets to publish important information about the Company, including information that may be deemed material to investors. Financial and other information about Regeneron is routinely posted and is accessible on Regeneron's media and investor relations website (http://newsroom.regeneron.com) and its Twitter feed (http://twitter.com/regeneron).



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 BY> Kevin Loughlin
Boston, MA, United States

Jonas Salk was born in a tenement in the East Harlem section of New York City. Albert Sabin was born in Poland and as a child immigrated to the United States with his parents. From these humble beginnings, they would emerge as two of the preeminent scientists of their era. They would be locked in a rivalry, at times vitriolic, as they raced to develop a vaccine to prevent one of the feared diseases of their time: polio, infantile paralysis.

The Disease

Only two vaccines existed at the turn of the twentieth century, one for smallpox (Jenner, 1796) and another for rabies (Pasteur, 1885). Other infectious diseases, both viral and bacterial, still ravaged humanity whenever outbreaks occurred.

In 1894 an astute Vermont family physician, Charles Caverly, reported 132 cases of infantile paralysis – probably the first known polio epidemic.1 He published his observations in the Yale Medical Journal, where he described a recurring pattern of children developing high fever and headache, followed three or four days later by varying degrees of paralysis. In 1908, two Viennese pathologists, Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper, deduced indirectly that a virus and not a bacterium caused what was then known as infantile paralysis.2 The actual polio virus would not be visible by electron microscopy until the 1950s.

In 1916 a major outbreak occurred in Brooklyn. The disease appeared to have a predilection for infants and children and occurred mostly in the summer. That July over 1100 new cases were reported in New York City alone.3 Haven Emerson, the Health Commissioner of New York, issued an order to quarantine every family where a case occurred. No one understood how the disease spread; and it would be years before it was recognized that the virus was harbored in the digestive tract. For the next four decades, parents would approach the summer months with fear that their children would contract this debilitating disease.


In 1921, the war on polio recruited an unlikely ally. Although the polio virus preferentially struck children, on August 11 of that year, thirty-nine-year-old Franklin Roosevelt became ill after attending a Boy Scout rally on the way to his summer home on Campobello Island off the New Brunswick coast. Within days, he became paralyzed from the chest down.

For the rest of his life, FDR demonstrated great courage in dealing with his affliction. But the war on polio was the direct beneficiary of his power and influence. Although throughout his political career he hid his disability via his “splendid deception,” he became the champion of medical research for the disease. As president, on September 23, 1937, he announced the formation of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis and appointed as its president his former law partner, Basil O’Connor. O’Connor possessed a rare blend of energy, vision, and organizational savvy that was invaluable to fundraising for the foundation. Through his contacts with celebrities such as Eddie Cantor, Judy Garland, and Jimmy Stewart, he developed a campaign that would become known as the “March of Dimes.” Common citizens would donate dimes, often in movie theaters, to support polio research. In the first year the March of Dimes raised almost two million dollars. Seven years later the fundraising exceeded eighteen million dollars.4

Salk and Sabin

Although they would become rivals, Salk and Sabin had much in common. Salk was born in 1914 to immigrants and grew up in East Harlem. He attended the competitive Townsend Harris Hall, an all-boys college preparatory school, and later graduated from the City College of New York and NYU Medical School. He was an outstanding student and was elected to AOA, the medical student honor society. He was accepted to the Mount Sinai Hospital Residency Program.

Albert Sabin was born Abram Sperstejn to Jewish parents in Bialystok, a city in the Russian Empire and later a part of Poland, in 1906. In 1921, he immigrated with his family to Paterson, New Jersey. An uncle financed his education to attend dental school at NYU. When he changed his mind to pursue medicine, he was on his own financially. In 1930 he became a U.S. citizen and changed his name to Albert Sabin.5 In 1931 he received his MD from NYU and began his residency at Bellevue Hospital.

Salk and Sabin both became interested in research early in their careers. In his final year of medical school, Salk was exposed to Thomas Francis, Jr., the new chairman of the Department of Bacteriology at NYU. Francis had made his name by discovering a new type of influenza virus. At the time, the only available anti-viral vaccines – smallpox, rabies and yellow fever – relied on weakened or attenuated virus inoculations. Francis started Salk working on a “killed virus” influenza vaccine, which would shape Salk’s belief throughout his career of the advantages of killed rather than attenuated vaccines. Salk would ultimately follow Francis to the University of Michigan before moving to Pittsburgh to start his own research laboratory.

After Sabin completed his residency at Bellevue, took a virology fellowship at London’s Lister Institute, and then returned to the Rockefeller Institute in New York to begin his academic career under Thomas Rivers and Peter Olitsky. While at Rockefeller, Sabin became convinced of the inherent superiority of attenuated over killed virus vaccines. Like Salk, Sabin would keep this belief, embraced early in his research career, throughout his professional life. In 1935 he left to start his own laboratory at the University of Cincinnati.

