home  date: 9-29-2020 ::  DSP Digital Signal processing  "Channel" "Transmitter" "Receiver" < google

https://www.jsumo.com/flysky-i6-24-ghz-6-channel-remote-kit-transmitter-receiver  < Product 

 ( https://www.besserassociates.com/Courses/Course-Description/CTID/27 )

  DSP - Understanding Digital Signal Processing   Course 027

Summary : This three-day course is the beginner's best opportunity to efficiently learn DSP. Intuitive, nonmathematical explanations and well-chosen examples develop the student's fundamental understanding of DSP theory. The practical aspects of signal processing techniques are stressed over discrete system theory. ...

 Understanding Digital Signal Processing by Rick Lyons
 [ http://www.complang.tuwien.ac.at/cd/prianich/Books/LyonsUnderstandingDSP.pdf ( PDF 269 pages ) ]

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

Target Audience : Practicing RF hardware engineers and technicians, and computer programmers seeking an understanding of DSP technical theory and algorithms will benefit from this course. The course does not cover the internal architecture of commercial DSP integrated circuits.

Day One - Discrete Sequences and Systems

 • Sequences and their notation 

 • Processing operational symbols

Periodic Sampling

 • Aliasing • Sampling low-pass signals 

 • Sampling bandpass signals 

 • Spectral inversion in bandpass sampling

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

 • Understanding the DFT equation • DFT properties • Inverse DFT • DFT leakage

Day Two

Discrete Fourier Transform (cont'd)

 • Use of window functions 

 • DFT results interpretation 

• DFT processing gain

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

 • FFT's relationship to DFT 

 • Guidelines on using FFTs in practice 

 • FFT software availability

Quadrature Signals

 • Math Notation of Quadrature Signals 

• Generating Quadrature Signals 

• Quadrature Processing Applications

Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters

 • Introduction 

 • Convolution 

 • Half-band/Matched/Comb Filters 

• FIR Filter Design and Analysis Examples 

• Phase response

Day Three :Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters

 • Introduction 

• Laplace transforms 

• z-transforms 

• Design methods • Pitfalls in building IIR digital filters 

• Cascade and parallel combinations of digital filters 

• Comparison of IIR and FIR filters

Advanced Sampling Techniques

 • Quadrature sampling 

• Quadrature sampling with digital mixing 

• Sample Rate Conversion (decimation & interpolation)

SOURCE: https://www.besserassociates.com/Courses/Course-Description/CTID/29  < no hyperlinks

 Digital Signal Processing and Wireless Communications
Request information about bringing this course to your site. [ DONE ]

Summary :: Their four-day course provides participants with an in-depth examination of wireless digital communication design strategies.

  Topics covered include digital modulation, radio wave propagation characteristics, signal detection methods, BER performance improvement and simulation techniques, DSP techniques, and RF/hardware architectures.

  Learning objectives:  Upon completing the course you will be able to:

1) Describe the migration path for modulation and demodulation techniques.

  ( https://www.mwrf.com/technologies/systems/article/21847080/basics-of-modulation-and-demodulation#:~:text=FM%20can%20be%20created%20by,based%20on%20amplitude%20and%20frequency. < part 1 )

 - Basics of Modulation and Demodulation  "part 2" 

 -  "part 2" ... complex forms of digital modulation time domain and pulsed signals in systems employing pulse modulation 
"military radars" and "automotive collision-avoidance systems ..."

2) List and describe signal processing building blocks for wireless systems. (  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless  )

  (  http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~mperkows/CAPSTONES/DSP1/MeyrSep06_DspArchitecturesForCommunications_Slides.pdf  )
Explain methods for mitigating wireless channel impairments.

