< HOME > 4-11-2021 Out-of-Africa
If you accept "Out of Africa" - and, I do - the remaining questions are: "Why?"
That is, "Why?" - Why did some groups - of our species - choose to migrate - through Ethiopia - due North AND East? AND - Did some groups - just jump on the White Nile - until it met withe BLUE Nile - and keep going to CRETE ?
I am a retired American - who worked in the American "Software Industry" - for many years. ... more > ( https://hansandcassady.org/ )
Today, I wish to "weigh in" on the evolution of humanity:
In fact - the reason "why" modern humans left Aftrica - seems to be a matter of debate;
The fact [that] we evolved there - is not in debate; and, I believe that all humans are genetically related to each other.
So, I propose - [that] we were motivated (TO LEAVE AFRICA) - by the "human" propensity to "gravitate toward" objects and experiences - that please them - and, intrigue them. I have not seen this theory proposed - so, I will appreciate - any tips offered - that it has been so "theorized". ABOUT Susan :: CONTACT Form ...
To begin, I wish to call the reader's attention - to recent discoveries - made by paleotologists - on Crete - an island in the Aegean Sea AND [References 1, 2, 3,4,5,6 (this page) ] AND, the fact [that] this island is a part of Greece - which, also contains a political provence of Magnete/Magnesia. ... is a place - known since antiquity - for its concentration of "load stones" [Magnes]. These stones are a type of iron ore - which naturally manifest one of the four fundamental forces of nature- which are: gravity, strong chemical bonds, weak chemical bonds - and, magnetism.
As a FEMALE "modern human" ( homo sapiens sapiens ) - I have felt the emotions of "fear" and "pleasant intrigue" - and, so can "choose" - BETWEEN THESE - as "motivators" if I wish . Hunger is also a motivator - and, natural disaster; Neither (of these) is proved to be a "relevant factor" - IN THE "OUT-OF-AFRICA" "PHENOMENA" - OF "why" some of us chose to leave Africa.
I begin by noting how fortunate (I was) to "grow up" - in Columbus, Ohio [ 1954 - 1972 ]. FOR EXAMPLE: This enabled me to experience many things [that] my husband (of many years) - did not experience. [ poor guy ]
In fact, Hans "grew up" - in New Concord, Ohio - living near the John Glenn family. He is the "youngest" - of five boys. His father raised and raced "sulky cart pulling" horses - and, worked for the State of Ohio - DMV. His mother was a full-time mother and wife.
My father (born 1902) died when I was young. His work involved proximity to asbestos - and, he died - from a [THEN] non-specified "lung disease". He was also an "illegal gambler" - and, a handsome, warm and loving man. (* Which was funny when my sister married an OSU student - studying to become police officer - 55+ years ago.) My mother was - born - in 1916. She was "raised" in the Franklin County Children's Home - AND, after being returned from an "adventure" [to visit her sister in Kentucky] - was placed into a Central Ohio Catholic Convent - related to the fact [that she] - and, her sisters - were raped (on the Ohio River) - after accepting a ride - to cross the Ohio river [from Portsmouth, Ohio to Kentucky] - from boys - with a boat. None of the girls knew how to swim - and, they were "propositioned" - about half-way across - "Girls put out - or - get out." My mother married my father - in 1934. They had seven children - of which, I am number 5 - and, the only one born "handicapped". I was cured (from Pectus carinatum) - with the help of bracing and Children's Hospital doctor's advice to my parents. When I reached puberty - the condition (caused by "faulty" underlying pre-puberty biochemistry) - literally cured itself. I became a Champion Tether-ball player - AND, was "selected" - to serve in my public middle school [ Starling Jr. High ] as a "cheerleader" (1968).
My grandmother [Zora Elizabeth Miller] was a German/American - born 1883. She had 13 live children - with a farmer [George A Sprouse] - AND (after he died) - also Jerry Roby. There is debate in my family - "IF" my mother (Mary Elizabeth Sprouse)- and, her siblings - were placed into the Franklin County - Ohio - Children's Home - because Zora was "German" - and, the "World Wars" [1918, etc.] ; or - because she [Zora] was not able to feed so many children. In any event, Zora died one year before I was born. Four - of her 13 children - served in the Allied Forces (of WW2). My mother never criticized Zora (to me) - in her answers to my curious questions. Rather, my mother stressed (to me) - that, she was never abused in either the State - or church run "facility"- and, my father [ Milo Gerald Cassady ] was "Scotch/Irish". She met him - when he offered to pick her up - for his friend - from the Shoe Factory Columbus, Ohio. My dad gained a wife - but [I think] - lost his friend. They were married - for 30 years - when he died - in October of 1964.