The rivalry and the race to the vaccine

On arriving at Pittsburgh, Salk and his team worked assiduously to develop a killed virus vaccine. They inactivated the virus with formalin and began conducting field trials, sometimes at facilities of the disabled or mentally infirm. Controversy arose when a Chicago physician, Albert Milzer, presented a paper at the American Public Health Association meeting claiming that Salk’s published inactivation technique with formalin failed to kill the polio virus. Sabin viewed this as an opportunity to undermine Salk. He wrote immediately to Aims McGuinness, a powerful leader in the American Academy of Pediatrics, to raise concerns about the validity of the formalin inactivation. It should be acknowledged that Sabin was almost a decade older than Salk and was considered the more experienced investigator. Early on, he criticized Salk at medical conferences and questioned the durability of killed vaccine titers.

Despite the doubts raised by Milzer’s presentation, Salk’s methodology was validated and he published his results in 1953 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Based on Salk’s work, the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis financed a field trial on almost two million American children between the ages of six and nine under the supervision of Thomas Francis.

On April 12, 1955, the tenth anniversary of FDR’s death, the trial results were released. Francis announced that the killed vaccine was safe, potent, and effective. Salk immediately became a celebrity and national hero. But resentment awaited him. Although he acknowledged the contributions of his team when he accepted the inevitable accolades, he failed to identify them by name. The estrangement between Salk and some of his research colleagues persisted for a lifetime and was even mentioned in Julius Youngner’s obituary over six decades later.6

To meet the enormous interest created by the announcement of the trial’s success, several companies were licensed to produce the vaccine. Shortly after the vaccine’s approval, scattered reports appeared of children developing paralysis after receiving the vaccine. An intense investigation followed and implicated only vaccines produced by Cutter Laboratories and caused by a deviation from the Salk protocol. The error was corrected and the killed virus vaccination initiative then continued unabated.

Sabin was undeterred and continued his work on the attenuated virus. He conducted live vaccine trials in the Soviet Union and Mexico; and another investigator, Hilary Koprowski, conducted similar trials in the Congo and Poland, confirming the efficacy of the attenuated vaccine. Ultimately two million Soviet children were vaccinated and Sabin was given the highest Soviet civilian honor, the Order of Friendship Among Peoples.7


Both Salk and Sabin were ultimately proven right. The Salk killed vaccine, given by injection, is the approved vaccine in the United States today because of its greater safety.

The Sabin oral, attenuated vaccine is given in many parts of the world, particularly in underdeveloped countries, because of its ease of administration.

Polio has been eradicated from the globe except in parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. In 1954 John Enders, Frederick Robbins, and Thomas Weller received the Nobel Prize for demonstrating how to cultivate polio virus in a test tube using a combination of embryonic skin and muscle tissue.

Neither Salk nor Sabin ever received the Nobel Prize for their work.

It has been speculated that this may have been due to jealousy, that each sought out personal notoriety, or that both had commercial ties to industry. The lessons from the polio vaccine story are manifold. First, today more than ever, it shows that so many contributions can and have been made by immigrants. Second, it demonstrates the power of private philanthropy. Finally, it serves as a reminder of the value of zealots. An individual or small group of individuals who believe in their goal can accomplish much, even against great odds.


  1. Baicus A. History of polio vaccination. World Journal of Virology 2012;1(4): 108-114
  2. . Polio cases,deaths and vaccination rates. https://vaccines.procon.org/view. Accessed 1/2/2018
  3. Jacobs,CD. Jonas Salk:A life Oxford University Press, New York,2015, pp 1-2
  4. Ibid. pp.71-73
  5. Ibid. pp.76-77
  6. Roberts,S .Julius Youngner,96,Virologist Who Helped Create Polio Vaccine, Is Dead. NY Times 5/7/2017 p.27
  7. Wikipedia. Polio vaccine https://en.wikipedia.org accessed 1/2/2018


Dr. Loughlin would like to make two personal acknowledgments. His beloved Aunt Viola was a polio victim. She was born in 1908 and lived her entire life in New York City. She probably contracted polio during the 1916 epidemic. Ironically, her entire career was spent as a laboratory technician in the New York City Health Department. She walked with the assistance of crutches throughout her entire life and never complained.

As a young urologist, Dr. Loughlin had the privilege of taking care of Dr. Thomas Weller who never once mentioned his Nobel Prize. He and his wife were marvelous individuals.

KEVIN R. LOUGHLIN, MD, MBA, received his A.B. from Princeton University, M.D. from New York Medical College, M.B.A. from Boston University and M.A. (Hon.) from Harvard University. He has been a practicing urologist for almost forty years and is currently the Vice President of the American Board of Urology and a member of the board of directors of the American Urological Association. He has had a lifelong interest in medical history.

[ end ]