 "...  Chapter 5:: Wireless Channel Impairment Mitigation Techniques :: Book Author(s): Haesik Kim irst published: 07 August 2015 :: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118759479.ch5 PDFPDF :: TOOLS :: SHARE Summary

Wireless channels cause many types of wireless channel impairments such as noise, path loss, shadowing, and fading, and wireless communication systems should be designed to overcome these wireless channel impairments. This chapter investigates the fundamentals of wireless channel impairment mitigation techniques. Diversity techniques mitigate multipath fading effects and improve the reliability of a signal by utilizing multiple received signals with different characteristics. C. Shannon predicts that it is possible to transmit information without errors over the unreliable channel and an error control coding technique exists to achieve this. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) techniques are classified into spatial diversity techniques, spatial multiplexing techniques, and beamforming techniques. Due to a time dispersive channel by multipath fading, Inter‐Symbol Interference (ISI) occurs and an equalizer plays an important role in ISI compensation. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system also has many advantages.  ..."

3) Perform system simulations ((de)modulation, BER and channel models). ( 
http://www.mitpublications.org/yellow_images/1381645539_logo_4.pdf )

"... In a digital transmission, BER is the percentage of bits with errors divided by the total number of bits that have been transmitted, received or processed over a given time period. The rate istypically expressed as 10 to the negative power. For example, four erroneous bits out of 100,000 bits transmitted would be expressed as 4 × 10-5, or the expression 3 × 10-6 would indicate that three bits were in error out of 1,000,000 transmitted. BER is the digital equivalent to signal-to-noise ratio in an analog system. ..." [ "bit error rate" :: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bit_error_rate ]
Predict system performance and evaluate tradeoffs.
 Describe TDMA, CDMA, 4G LTE and 5G evolution techniques.
Describe design issues for wireless systems,
 particularly those issues in which transmit and receive implementation affect system performance.

 Target Audience: RETIRED TECHNICAL WRITERS, System designers entering or currently working in the field of wireless digital communication will benefit from this comprehensive overview of practical design techniques. An electrical engineering background (or equivalent practical experience) is required. Attending the course, DSP- Understanding Digital Signal Processing ( Course 27 ), is suggested.

Day One    
Digital Modulation [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modulation ]
• Introduction to some wireless standards
• Multiple Access Principles ( TDMA, CDMA, FDMA, SDMA, OFDMA )
• Complex envelope representation of signals and systems
• Stochastic theory review
(  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stochastic_process :: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modulation#Digital_modulation_methods )
• Digital modulation theory : 
- Pulse shaping filter selection - Nonlinear amplification affects (spectral regrowth) - Advanced modulation techniques
• Spread spectrum - Frequency Hoping - Direct Sequence CDMA - RAKE Receiver - uplink and downlink example - PN code coarse and fine time tracking - Receiver block diagram - WCDMA Introduction
• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) - Single Carrier and Multiple Carrier Examples - Multipath Mitigation Technique - Frequency Domain Equalization

Day Two
Radio Propagation Characterization
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_propagation :: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_propagation_model )
 • AWGN channel • Rayleigh multipath fading
 • Rician multpath fading • Delay spread concept (flat vs. frequency selective fading) - Indoor propagation measurements - Outdoor propagation measurements
 • Log Normal Shadowing - Governing Principles - Carrier Frequency Dependency
 • Path Loss - Free Space, Hata, Walfish-Bertoni, etc. - Micro cell measurements - Macro cell measurements
 • Man made interference - Adjacent channel interference - Co-channel interference • Simulating multipath fading channels - Jakes, LPF-ing, etc.
Signal Detection Methods
 • BER [bit error rate] performance discussion between theory and practice
 • Coherent detection architectures - Open Loop, Closed Loop, etc. • Non-coherent detection of p/4-DQPSK, DQPSK & GMSK - Differential Detection, Maximum Likelihood, etc. • Implementation issues and design for manufacturability
• BER Performance Comparison - Various Channel Conditions

Day Three
Performance Improvement Techniques
 • Forward Error Correction - Block, Convolutional, Turbo, Reed-Solomon, Concatenated
 • Punctured coding discussion - BER performance discussion • Interleaver/de-interleaver
 • Antenna receiver diversity techniques - Switching, Equal Gain, Maximal Ratio, Optimal Combining
 • Symbol timing recovery methods • Equalization techniques - Linear, decision feedback, MLSE
 • Equalization coefficient adaptation schemes - LMS, RLS, SMI, etc.
 • Space Time Equalization - ML perspective - Generalized RAKE (G-RAKE)
 • Adaptive Antenna Arrays - MMSE and MSINR based cost functions - Eigen-spectra investigation
 • Antenna transmitter diversity techniques - Space-time block codes, closed loop - MIMO