During the "civil rights" excitement - experienced in Columbus, Ohio [circa 1960-1972] - my mother recounted (to me) her "good experiences" with "colored people". That is, as well as knowing "colored people" - through her "growing up"; she had (also) "worked with" them - at General Motors & Westinghouse companys - located in Columbus; And, was favorably "impressed" by their abilities - and "pleasantness" to her. Moreover, Mary Elizabeth Cassady (nee Miller, Sprouse, Brothers) did not "spank me" - as directed, by Columbus Public School Officials - for "lookin' for game" on the segregated public school yards (1960 - 1966) after, I had beaten all the white kids - at "tether-ball". I never officially dated - a "colored boy" - but, one did kiss me on my cheek - after he escorted me through riotous crowds - at my public school. I was able to cheer with African American girls - who patiently taught me every move I made: That is, "Russian jumps", splitz, cartwheels & back bends. I did also date a young man - who was adopted - from Vietnam - before I married and had a baby girl - at nineteen years old. These experiences were possible - for me - because of WHERE I grew up [ Central Ohio ] - and, who my parents were.
My personal experiences - are brought - to bare - on my theory - of human migration "out of Africa". I can also comment - on sexist, racist and fearful people - as, I had experience with them - also.
I learned to ride a bike - at "Schiller park" - in Columbus, Ohio. My horizons were broadened - when we moved to the Columbus "Bottoms". "Limits" were dictated - on where I was permitted to ride my bike (in the "bottoms"; however, with a brother - only ten months younger than me - these "rules" meant little; we rode our bikes - like the "white-trash" Hooligans [we were]. We often "packed" - my littlest sister "Debbie" - between us. We investigated everything. And, out of sight of our mother - we sought excitement, danger - and, new sights. We rode - on an empty an High Street - in Downtown Columbus - on Sunday mornings (when the shopping stores were closed. Our bikes sailed up and down Columbus, Ohio's "Broad Street" - even to the forbidden "hill top" area. We waved to drunken bums - in burned out buildings. We threw rocks - to break the remaining windows - in abandoned buildings. And, we learned to swim - at the Sunshine Recreation Center ( with black people in the pool - at the same time! ) We stared at each other - and, we smiled.
"... New emerging DNA evidence suggests that living Greeks are indeed descendants of the ancient Mycenaeans, who ruled mainland Greece and the Aegean Sea from 1,600 BC to 1,200 BC ... The evidence comes from a study in which scientists analyzed the genes from the teeth of 19 people across various archaeological sites within mainland Greece and Mycenae. A total of 1.2 million letters of genetic code were compared to those of 334 people across the globe.
... Genetic information was also compiled from a group of thirty modern Greek individuals in order to compare it to the ancient genomes. This enabled researchers to effectively plot how individuals were related to one another. After comparing the DNA of modern Greeks to ancient Mycenaeans [ Mycenae ], a genetic overlap was discovered that suggests that these ancient Bronze Age civilizations laid the genetic groundwork for later peoples.
... Links between Minoans and Mycenaeans also found. ...One aspect that was unveiled in the study was how the Mycenaeans themselves were closely related to the Minoan civilization, which flourished on the island of Crete from 2,000 BC to 1,400 BC. Both cultures were shown to carry genes for brown hair and brown eyes, characteristics that are reflected on their frescoes and pottery, despite having different languages.
... According to Harvard population geneticist Iosif Lazaridis, any difference between the two civilizations suggests that the second wave of people came to mainland Greece from Eastern Europe, yet were unable to reach the island of Crete — and in time they became known as the Mycenaeans.
Swedish Archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen at the University of Gothenburg commented on the importance of the study recently, saying that “The results have now opened up the next chapter in the genetic history of western Eurasia — and that of the Bronze Age Mediterranean.” ..."
Pagasetic Gulf - https://email@example.com,22.8507562,26003m/data=!3m1!1e3
Dear Professors ... , As stated (in detail) above - I am merely a retired American. As it appears (from Research) we did "exit" Africa - as genetically "modern humans" [Homo Sapiens Sapiens], I propose [that] we did so - related to reports of the excellent flora and fauna - available in Crete; and, exhibits of "mysterious" magnetic stones - readily available - in the land of Homer's "Magnete" tribe ( Magnesia ). AND, I propose we used the White Nile and Blue Nile (with origins in Central Africa) to reach the Mediterranean Coast - where upon we embarked - on flotation devices - to Crete.
[ https://hansandcassady.org/FaraDay-from-source-MAIN.html ]
1) https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-great-human-migration-13561/ :
"... The scratchings on this piece of red ocher mudstone are the oldest known example of an intricate design made by a human being. The ability to create and communicate using such symbols, says Christopher Henshilwood, leader of the team that discovered the stone, is "an unambiguous marker" of modern humans, one of the characteristics that separate us from any other species, living or extinct. [ https://www.wits.ac.za/staff/academic-a-z-listing/h/christopherhenshilwoodwitsacza/ ] Henshilwood, an archaeologist at Norway's University of Bergen and the University of the Witwatersrand, in South Africa, found the carving on land owned by his grandfather, near the southern tip of the African continent. Over the years, he had identified and excavated nine sites on the property, none more than 6,500 years old, and was not at first interested in this cliffside cave a few miles from the South African town of Still Bay. What he would find there, however, would change the way scientists think about the evolution of modern humans and the factors that triggered perhaps the most important event in human prehistory, when Homo sapiens left their African homeland to colonize the world. ..."
