date: 7-23-2020  HOME >  

  filename:  Gupta-at-CNN

Email address:

ProtonMail address:   

"Contact" CNN "form" ::  

 Dear Dr. Gupta [CNN] - I do NOT require anonymity. I am a retired professional Writer - and, I have a "personal web site:   

which, I will post this tip/idea - submittal to (also).

 Sir, as YOU are no doubt aware, the SARS-cov-2 virus entity interacts with the human on a biochemical basis:   


 However, its “linear” sequence of operation is analogous to "software" code - which, I have some small knowledge - in this area.

  ; That is (I.E.) - the virus entity ACTS > "IF this - THEN this";

Thus, I feel your “education” of the community of persons - world-wide - who provide “results” [algorithms etc.] - at the intersection of biochemistry & software may be very helpful.

 You may want to use art works [graphics] - similar to those shown - at the cited URLs. - see "START HERE" below.

[ In fact, there are many existing graphics – in the public sphere – however, my husband – of 38+ years is “The ‘Hans J. Neuart’ – digital artist” – and, he has consented to assist – if necessary.



STEP 1: To begin - describe the SARS-COV-2 virus entity - and, what we know about it: the virion.
   [image : ]

Its capsular form, its spikes AND the RNA molecule inside – its “envelope”. EXPLAIN "nucleotides AND genes – at a high level – ATCG... Talk about "attachment" [the "spike"] and the functional biochemistry (molecular attraction – active sites – orientation)  - with "graphics". Mention ACE - and, its structural facets. Detail the linear placement of the genes - that code the peptides - on the virus'  "RNA". What we know AND touch on "mutation" - reading frames, etc.

STEP 2: Describe how humans are "mammals" - and, HOW we are made up of 4 cell types. State the kind of cell type the virus requires. "Epithelial" - and why. Explain "surfactants" and "gas exchange" ... SHOW MOLECULES INTERACTING.

STEP 3: Describe the virus life-cycle. The entry into the cell "cytoplasm" - and nucleus. Explain transcription and translation.

STEP 4: Now - reinforce the "linear' processing of the viral life-cycle :: Step A, Step B ... lysis :: Cite one successful virion - becomes millions. AND, explain HOW - this happens.

STEP 5:  Then - drill down about the adult pulmonary alveolus - versus - the lack of this pathway in newborns & children - until they are 3 or 4 years outside of their mother's womb. Describe - contrast - the "gas exchange" oxygen - in the mother's womb.

STEP 6: Describe the maturation of the pathway - from birth to the "mature human oxygen gas exchange" system.

 STEP 7: Now, Point out [that] chiroptera [bats] are believed to be reservoirs of the SARS-COV-2 virus - and, discuss theories about HOW the bat's ability to fly AND the temperature extremes (they experience during flight) are considered - by some - to be a part of WHY the virus entity - does NOT kill them.

 STEP 8: Perhaps - touch on "evolution" - As a "practical matter, the virus entity (with no legs) requires a means of transportation - spread - ( "vectoring") - and, the suppression of mammals that may compete with the vector [ reservoir ] - may be a kind of "co-evolution". Explain "artifical" selection - versus "natural" selection. AND, describe the importance of "expression" - in "Natural" selection: "An environment ONLY selects against an expression"

 Helpful URL:  

 STEP 9:  EMPHASIZE that chiroptera [bats] are able to "control" the resident virus populations – inside them – and live.

 STEP 10: Explain how "climate - change" is playing a role - in this - and, loss of & "change in" of traditional habitats - for bats and humans world-wide is playing a role.

 STEP 11: Please describe how important BATS are - to the world's economy [pollination, bananas …], etc. AND, why studying "bats" is so important - to understanding - not just the SARS-COV-2 entity - but, the larger "coronaVirus" family of Viruses: MERS, H1N1...

 STEP 12 : Cite President Obama's success - because, he could appreciate - the scientific knowledge of others - and - did not "fear"; to ACT responsibly.

 Cite President Trump's "in-ability" to do this - AND, "why" - related to his child-hood [exposed in the NYTimes article & Mary Trump’s book] - Donald may not be capable - of ever listening to "scientists" - due to his lack of "neural networks" - that, make human “empathy” and “sympathy” possible.

 IN SHORT: Please take sides! Donald J. Trump is not "fit" - to be the US President - because, he lacks the "neural networks" [brain cell pathways] required; AND, his lack of these network entities - permits the “A-moral pathways” - he does possess - to over-Express.


References:   < START HERE >

 "canals of Lambert" ::  

 "pores of Kohn" :


Aveoli -  A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cup-shaped cavity found in the lung parenchyma where gas exchange takes place. Lung alveoli are found in the acini at the beginning of the respiratory zone. They are located sparsely in the respiratory bronchioles, line the walls of the alveolar ducts, and are more numerous in the blind-ended alveolar sacs.[1] The acini are the basic units of respiration, with gas exchange taking place in all the alveoli present.[2] The alveolar membrane is the gas exchange surface, surrounded by a network of capillaries. Across the membrane oxygen is diffused into the capillaries and carbon dioxide released from the capillaries into the alveoli to be breathed out.[3][4] -- Alveoli are particular to mammalian lungs. Different structures are involved in gas exchange in other vertebrates.[5] --

Microanatomy -- The alveoli consist of an epithelial layer of simple squamous epithelium (very thin, flattened cells),[7] and an extracellular matrix surrounded by capillaries. The epithelial lining is part of the alveolar membrane, also known as the respiratory membrane, that allows the exchange of gases. The membrane has several layers – a layer of lining fluid that contains surfactant, the epithelial layer and its basement membrane; a thin interstitial space between the epithelial lining and the capillary membrane; a capillary basement membrane that often fuses with the alveolar basement membrane, and the capillary endothelial membrane. The whole membrane however is only between 0.2 μm at its thinnest part and 0.6 μm at its thickest.[8]

In the alveolar walls there are interconnecting air passages between the alveoli known as the pores of Kohn. The alveolar septa that separate the alveoli in the alveolar sac contain some collagen fibers and elastic fibers. The septa also house the enmeshed capillary network that surrounds each alveolus.[9] The elastic fibres allow the alveoli to stretch when they fill with air during inhalation. They then spring back during exhalation in order to expel the carbon dioxide-rich air.

A histologic slide of a human alveolar sac

There are three major types of alveolar cell. Two types are pneumocytes or pneumonocytes known as type I and type II cells found in the alveolar wall, and a large phagocytic cell known as an alveolar macrophage that moves about in the lumens of the alveoli, and in the connective tissue between them.[6]

- Type I cells, also called type I pneumocytes, or type I alveolar cells, are squamous, thin and flat and form the structure of the alveoli.

- Type II cells, also called type II pneumocytes or type II alveolar cells, release pulmonary surfactant to lower surface tension, and can also differentiate to replace damaged type I cells.