Day Four
Digital Signal Processing [ https://ocw.mit.edu/resources/res-6-008-digital-signal-processing-spring-2011/ < open MIT COURSE]
 • Automatic frequency control
 • Automatic gain control
 • Channel quality estimation techniques
 • Concept of dual detection receivers
 • Power control loops - Uplink and Downlink - Multipath mitigation
 • Transceiver block diagrams - Transmitter issues - Receiver structures
 • Transmit power amplifier linearization Overview ::  ( http://smirc.stanford.edu/papers/isscc01s-joel.pdf  )

Computer Simulation Techniques 
 • Goals of computer simulations
 • Simulation tools - Complex Envelope domain
 • Estimation Methods - Monte Carlo, Importance Sampling, Tail Extrapolation, Semi-Analytic
 • A Comparison of the simulation methods discussed - Usage guidelines

Subject Areas:
DSP Digital Signal Processing
Wireless Digital Communications Fundamentals
OFDM and OFDMA Technology

  Bob (Robert Davis) 

3-19-2020 < researched 

http://dool-1.tripod.com/days158/days158.htm "ORGANIZATION"

"...  Drunken Soldiers, Always High
Dropouts from old Sigma Phi
Men who bullshit all the way,
These are the men from the ASA

 ... Plastic cans upon our ears,
We've been cleared and we're not Queers  ..."


Chaminade High School Yearbook 1957 

 https://www.wpafb.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2086145/f100-now-on-display-at-arnold-afb-engine-test-facility/ "...  The engine was sea level tested at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. After testing there,   ..."
https://www.afmc.af.mil/News/Photos/igphoto/2000518851/  "...  WPAFB Arnold House PHOTO  ..."
https://medicine.wright.edu/sites/medicine.wright.edu/files/page/attachments/WPAFB_Maps_0.pdf  WPAFB MAPS diagrams
 https://www.bloomberg.com/profile/company/0008948D:US "...  Raytheon Technical Services Company LLC manufactures guided missiles and space vehicles. The Company specializes in air and missile defense, large land and sea based radars and systems, as well as produces air traffic management systems, sonars, torpedoes and electronic system for ships. Raytheon Technical Services serves customers in the United State, Europe, India, and the Middle East.  ..."
 https://www.raytheon.com/ourcompany/rps/technical-services " Ray. Profess. Services... RPS provides innovative training solutions for the repair and maintenance of equipment, vehicles and machinery for markets with rapid product and technology life cycles. Our customers achieve greater availability of their products and increase customer satisfaction through efficient service and immediate problem resolution. Our expertise in technical training spans industries and markets including automotive, oil and gas, utilities, government, manufacturing and technology and communications. ..."
 http://raytheon.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=401 NEWS: "... has been awarded a U.S. Air Force (Air Force Logistics Center, Tinker Air Force Base, Okla.) contract to repair air traffic control radar system components worldwide. The contract is valued at $15.5 million for the base-year and four option years. ..."
http://investor.raytheon.com/news-releases/news-release-details/raytheon-awarded-155-million-air-force-contract-repair-air NEWS: "...  ...  "We are pleased to continue providing Mission Support to the U.S. Air Force and the air traffic control radar systems," said Bob Davis, vice president and general manager of one of RTSC's business units. "This award is an opportunity to provide total life-cycle support and allows us to extend the operational lifespan of the Raytheon radar systems."   ...  ..."
http://www.bendixradiofoundation.com/documents/Bendix%20Radio%20Radar%20History.pdf "...  Rapid deployment of the FPS-20 throughout the world overwhelmed Air Force capabilities for maintenance and support. At their request, Bendix Radio created a field service department to support the radar. This department eventually grew into a subsidiary corporation of Bendix and played a major role in the space program. Over time, other countries came into possession of the FPS-20 and its derivatives either through purchase or transfer of ownership from the U.S. Northern Electric of Canada also produced the radar under license so it became a worldwide standard for search radar. In the 1970s, Radio (Communications) Division launched an effort to sell additional systems or upgrades on the international market. This resulted in the sale of an FPS-100 and an associated height finder to Argentina and upgrades for systems in Thailand, India, and Chile. Bendix Field Engineering also supplied a number of kits to the FAA to adapt the radar to the air traffic control environment. With a waning corporate interest in the radar business, either domestic or foreign, the radar product line was eliminated at the Division. ..."