2) https://www.ancient.eu/article/1070/early-human-migration/ "... How, when, and why both fellow Homo species and our own Homo sapiens started moving all over the place is hotly debated. The story of early human migration covers such an immense time span and area that there cannot be but one explanation for all of these groups of adventurous hunter-gatherers going wandering around. Where for some groups a change in climate may have pushed them to seek more hospitable lands, others may have been looking for better food sources, avoiding hostile or competing neighbours, or may have simply been curious risk-takers wanting a change of scenery. This puzzle is further complicated by the fact that only a highly fragmentary fossil record exists (and we do not know exactly how fragmentary it is, or which bits are missing). Recently, the field of genetics has shot to the forefront by analysing ancient DNA, adding to the fossil, climatic, and geological data, so that hopefully we can attempt to piece together a story from all these titbits.
Map of Homo Sapiens Migration
NordNordWest (Public Domain)
This story will keep changing, however - at least in the details but perhaps even amounting to considerable overhauls - as new bones are dug up, tools are found, and more DNA is studied with increasing accuracy. Here, a basic overview will be provided based on what we think we know right now, alongside a discussion of the possible motivations these many different early humans may have had to migrate away from their homelands, across the far reaches of our globe. ..."
3) https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/article/migration "... First migrants ... The earliest migrants were ancient humans who originated on the African continent. Their spread to Eurasia and elsewhere remains a matter of significant scientific controversy. The earliest fossils of recognizable Homo sapiens were found in Ethiopia and are approximately 200,000 years old. ... The “out of Africa” theory posits that around 60,000 years ago, Homo sapiens dispersed across Eurasia, where they met and eventually replaced other human ancestors like Neanderthals. However, that theory has been challenged by evidence of migrations from Africa to Eurasia 120,000 years ago. Either way, early humans are thought to have migrated to Asia either across a strait that lies between the Horn of Africa and what is now Yemen, or via the Sinai Peninsula. After spreading to southeast Asia, early humans are thought to have migrated to Australia, which shared a landmass with New Guinea at the time, then to Europe, then to the Americas. ..."
4) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-41176-3 "... In parallel with the genetics, there has been much discussion in recent years over the relationship between the origins of Homo sapiens and the appearance of distinctively modern behaviour and social features, marked by an increase in symbolic activities and technological complexity in the archaeological record ..."
5) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_human_migrations "... The recent African origin paradigm suggests that the anatomically modern humans outside of Africa descend from a population of Homo sapiens migrating from East Africa roughly 70–50,000 years ago and spreading along the southern coast of Asia and to Oceania by about 50,000 years ago. Modern humans spread across Europe about 40,000 years ago. ... Early Eurasian Homo sapiens fossils have been found in Israel and Greece, dated to 194,000–177,000 and 210,000 years old respectively. These fossils seem to represent failed dispersal attempts by early Homo sapiens, who were likely replaced by local Neanderthal populations. ... The migrating modern human populations are known to have interbred with earlier local populations, so that contemporary human populations are descended in small part (below 10% contribution) from regional varieties of archaic humans.[note 2] ..."
6) https://comparativemigrationstudies.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40878-015-0015-6 "... African migration: trends, patterns, drivers Marie-Laurence Flahaux & Hein De Haas
Comparative Migration Studies : volume 4, Article number: 1 (2016) Cite this article ... Abstract Africa is often seen as a continent of mass migration and displacement caused by poverty, violent conflict and environmental stress. ..."
What influenced them? - beyond hunger and sex? : Were they forced out? : Were they "different"? The Author of this page - theorizes - based on her personal experiences [that] "early humans went to Crete - and Greece" - because [similar to modern humans] they were attracted there: ... by curiosity and "to investigate". [ THE AUTHOR IS STUDYING THE HISTORY OF MAGNETISM: https://hansandcassady.org/FaraDay-from-source-MAIN.html ]
The evolution of species - gives rise to "heritable" differences. ( Genes ) The vast majority of these unique expressions - do not survive; However, the ones that do - are "suited" for the environment they were expressed in. They rule, dominate and eliminate competition [FTC].
Homo Sapiens - so far as we know - is unique - in that SHE "shapes" her environment - with tools and weapons; And, she invented "deities" - to calm fears and tame "will" [ Baltimore ] - through “LAW” . Human males - captive to their hormones -were not the "main movers" (in logic) - human females - obviously - were; For, even in my own time - ours, is the ability to openly and proudly "beguile"; and, it is "accepted" - as typical and normal. The ability to "beguile" - accompanied by intelligence and "wisdom" - is cherished. To call a male "beautiful" - and, love him because of it (alone) - is not "mainstream" - in my America - yet. Indeed, even ugly, fat and weak, males (like Donald Trump) - can be "admired" - for traits and deeds - other than physical beauty; But, the female human - who possesses wisdom, intelligence and beauty - rules all - unless, she is perceived as the mere "hand-maiden" of a male [ example - Melania Trump ]; And so, males must attempt to rule her. It is an illusion - created - to calm other males - which, we permit. I bid you investigate Friedrich Nietzsche - but cautiously. He delved into these areas - and, went insane. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Nietzsche :: "knowledge IS power" - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientia_potentia_est