"...  The Kylstron is a vacuum tube used to amplify small signals up to a high power levels applicable in radar, deep-space satellite communications and coherent RF power sources in applications like linear particle accelerators. Klystrons generally operate in the microwave radio frequency bands, but some applications have used Klystrons as low in frequency as 430Mhz (eg. Arecibo), 324 MHz (IHEP), and 201 MHz (Fermilab). ..."

"...  A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian,[1] which is used as an amplifier for high radio frequencies, from UHF up into the microwave range. Low-power klystrons are used as oscillators in terrestrial microwave relay communications links, while high-power klystrons are used as output tubes in UHF television transmitterssatellite communicationradar transmitters, and to generate the drive power for modern particle accelerators.  ..."

https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Rome_Laboratory "...  Rome Laboratory (Rome Air Development Center until 1991) is the US "Air Force 'superlab' for command, control, and communications" research and development and is responsible for planning and executing the USAF science and technology program. ..."


File:AN-FPS-20 Radar.jpg


"...  The AN/FPS-20 was a widely used L band early warning and ground-controlled interception radar system used by the United States Air Force Air Defense Command, the Pinetree Line in Canada, and a variety of other users. The design started life as the Bendix AN/FPS-3 in 1950, was upgraded to the FPS-20, then spawned over a dozen different variants as additional upgrades were applied. The FPS-20 formed the backbone of the US air defense network through the early Cold War with over 200 units deployed. Most FPS-20 sites were replaced by modern equipment in the late 1960s, although a number were turned over to the FAA, modified for air traffic control use, and became ARSR-60s. ..."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Force_Research_Laboratory "...  The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is a scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of aerospace warfighting technologies, planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program, and providing warfighting capabilities to United States air, space, and cyberspace forces.[1] It controls the entire Air Force science and technology research budget which was $2.4 billion in 2006.[2]  ..."
https://books.google.com/books?id=ksDsDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA59&lpg=PA59&dq=Directed-energy+weapon+%22Ohio%22&source=bl&ots=TEOFryzRao&sig=ACfU3U3d-AiiVwThmwzGXiae4dnv1txxsg&hl=en&ppis=_e&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwil3O-i2afoAhVCYs0KHTy2AN04FBDoATAAegQICBAB#v=onepage&q=Directed-energy%20weapon%20%22Ohio%22&f=false TITLE: "Directed Energy Weapons: Physics of High Energy Lasers (HEL) "
https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6536399  TITLE: "...  Effects of Directed and Kinetic Energy Weapons on Spacecraft A. P. Fraas  ..."
https://www.daytondailynews.com/business/laser-weapon-technology-could-revolutionize-manufacturing/APfeFYNCJc5Hwe0ldiS1RN/ "...  The U.S. Navy plans to launch a warship this year armed with a laser cannon. The Navy’s directed-energy weapon, developed over six years at a cost of $40 million, uses fiber optic solid-state laser technology.  ..."



Arnold Engineering Development Complex

For assistance or additional information about AEDC, visit our website: www.arnold.af.mil
or contact the AEDC Public Affairs Office at Arnold.AEDC.PA@us.af.mil or call (931) 454-4204.

"...  The Air Force Strategic Development Planning and Experimentation (SDPE) office at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, has tasked the 704th Test Group’s Directed Energy Combined Test Force (DE CTF) at Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M., to lead a directed-energy experimentation campaign. The 704th is an operating unit of Arnold Engineering Development Complex, headquartered at Arnold Air Force Base, Tenn. ..."
 https://media.defense.gov/2018/Jan/16/2001865871/-1/-1/1/2017%20TEST%20FACILITY%20GUIDE.PDF.PDF "...  The Arnold Engineering Development Complex is part of the Air Force Test Center (AFTC). Headquartered at Arnold Air Force Base in Tennessee, the Complex also consists of geographically separated units - the Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel, Maryland; the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, California; 704th Test Group, Holloman AFB, Kirtland AFB and White Sands, New Mexico, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio; McKinley Climatic Laboratory, Eglin AFB, Florida; Hypersonic CTF, Edwards AFB, California.  ..."
https://www.wpafb.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/1035951/704th-test-group-activated-under-aedc/  "...  Additionally, the 704th TG has two geographically separated units: Operating Location (OL)-AA, located at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, and OL-AC, located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. OL-AA is responsible for directed energy and high energy laser testing, whereas OL-AC performs landing-gear and aircraft survivability tests.  ..."


"... Aerospace Vehicle Survivability Facility (AVSF)
The Air Force Aerospace Vehicle Survivability Facility
(AVSF) is operated by the Air Force’s Aerospace Survivability
and Safety Operating Location at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.


The mission of the AVSF is to conduct the research, development, test and evaluation of combat survivable aerospace vehicles by testing the system performance of today’s and
tomorrow’s weapon systems and system components under
realistic threat conditions. It is the Air Force Center of Expertise
for vulnerability live fire test and evaluation. Recent programs
have evaluated a number of aircraft at the AVSF, including the
F-35, KC-46, and UAS vs High Energy Laser. ..."



Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio -- The 96th Test Group Aerospace Survivability and Safety Office has two critical missions – aircraft survivability and landing gear systems safety supported by the Aerospace Vehicle Survivability Facility and the Landing Gear Test Facility.

The Air Force started investigating reasons for significant loss of aircraft in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War era.

... While these investigations were the genesis of the current survivability mission at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, elements of the survivability and landing gear test facilities have actually been at WPAFB since the WWII era. Building 31, which is now a registered historic landmark, was home to those missions until they were transferred from the Air Force Research Laboratory to the 96th Test Wing. The 96 TG/OL-AC is located here to support current and future USAF and DoD aircraft survivability and landing gear safety research development test and evaluation needs.

Most of the Air Force aircraft inventory has gone through these test facilities in one form or another with aircraft survivability and landing gear system test and evaluation. ..."

https://www.militaryaerospace.com/rf-analog/article/16713906/air-force-researchers-choose-three-companies-to-develop-new-directedenergy-weapons-materials  "...  Officials of the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, has awarded contracts and task orders to the General Dynamics Corp. Information Technology segment in Fairfax, Va.; Azimuth Corp. in Beavercreek, Ohio; and to UES Inc. in Dayton, Ohio, to advance materials technologies that control and protect light and electromagnetic energy sources. ..."




 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome_Laboratory  "Based on a newly developed Litton klystron and the experience of Bob Davis, a new high powered radar, the FPS-20, was conceived."
 https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/36386685/bendix-radio-radars-bendix-radio-foundation  "Based on a newly developed Litton klystron and the experience of Bob Davis, a new high powered radar, the FPS-20, was conceived."

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome_Laboratory >>>>>>>>>>>> 

Based on a newly developed Litton klystron and the experience of Bob Davis, a new high powered radar, the FPS-20, was conceived. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klystron ::  


https://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/airdef/1997-06-01955.pdf  Air Defense Command 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klystron_::_  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bendix_AN/FPS-20 

This was developed, first as a GPA-27 kit to upgrade the FPS-3 and later manufactured as the FPS-20, FPS-20a, FPS-66-67, and FPS-100. |access-date= requires |url= (help)

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome_Laboratory

"...  Sensors Directorate Moved to Wright-Patterson AFB under the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission
Divisions and laboratories of the former Rome Air Development Center (RADC) included the Electronic Warfare Laboratory, High Power Laboratory, Photonics Laboratory, 1968 Electronics Laboratory (dedicated 25 October), RADC Systems Division, and the Communications and Control Division which moved from building 106 to building 3 in March 1976. (RADC computer facilities were in bldg 3, which in August 1974 had "a new $2.8 million communications research laboratory".)[4]   ..."
 - END